Presentation on theme: "Breeding Oat for Human Health B.G. Rossnagel Crop Development Centre University of Saskatchewan 8 th IOC Minneapolis, June 2008 UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN."— Presentation transcript:
Breeding Oat for Human Health B.G. Rossnagel Crop Development Centre University of Saskatchewan 8 th IOC Minneapolis, June 2008 UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. www.usask.ca
Crop Development Centre Not just about Nutrition Question of practicality and delivery to the consumer Who is the breeder’s customer? who pays the bills?????
Crop Development Centre Who is the breeder’s customer? Producers must be profitable Processors must be profitable Regulators public good producer/processor – consumer balance Consumers public good won’t really pay for nutrition Hungry vs overfed????
Crop Development Centre Human Health = Nutritional Quality??? Oat nutritional quality Physical Chemical / Intrinsic / Nutritional
Crop Development Centre Nutritional Quality??? Physical grain size/shape bulk density/test weight plumpness % groat or %hull UNIFORMITY Important for producers & processors thus important for human health
Crop Development Centre Physical Quality Significant breeding success over past 30 years Real genetic change to % groat & uniformity Real practical change re milling yield Not exclusively genetic manipulation of environment via agronomy physical engineering re process Compromises???? e.g. have we gone too far with seed size??
Crop Development Centre Nutritional Quality??? Chemical / Intrinsic - Nutritional starch protein fat (unique among cereals) non-starch polysaccharides fibre/ash minor compounds antioxidants, minerals Just begun breeding in 1980s
Crop Development Centre Nutritional Quality Components Starch amylose/amylopectin ratio Protein amino acid composition biological value Fat (unique among cereals) fatty acid composition Non-starch polysaccharides beta glucan (unique to oat & barley) Fibre Soluble vs insoluble Minor compounds antioxidants, minerals
Crop Development Centre Chemical/intrinsic - Nutritional Manipulate via genetics? Definitely Manipulate via agronomy To a limited degree Manipulate via physical engineering Beyond concentration of specific components - Not likely
Crop Development Centre Breeding per se 7 – 10 years + seed ramp up to commercial Make cross Early generations Agronomic, quality and disease evaluation – all about discarding Begin with simply inherited traits Prioritize – traits & methods Reduce numbers and increase selection intensity Multi-site trials Pilot scale quality evaluation
Crop Development Centre Breeding per se All about phenotyping and cutting corners Most critical need Need rapid inexpensive evaluation of large numbers of small samples Examples – NIR, Megazyme kits etc. New tools (Biotech) may allow/assist us to cheat Remember computers & small plot equipment
Crop Development Centre Challenges Moving targets Difficult when breeding has a 10+ year time frame Food vs feed vs fuel Generally good food oat = good feed oat Good feed oat likely = good fuel oat Ethanol just a feedlot for yeast Label requirements vs nutrition Business vs public good Limits potential improvement Good news = positive correlation Reason for regulations - provide minimum standards If consumers would really pay that would drive the innovation
Crop Development Centre Challenges Phenotyping difficulties e.g. TDF measurement - $140 per sample!!!! Not sexy to develop Conflict between quality control and relative difference measures Genetic variability Is it there? Create it? Searching……… Can we measure it? Don’t try to turn oat into wheat Regulatory issues Canadian PNT definition and regulations
Crop Development Centre Challenges Critical mass in oat R&D Who cares? Scandinavia, Canada USA?? UK?? Australia?? G x E change G or change E? or deal with it via physical engineering VARIABILITY this is BIOLOGY not ENGINEERING Can’t control growing environment Quality control vs relative genetic differences Development of measurement capability Breeding efficiency
Crop Development Centre Challenges Difficult complicated traits e.g taste??? Interactions between traits Application of new technologies/tools Just new tools – still have to do the breeding!! Often very expensive - justify Australian low phytate barley screening example
Crop Development Centre Challenges Compromises No free lunch All about carbon chains Only so many carbon atoms to go around!! Can’t have > 100% Confidentiality vs Public Good Pre-competitive aspects of R&D Confidentiality drives investment Investment drives innovation
Crop Development Centre Challenges Genetic engineering/genomics saviour concept Deliberate or inadvertent snow job Industry and government leaders being misled Public & Private management -unrealistic time frames popular press misleading biotech misleading Important tool, but JUST another tool!!! Still plant breeding Australian drought tolerant wheat BIOBULLSHIT example!! Can’t grow wheat without water!! Biology and time!!
Crop Development Centre Opportunities Molecular mapping DArT, QTL, Association TILLING Mutagenesis Germplasm collections Improved phenotyping Join phenotyping with DArT and QTL mapping Different for publication vs practical application Can’t do TDF on breeding program - MMAS may be of great help for initial screening Lots of “Ifs” but definitely worth effort & cost
Crop Development Centre Opportunities Financial return to breeding effort Harrington barley example Huge financial gain to industry Not a dime shared with R&D community Consumer interest Apparently there, but??????? Engineering vs genetic solutions Do most efficient Combine & coordinate efforts Agronomic vs genetic solutions At what cost to producer? Combine and coordinate efforts
Crop Development Centre Opportunities Genomics steal from other crops polysaccharide manipulation Pre-competitive collaboration Pilot scale testing capability Canadian Malting Barley Technical Centre Whole grain concept Low phytate
Crop Development Centre Unique Oat Opportunities Antioxidants e.g avenanthramides Non-starch polysaccharides Increase content & increase best type Fat Take advantage Alter FA profile Low phytate Fat stability Other…………………………….
Crop Development Centre Acknowledgements Core support: University of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture Pedigreed Seed Royalties Other financial support Quaker Oats Co. and Quaker Tropicana Gatorade Canada (QTG) Saskatchewan Oat Development Commission (SODC) SDAF&RR & Ag Dev Fund Cargill Ltd. SuperOats Canada Ltd. (Regina) FarmPure Seeds (Regina) CanOat Ltd. (Martensville) Grain Millers (Yorkton)