Presentation on theme: "Individual Behavior Karine Barzilai-Nahon"— Presentation transcript:
1 Individual Behavior Karine Barzilai-Nahon Day MSIM – Management of Information Organizations
2 What Managers Should Know About Individual Behavior MotivationThe intensity of a person’s desire to engage in an activity.The Law of Individual DifferencesA psychological term representing the fact that people differ in their personalities, abilities, self-concept, values, and needs.
3 Approaches to Motivation Need-based approach – motivating focus on the role of needs in driving people to do what they do (e.g. – Maslow, ERG theory, Herzberg model)Process-based approach – motivation is explained in terms of decision-making process through which motivation take place (e.g – Adam’s equity theory, Locke’s Goal theory)Learning/reinforcement-based approach – people’s behavior as molded by the consequences or results of their actions
4 Abilities and Behavior Performance = Ability x MotivationTypes of abilitiesMental, cognitive, or thinking abilitiesMechanical abilityPsychomotor abilitiesVisual skillsSpecific learned abilities (training, experience, or education)
5 Self-Concept and Behavior The perceptions people have of themselves and their relationships to people and other aspects of life.Self-EfficacyBeing able to influence important aspects of one’s world; the belief that one can accomplish what one sets out to do.
6 Perception and Behavior PerceptionsHow our personalities and experiences cause us to interpret stimuli.Perceptions are influenced by:Personality and needs (self-efficacy)Values (strong personal code of ethics)Stress (health and environment)Position in society or an organizationStereotyping
7 Attitudes and Behavior A predisposition to respond to objects, people, or events in either a positive or negative way.Attitudes are important because they can influence how people behave on the job.Good (or bad) performance is not necessarily associated with good (or bad) attitudes.Job SatisfactionThe measure of an employee’s attitude about his or her job.
8 Attitudes and Behavior (cont’d) The Job Descriptive Index measures five aspects of job satisfaction:Pay. How much pay is received, and is it perceived as equitable?Job. Are tasks interesting? Are opportunities provided for learning and for accepting responsibility?Promotional opportunities. Are promotions and opportunities to advance available and fair?Supervisor. Does the supervisor demonstrate interest in and concern about employees?Co-workers. Are coworkers friendly, competent, and supportive?
9 Need-based Approaches To Motivation Maslow’s Needs-Hierarchy TheoryPrepotency Process PrinciplePeople are motivated first to satisfy the lower-order needs and then, in sequence, each of the higher-order needs.
10 Need-based Approaches To Motivation (cont’d) Existence Relatedness Growth (ERG) TheoryAlderfer’s theory of human needs focuses on three needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.Existence needs are similar to Maslow’s physiological and security needs.Relatedness needs are those that require interpersonal interaction to satisfy (prestige and esteem from others).Growth needs are similar to Maslow’s needs for self-esteem and self-actualization.
11 Need-based Approaches To Motivation (cont’d) Herzberg’s Hygiene-Motivator (Two-Factor) ApproachReduces Maslow’s hierarchy to:Hygienes: lower-level (physiological, safety, social)Motivators: higher-level (ego, self-actualization) needs.Posits that the best way to motivate is to arrange the job (job enrichment) so that it provides intrinsic satisfaction of higher-level needs, since these needs are constantly recurring and relatively insatiable.
12 Summary of Herzberg’s Motivator–Hygiene Findings FIGURE 11–6Source: Adapted from Frederick Herzberg, “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees,” Harvard Business Review, January–February 1968.
13 Need-based Approaches To Motivation (cont’d) McClelland and Atkinson three important needs:The Need for AchievementA predisposition to strive for success and the satisfaction of accomplishing a challenging task or goal.The Need for PowerA desire to influence others directly by making suggestions, giving opinions and evaluations, and trying to talk others into things.The Need for AffiliationThe motivation to maintain strong, warm relationships with friends and relatives.
14 Process Approaches To Motivation Adams’s Equity TheoryPeople have a need for, and therefore value and seek, fairness in employer–employee relationships.If a person perceives an inequity, a tension or drive will develop in the person’s mind, and the person will be motivated to reduce or eliminate the tension and the perceived inequity.Employees can do this by reducing what they put into the job, or by boosting the magnitude of the rewards they take out (or both).It matters less what the reality is than how the person perceives his or her inputs and outputs as compared with the other (referent) person’s.
15 Process Approaches To Motivation (cont’d) Locke’s Goal Theory of MotivationPeople regulate their behavior in such a way as achieve their goals.A person’s goals provide the mechanism through which unsatisfied needs are translated into actions.Specific, challenging goals lead to higher task performance than specific, unchallenging goals, or vague goals or no goals, when:Feedback showing progress towards the goals is provided.Appropriate task strategies are used when tasks are complex.Individuals have adequate abilities.There is a commitment to accomplishing the goals.
16 Process Approaches To Motivation (cont’d) Vroom’s Expectancy TheoryPeople are conscious agents who are continually sizing up situations in terms of their perceived needs and then acting in accordance with these perceptions.Motivation = E x I x VE represents expectancy (probability of success)I is instrumentality (correlation)V is valence (value of a particular reward)
17 Learning/Reinforcement Approaches To Motivation (cont’d) B. F. Skinner and Operant BehaviorOperant behaviorBehavior that appears to operate on or have an influence on the subject’s environment.Contingent rewardA reward that is contingent or dependent on performance of a particular behavior.
18 Learning/Reinforcement Approaches To Motivation (cont’d) Behavior ModificationThe technique of changing or modifying behavior through the use of contingent rewards or punishments.Behavior modification has two basic principles:Behavior that leads to a reward tends to be repeated, whereas behavior that leads to punishment tends not to be repeated.It is possible to get a person to learn to change his or her behavior by providing the properly scheduled rewards.
19 Use Pay for Performance Compensation methods based on merit/performance rather than across-the-board nonoutput-based pay.Variable Pay PlanA compensation plan that reduces or increases a portion of an employee’s pay, depending on whether the company meets its financial goals.Gainsharing PlanAn incentive plan that engages employees in a common effort to achieve a company’s productivity objectives and in which they share in the gains.
20 Improving Merit Pay Merit Raise A salary increase—usually permanent—based on individual performance.Applying merit raises more intelligentlyClarify performance standards before the measurement period begins.Institute a performance appraisal system to systematically and accurately evaluate performance.Award merit pay based on merit rather than as an across-the-board increase in compensation.Tie award allocations to limited specific timeframes.
21 Positive Reinforcement Rewards MONETARYSalary increases or bonusesCompany-paid vacation trip Discount couponsCompany stockExtra paid vacation daysProfit sharingPaid personal holidayMovie/athletic event passesFree/discount airline ticketsDiscounts on company products or servicesGift selection from catalogSTATUS SYMBOLSBigger deskBigger office or cubicleExclusive use of fax machineFreedom to personalize work areaPrivate officeCellular phone privilegesOn-line service privilegesFIGURE 11–9Source: Several items under the job- and career-related category are from Dean R. Spitzer, “Power Rewards: Rewards That Really Motivate,” Management Review, May 1996, p. 48.
22 Options for Modifying Behavior with Reinforcement FIGURE 11–10
23 Enrich the Jobs Job Enrichment Job Enrichment Techniques The inclusion of opportunities for achievement and other motivators in a job by making the job itself more challenging.Job Enrichment TechniquesForm natural work groups.Combine tasks.Establish client relationshipsVertically load the job.Open feedback channels.
24 Enrich the Jobs Job Design Job Enlargement Job Rotation The number and nature of specific tasks or activities in a job.Job EnlargementAn increase in the number of similar tasks assigned to a job.Job RotationThe systematic movement of a worker from job to job to improve job satisfaction and reduce boredom.
25 How to Analyze Performance-Motivation Problems FIGURE 11–14Source: Copyright Gary Dessler, Ph.D. Suggested in part by “Performance Diagnosis Model,” David Whetton and Kim Cameron, Developing Management Skills (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001), p. 339.