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Leader s  Approaching project design  Use of the Logical Framework (Logframe)

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Presentation on theme: "Leader s  Approaching project design  Use of the Logical Framework (Logframe)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Leader s  Approaching project design  Use of the Logical Framework (Logframe)

2 Introduction to Planning

3 Planning begins with the assessment Continues to implementation Finishes with evaluation and applying lessons learnt

4 Planning for Emergencies Learning objectives At the end of this sessions you will be able to--  Describe the planning cycle  Apply this to tasks in disaster planning  Define a problem  Rank priority of problems identified  Write Goals and Objectives, and select indicators  Consider alternatives and select the best strategy  Construct a logical framework (Logframe)  Use this to plan monitoring and evaluation

5 Can we plan for emergencies?

6 Chance favors the prepared mind - Louis Pasteur

7 Planning defined Reinke: The essence of planning consists—  in the analysis of alternatives  in order to achieve goals  in the order of priority.

8 Planning defined  Winnie the Pooh on Planning Planning: what you do before you do something, so that when you do it, it's not all mixed up.

9 Planning defined  Winnie the Pooh on Planning Planning: what you do before you do something, so that when you do it, it's not all mixed up.

10 Planning keeps you out of trouble

11 Doing planning  Starts with a goal or vision  Various steps along the way to design for a project  Many of these have special tools to help  Once in place, these steps can help you  Monitor the progress  Evaluate the outcome  These can apply to several areas of disaster planning  Preparedness  Response  Recovery  Mitigation

12 The Planning Cycle assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies implement design the project

13 Phases in a disaster The disaster cycle preparedness

14 Phases in a disaster The disaster cycle preparedness Disaster

15 Phases in a disaster The disaster cycle preparedness Disaster response

16 Phases in a disaster The disaster cycle preparedness Disaster response rehabilitation

17 Phases in a disaster The disaster cycle preparedness Disaster response rehabilitation mitigation

18 Using the planning cycle for all phases  Different tools at each stage  End up with a project design which we will summarize using a Logical Framework (log frame)  Heart of the planning process  Outline of the tools which are needed assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement

19 Activities for today  We are get some experience with planning methods  We will plan for a vulnerability analysis for the Island of St Joan  In the process we will lean how to use various methods  In the end we will practice using a logical framework

20 First, something about vulnerability Vulnerability Manageability Risk = Hazard x exposure x

21 Assessing vulnerability Vulnerability Manageability Risk = Hazard x exposure x Vulnerability analysis

22 Vulnerability Assessment  This is a survey  Samples all areas  All populations  All services needed in a disaster  Determines who and what are vulnerable for a disaster  Also looks at manageability  What are the resources to respond to a disaster  What coping skills do people have  What do they need  Strengthens preparedness and shows where mitigation is needed  Your job will be to PLAN for this

23 The Planning Cycle assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement

24 The Planning Cycle assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies State the need; what is the purpose of this activity? design the project implement

25 The Planning Cycle assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement

26 The Planning Cycle assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies take action Identify each problem and write a problem statement design the project

27 design the project The Planning Cycle assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies take action Identify each problem and write a problem statement Tools: 1.Problem tree or 2.Fishbone diagram

28 Problem identification  Starts with the observation and looks for root causes

29 Problem identification  Starts with the observation and looks for root causes The problem tree Car won’t start

30 Problem identification  Starts with the observation and looks for root causes The problem tree Car won’t start Electrical problemFuel problem

31 Problem identification  Starts with the observation and looks for root causes The problem tree Car won’t start Electrical problemFuel problem Battery flatWire looseNo petrolFuel line blocked

32 Problem identification  Starts with the observation and looks for root causes The problem tree Car won’t start Electrical problemFuel problem Battery flatWire looseNo petrolFuel line blocked

33 Problem identification  Starts with the observation and looks for root causes The problem tree Car won’t start Electrical problemFuel problem Battery flatWire looseNo petrolFuel line blocked WHY ?

34 Problem identification  Starts with the observation and looks for root causes The problem tree Car won’t start Electrical problemFuel problem Battery flatWire looseNo petrolFuel line blocked WHY ?

35 Problem identification  Starts with the observation and looks for root causes The problem tree Car won’t start Electrical problemFuel problem Battery flatWire looseNo petrolFuel line blocked WHY ?

36 Cause and Effect diagrams  Fishbone or Ishakawa diagrams  Organized brainstorming about a problem  Pictorial display of ideas  Possible causes of a problem--or possible solutions  Helps avoid missing important ideas  Helps in defining the problem  Often leads to extensive discussions  May identify need for further analysis to confirm actual causes—points out areas where data needed

37 The Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram

38 Could select various categories

39 The Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram Economi c political attitudes

40 The Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram Economic political attitudes Government structure

41 The Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram Economic political attitudes Government structure cultural

42 The Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram Economic political attitudes Government structure cultural community structure

43 The Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram Add more bones if needed

44 Then add in major causes

45 Then the minor ones

46 Set the priorities

47

48

49

50 Getting to work on planning the analysis  Finishes with a problem statement

51 Getting to work on planning the analysis  Ends with a problem statement  We have no vulnerability assessment because of the inefficiency in the Prime Minister’s Office  There is no vulnerability assessment because we lack the necessary staff

52 Getting to work on planning the analysis  Ends with a problem statement  We have no vulnerability assessment because of inefficiency in the Prime Minister’s Office  There is no vulnerability assessment because we lack the necessary staff  St Joan needs a vulnerably assessment to prepare for the next disaster to strike our peaceful island and to start mitigation plans ASAP.

53 Getting to work on planning the analysis  Ends with a problem statement  We have not vulnerability assessment because of constant inefficiency in the Prime Minister’s Office  There is no vulnerability assessment because we lack the necessary staff  St Joan needs a vulnerably assessment to prepare for the next disaster to strike our peaceful island and to start mitigation plans ASAP. Does not contain blame Does not contain any solutions

54 The Planning Cycle assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies take action What do you want to do? What are you able to do? Design the project

55 The Planning Cycle assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies take action What do you want to do? What are you able to do? Tools: 1.Set goals & objectives 2.Select indicators design the project

56 Goal or Aim  An overall end point (where do we want to be).  For goals to be useful to plan, implement, and evaluated health policies and programs they must be written as-- explicit as possible measurable something to be achieved in the context of current policy  Goals represent general overall policy direction

57 Goal or Aim  An overall end point (where do I want to be).  For goals to be useful to plan, implement, and evaluated health policies and programs they must be written as-- explicit as possible measurable something to be achieved in the context of current policy  Goals represent general overall policy direction  The goal of the Vulnerability Assessment is to provide information to disaster managers to reduce damage from hazards affecting St Joan

58 Objectives Objective  Is a statement of a specific and quantifiable accomplishment to be attained in a given time frame  Include— “increase” “strengthen” “decrease” “extend”

59 Objectives Objective  Is a statement of a specific and quantifiable accomplishment to be attained in a given time frame  Include— “increase” “strengthen” “decrease” “extend” Objectives are not methods!

60 Objectives, Indicators, and Targets Objective  Is a statement of a specific and quantifiable accomplishment to be attained in a given time frame Indicators  A method of measurement of change  Assess the extent to which the objective and targets of a program are being attained  Indicators are usually expressed as percentages, rates or ratios to allow comparisons to be made Targets  A value to be attained by a certain time in the life of the project

61 ‘SMART’ Objectives  Specific The objective describes the direct result of the activity  Measurable The objective can be quantified They are a measure of change  Attainable The objective can be achieved  Realistic This is something which will have practical benefit  Time-bound Results will be achieved in a given time

62 Examples of objectives  By the end of the second month the training curriculum will be completed.

63 Examples of objectives  By the end of the second month the training curriculum will be completed.  The sampling frame will be complete and the clusters identified by the end of month three.

64 Examples of objectives  By the end of the second month the training curriculum will be completed.  The sampling frame will be complete and the clusters identified by the end of month three.  All field work will be completed by the end of month four

65 Examples of objectives  By the end of the second month the training curriculum will be completed.  The sampling frame will be complete and the clusters identified by the end of month three.  All field work will be completed by the end of month four  The Final Report will be submitted to the Prime Minister by the end of month six

66 Qualities of an indicator Valid  The result is a true representation of what is happening  Results are the same even when measured by different people  The indicator produces the same result when used repeatedly to measure the same activity Specific  The indicator measures only the activity which is intended “Neutrality”  An indicator is a simple measure—expresses no “judgments”

67 Examples of indicators  Objective: By the end of the second month the training curriculum will be completed.  Indicator: date when the training curriculum is completed

68 Examples of indicators  Objective: By the end of the second month the training curriculum will be completed.  Indicator: date when the training curriculum is completed  Objective: The sampling frame will be complete and the clusters identified by the end of month three  Indicator: date when the sampling frame was fully set up, and the clusters selected

69 The Planning Cycle assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement

70 Consider various strategies  What are the possible ways we could do this assessment  Perhaps get staff from the University of St Joan?  Ask PAHO to do it for us?  Do an internet course on Vulnerability Assessments?  Get WHO to come and give us training?  Hire an outside consulting firm?  Send our staff to Johns Hopkins for training?  Read books on it and do it ourselves?

71 Critical Pathway method Get the ideaFinish the job

72 Critical Pathway method Get the ideaFinish the job mo

73 Critical Pathway method Get the ideaFinish the job mo 2wks2 mos 1 wk 3 mos

74 Critical Pathway method Get the ideaFinish the job Milestones

75 Critical Pathway method Get the ideaFinish the job Milestones Calculate resources needed for each step

76 Critical Pathway method Get the ideaFinish the job Will this work better?

77 Critical Pathway method Get the ideaFinish the job JK Will this be more efficient?

78 Critical Pathway method Get the ideaFinish the job JK LM N Does this have an advantage?

79 The Decision Matrix SolutionFeasibilityAcceptanceCostSustainabilityTotal score A B C D

80 The project as a system inputoutputoutcomeimpact process

81 budget Thinking about a project as a system inputoutputoutcomeimpact process training personnel Scope of Work

82 Thinking about a project as a system inputoutputoutcomeimpact process Sampling methods Information needed identified Implementation plan Data management plan Data analysis Questionnaire developed and tested

83 Thinking about a project as a system inputoutputoutcomeimpact process Vulnerablities identified

84 Thinking about a project as a system inputoutputoutcomeimpact process Vulnerablities identified Disaster policy strengthened

85 Thinking about a project as a system inputoutputoutcomeimpact process Vulnerablities identified Disaster policy strengthened Life and property protected at the next disaster

86 Example of a detailed flow chart

87 The Planning Cycle assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement

88 Wrapping up the project in a package  We have  Aim or purpose  Objectives  indicators  strategies  methods  Putting this together as a log frame  Lode star of the project  The project’s ‘brain’

89 Logframe-one form Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 Activity 1.3

90 Logframe-one form Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Objective 2 Output 2.1 Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 Activity 2.3

91 Logframe-one form Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Objective 3 Output 3.1 Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 Activity 3.3

92 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 / Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 / Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 / Activity 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 / Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 / Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 / Activity 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 / Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 / Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 / Activity 3.3

93 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 / Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 / Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 / Activity 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 / Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 / Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 / Activity 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 / Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 / Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 / Activity 3.3 Horizontal logic

94 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 Output 1.2 Output 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 Output 2.2 Output 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 Output 3.2 Output 3.3 Says what are we going to do, and by when will it be done

95 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 Output 1.2 Output 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 Output 2.2 Output 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 Output 3.2 Output 3.3 Says what are we going to do, and by when will it be done Says what we are going to measure about this objective

96 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 Output 1.2 Output 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 Output 2.2 Output 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 Output 3.2 Output 3.3 Says what are we going to do, and by when will it be done Says what we are going to measure about this objective Says what methods we will use to measure the indicator

97 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 Output 1.2 Output 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 Output 2.2 Output 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 Output 3.2 Output 3.3 Says what are we going to do, and by when will it be done Says what we are going to measure about this objective Says what methods we will use to measure the indicator Says what we were thinking when we wrote this objective

98 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 / Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 / Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 / Activity 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 / Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 / Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 / Activity 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 / Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 / Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 / Activity 3.3 Vertical logic

99 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 / Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 / Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 / Activity 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 / Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 / Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 / Activity 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 / Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 / Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 / Activity 3.3 “if… then…” logic

100 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 / Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 / Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 / Activity 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 / Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 / Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 / Activity 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 / Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 / Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 / Activity 3.3 Our goal is to identify vulnerabilities on St Joan to reduce risks

101 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 / Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 / Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 / Activity 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 / Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 / Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 / Activity 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 / Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 / Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 / Activity 3.3 Our goal is to identify vulnerabilities on St Joan to reduce risks “IF this is our goal… THEN our fist objective should be…”

102 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 / Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 / Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 / Activity 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 / Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 / Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 / Activity 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 / Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 / Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 / Activity 3.3 Our goal is to identify vulnerabilities on St Joan to reduce risks Says what is the first thing we intend to do to get to the goal

103 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 / Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 / Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 / Activity 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 / Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 / Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 / Activity 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 / Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 / Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 / Activity 3.3 Our goal is to identify vulnerabilities on St Joan to reduce risks Says what is the first thing we intend to do to get to the goal Says what is the first output which we will have to produce

104 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 / Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 / Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 / Activity 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 / Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 / Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 / Activity 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 / Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 / Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 / Activity 3.3 Our goal is to identify vulnerabilities on St Joan to reduce risks Says what is the first thing we intend to do to get to the goal Says what is the first output which we will have to produce Says what activities are needed to achieve this output

105 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 / Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 / Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 / Activity 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 / Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 / Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 / Activity 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 / Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 / Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 / Activity 3.3 Says what is the second thing we intend to do to get to the goal

106 Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Goal Objective 1 Output 1.1 / Activity 1.1 Output 1.2 / Activity 1.2 Output 1.3 / Activity 1.3 Objective 2 Output 2.1 / Activity 2.1 Output 2.2 / Activity 2.2 Output 2.3 / Activity 2.3 Objective 3 Output 3.1 / Activity 3.1 Output 3.2 / Activity 3.2 Output 3.3 / Activity 3.3 Says what is the second thing we intend to do to get to the goal And the outputs and activities needed

107 The Planning Cycle assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement

108 Implementation  Getting started is often hard—  knowing where to start is not always clear

109 Implementing inputoutputoutcomeimpact process  Getting started is often hard—  knowing where to start is not always clear  Flow chart is a tool to sequence your activities

110 Monitoring  What happens after implementation?  How do you know if you are on track?  What segments are lagging behind?  Are there some things that getting ahead?  Risk of activities getting our of sequence assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement

111 Monitoring  What happens after implementation?  How do you know if you are on track?  What segments are lagging behind?  Are there some things that getting ahead?  Risk of activities getting our of sequence assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Objective 2 Output 2.1 Activity 2.1

112 Monitoring  What happens after implementation?  How do you know if you are on track?  What segments are lagging behind?  Are there some things that getting ahead?  Risk of activities getting our of sequence assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Objective 2 Output 2.1 Activity 2.1 Tells what to check to measure progress

113 Monitoring  What happens after implementation?  How do you know if you are on track?  What segments are lagging behind?  Are there some things that getting ahead?  Risk of activities getting our of sequence assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Objective 2 Output 2.1 Activity 2.1 Tells what to check to measure progress Tells how to get this information on progress

114 Monitoring  What happens after implementation?  How do you know if you are on track?  What segments are lagging behind?  Are there some things that getting ahead?  Risk of activities getting our of sequence assess identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Objective 2 Output 2.1 Activity 2.1 Tells what to check to measure progress Tells how to get this information on progress If assumptions change, objectives may have to change

115 Evaluation evaluation identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement  Did the project achieve what was intended?  What went well?, What did not?  A project cannot be evaluated without specific objectives

116 Evaluation evaluation identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Objective 2 Output 2.1 Activity 2.1  Did the project achieve what was intended?  What went well?, What did not?  A project cannot be evaluated without specific objectives What was intended? Was it achieved?

117 Evaluation evaluation identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Objective 2 Output 2.1 Activity 2.1  Did the project achieve what was intended?  What went well?, What did not?  A project cannot be evaluated without specific objectives What was intended? Was it achieved? What was produced? What was learnt?

118 Evaluation evaluation identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Objective 2 Output 2.1 Activity 2.1  Did the project achieve what was intended?  What went well?, What did not?  A project cannot be evaluated without specific objectives What was intended? Was it achieved? What was produced? What was learnt? How was the work done? What was learnt?

119 Evaluation evaluation identify problems set priorities consider strategies design the project implement Program descriptionIndicatorsMeans of verification Assumptions Objective 2 Output 2.1 Activity 2.1  Did the project achieve what was intended?  What went well?, What did not?  A project cannot be evaluated without specific objectives What was intended? Was it achieved? What was produced? What was learnt? How was the work done? What was learnt? The Logframe makes both monitoring and evaluation possible and painless

120 8oS8oS The Island of St. Joan Discovered 1587, Octavius Portola

121 8oS8oS

122 St Joan  Tropical Storm Rumsfeld, 2002

123 8oS8oS

124 Tropical Storm Rumsfeld  In 2002 much of the island infrastructure was damaged  The southern part of the island carried the brunt of the storm  15 persons were killed  US$ 700 million in damage was done  The three principal hospitals and the maternity hospital were heavily damaged  Some of the highway structure is still not fully repaired  The tourist trade is just now starting to return  The sugar cane industry will take 2-3 years to return to full production  The banana plantations are now producing only 30% of their regular production according to their spokesperson, Ms Anna Banana.

125 The exercise  The Prime Minister, Sir Gravidas St. Luke, has ordered an immediate revision of the Island’s Disaster Plan  There has never been a vulnerability assessment, and it was agreed that this should be done in preparation for the Disaster Plan  This assessment will look at vulnerabilities among different population groups and areas as well as various services and structures  Your team has been called in to plan this exercise  The work must be completed and the report in the OPM in 6 months

126 What to do?  Use the planning cycle--  to identify the problem  To set the priorities  To choose a strategy  Design the Vulnerability Assessment  Specify how you will monitor its implementation  Appoint someone to make the presentation to the group

127 What to do?  Use the planning cycle--  to identify the problem  Use a problem tree or fishbone diagram  To set the priorities  Write goals and objectives  To choose a strategy  Do a decision matrix (optional)  Create a flow chart  Design the Vulnerability Assessment  Put it all together in a log frame  Specify how you will monitor its implementation  If you have time, write a monitoring plan (this can be short)

128 Off to plan the survey


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