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Beliefs About Breast Cancer: Are They Deadly? Carol Estwing Ferrans, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Associate Dean for Research Co-Director, Center of Excellence.

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Presentation on theme: "Beliefs About Breast Cancer: Are They Deadly? Carol Estwing Ferrans, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Associate Dean for Research Co-Director, Center of Excellence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beliefs About Breast Cancer: Are They Deadly? Carol Estwing Ferrans, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Associate Dean for Research Co-Director, Center of Excellence for Eliminating Health Disparities College of Nursing University of Illinois at Chicago

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3 Mortality -- Black and White Breast Cancer in Chicago, Age-Adjusted Female Breast Cancer Mortality for Chicago, Per 100,000 Population 116%

4 Breast Cancer Mortality Rates, by Race, Chicago, How Much Higher is YearBlackWhiteBlack Rate? % % % % % % %

5 Black:White Breast Cancer Mortality Disparity, New York City, US & Chicago,

6 Early Detection is the KEY  When breast cancer is detected and treated early –almost all women (98%) will be alive five years later.  When breast cancer is detected late –only 26% of women will be alive five years later. Data from American Cancer Society

7 Study 1. Cancer Screening in African Americans

8  To decrease excess cancer mortality in African Americans, we need to identify the barriers to early detection.  For cancer survivors who are at increased risk for recurrence and new cancers, continued surveillance is critically important.  Purpose: to identify factors that hinder regular cancer screening in African Americans, both in cancer survivors and the general population (non-cancer controls).

9 National Cancer Institute (NIH R01 CA89418).  Carol Estwing Ferrans, PhD, RN, FAAN, University of Illinois at Chicago  Catherine Ryan, PhD, RN, University of Illinois at Chicago  Laura E. Archer, MS, Duke University Medical Center  Sally Freels, PhD, University of Illinois at Chicago  Lan Lan, PhD, Duke University Medical Center  Electra Paskett, PhD, Ohio State University  Robert Molokie, MD, Unversity of Illinois at Chicago  David Hurd, MD, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center  Alice Kornblith, PhD, Dana Farber Cancer Institute

10 Conceptual Model Cancer and Treatment Physical Health and Functioning --Health status --Comorbidities --Fertility & sexual problems Individual Characteristics --Spirituality --Trust in health care providers --Life stress/felt racial discrimination --Cultural beliefs about cancer Social Support --Family and friends Economic/Health Care Resources --Employment difficulties --Access to health care/health insurance --Family income and employment status Quality of Life --Satisfaction with life --Anxiety, depression, hostility --Fear/anxiety about cancer Cancer Screening --Compliance with screening recommendations

11 Case-Control Design Survivors: 500 African Americans  Breast cancer (n = 214)  Prostate cancer (n = 197)  Colon cancer (n = 89)  Currently free of cancer  Completed primary treatment 3+ years ago Non-Cancer Controls: 512 African Americans  Never diagnosed with cancer  Controls selected via random digit dialing from the areas in which the cancer survivors resided.  Controls matched (as a group) to the survivor group on age, gender, health insurance status, and education level.

12 16 Participating CALGB Institutions  Heme/Onc Associates of Central NY  Northern Indiana  Ohio State University  University of Chicago  University of Illinois at Chicago  Wake Forest  Walter Reed  Washington University – St. Louis  Hartford Hospital  Jersey Shore Medical Center  Navy Medical Center – San Diego  Queens Hospital Medical Center  Roswell Park Cancer Center  Sibley Memorial Hospital  Wayne Memorial Hospital - SCCC  Jesse Brown VA Medical Center

13 Locations of Participating Institutions

14 Screening Compliance  American Cancer Society Recommendations  Women –Breast –Cervix –Colon  Men –Prostate –Colon

15 Non-Compliance with Screening Guidelines p<.0001

16 Explaining the Variance in Screening 28% 11% 8% 54% 10% 6% Model explained 16% of variance in Screening

17 Gender and Screening Compliance P<.001P<.001 p<.0001

18 Trust/Distrust in Health Care Provider and Screening Compliance p<.0001

19 Education and Screening Compliance p=.005

20 Insurance Status and Screening Compliance p<.004

21 Region and Screening Compliance p=.01

22 Major Findings - Screening  Non-compliance with guidelines for breast, colon, and prostate cancer screening: –Controls: 37% to 58% –Cancer Survivors: 14% to 17%  Participation in screening was explained by: –Gender –Trust/Distrust in health care provider –Education –Health insurance –Surviving cancer –City of residence

23 Chicago: Low Screening Rates Dartmouth Atlas Project (2010) reported:  Chicago has some of the lowest mammogram screening rates in the nation,  Even for women whose screening is paid for by Medicare (Dartmouth Atlas Project, D. Goodman et al., 2010)

24 Study 2. Cultural Beliefs about Breast Cancer in Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic Women

25 Original Investigative Team Carol Ferrans, PhD, RN, FAAN Garth Rauscher, PhD Barbara Akpan, MS, RN Tim Johnson, PhD Dinah Ramirez, RN Marilyn Willis, MS, RN Richard Warnecke, PhD

26 Primary Reasons for Low Screening Rates  Chicago has some of the lowest mammogram screening rates in the nation,  Even for women whose screening is paid for by Medicare (Dartmouth Atlas Project, D. Goodman et al., 2010) Cost Beliefs Fear

27 Cultural Beliefs  Identify cultural beliefs contributing to later stage of breast cancer at diagnosis for African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian women in Chicago.  Focus on beliefs interfering with –Participation in Screening –Diagnosis of Suspicious Breast Symptoms –Follow through with Treatment

28 Identification of 17 Beliefs Step One: Cultural Experts/ Published Reports Identify cultural beliefs about breast cancer that could contribute to late-stage diagnosis. (41 beliefs) Step Two: Focus Groups (four groups, n = 37) Broad based: “Have you ever HEARD of these beliefs or known anyone who believed them?” Step Three: Cognitive Interviews (n = 19) Determine interpretation and clarity of wording of 17 true/false questions.

29 Participants  General Population n = 117  Suspicious Breast Symptoms (self-identified) n = 266  Breast Cancer (diagnosed 3-4 months) n = 954 Face-to-Face Interviews

30 African-Americans (p=0.02) Whites (p=0.67)

31 Can beliefs be deadly? Greater number of beliefs was positively associated with: Longer delay before seeking diagnosis of suspicious symptoms. Later stage of cancer at diagnosis (Stage 2,3,4 vs 0,1). Longer delay in starting cancer treatment.

32 If a breast lump is not painful, it is not cancer. Gen Pop AA 5% Latina 11% White 0% Symptoms AA 14% Latina 18% White 5% Breast Cancer AA 5% Latina 11% White 1% (p<.01) Characteristics of Breast Lumps

33 If a breast lump is not painful, it is not cancer. Gen Pop AA 5% Latina 11% White 0% Symptoms AA 14% Latina 18% White 5% Breast Cancer AA 5% Latina 11% White 1% (p<.01) If a breast lump does not get bigger, it is not cancer. Gen Pop AA 13% Latina 14% White 0% (p=.05) SymptomsAA 11% Latina 4% White 5% Breast CancerAA 12% Latina 18% White 3% (p<.01) Characteristics of Breast Lumps

34 If a breast lump is not painful, it is not cancer. Gen Pop AA 5% Latina 11% White 0% Symptoms AA 14% Latina 18% White 5% Breast Cancer AA 5% Latina 11% White 1% (p<.01) If a breast lump does not get bigger, it is not cancer. Gen Pop AA 13% Latina 14% White 0% (p=.05) SymptomsAA 11% Latina 4% White 5% Breast CancerAA 12% Latina 18% White 3% (p<.01) If a breast lump is touched/pressed often, the lump will turn out to be breast cancer. Gen PopAA 13% Latina 3% White 8% SymptomsAA 7% Latina 16% White 5% Breast Cancer AA 11% Latina 20% White 4% (p<.01) Characteristics of Breast Lumps

35 The more you worry about breast cancer, the more likely you will get it. Gen Pop AA 8% Latina 17% White 8% SymptomsAA 8% Latina 16% White 11% Breast CancerAA 7% Latina 16% White 5% (p=.06) Self-Help Techniques

36 The more you worry about breast cancer, the more likely you will get it. Gen Pop AA 8% Latina 17% White 8% SymptomsAA 8% Latina 16% White 11% Breast CancerAA 7% Latina 16% White 5% (p=.06) If you take good care of yourself, you won’t get breast cancer. Gen Pop AA 13% Latina 24% White 5% (p=.05) SymptomsAA 18% Latina 27% White 11% Breast CancerAA 7% Latina 18% White 2% (p=.001) Self-Help Techniques

37 The more you worry about breast cancer, the more likely you will get it. Gen Pop AA 8% Latina 17% White 8% SymptomsAA 8% Latina 16% White 11% Breast CancerAA 7% Latina 16% White 5% (p=.06) If you take good care of yourself, you won’t get breast cancer. Gen Pop AA 13% Latina 24% White 5% (p=.05) SymptomsAA 18% Latina 27% White 11% Breast CancerAA 7% Latina 18% White 2% (p=.001) If you have a breast lump, a “natural” remedy can help to get rid of it. Gen Pop AA 11% Latina 17% White 20% SymptomsAA 8% Latina 10% White 11% Breast CancerAA 14% Latina 11% White 6% Self-Help Techniques

38 If a woman has enough faith in God, she won’t need treatment for breast cancer. Gen Pop AA 24% Latina 11% White 0% (p =.004) SymptomsAA 17% Latina 6% White 0% (p=.04) Breast CancerAA 19% Latina 23% White 3% (p<.0001) Faith-Based Beliefs

39 If a woman has enough faith in God, she won’t need treatment for breast cancer. Gen Pop AA 24% Latina 11% White 0% (p =.004) SymptomsAA 17% Latina 6% White 0% (p=.04) Breast CancerAA 19% Latina 23% White 3% (p<.0001) Faith in God can protect you from breast cancer. Gen Pop AA 39% Latina 38% White 5% (p <.001) SymptomsAA 38% Latina 35% White 5% (p =.02) Breast CancerAA 24% Latina 44% White 4% (p<.0001) Faith-Based Beliefs

40 If a woman has enough faith in God, she won’t need treatment for breast cancer. Gen Pop AA 24% Latina 11% White 0% (p =.004) SymptomsAA 17% Latina 6% White 0% (p=.04) Breast CancerAA 19% Latina 23% White 3% (p<.0001) Faith in God can protect you from breast cancer. Gen Pop AA 39% Latina 38% White 5% (p <.001) SymptomsAA 38% Latina 35% White 5% (p =.02) Breast CancerAA 24% Latina 44% White 4% (p<.0001) If you pray enough, sometimes breast lumps will disappear. Gen Pop AA 39% Latina 33% White 25% SymptomsAA 43% Latina 18% White 11% (p<.001) Breast CancerAA 35% Latina 22% White 7% (p<.0001) Faith-Based Beliefs

41 Futility of Treatment If breast cancer is cut open in surgery, it will grow faster. Gen Pop AA 32% Latina 14% White 8% (p=.019) SymptomsAA 31% Latina 33% White 26% Breast CancerAA 17% Latina 32% White 11% (p=.005)

42 Futility of Treatment If breast cancer is cut open in surgery, it will grow faster. Gen Pop AA 32% Latina 14% White 8% (p=.019) SymptomsAA 31% Latina 33% White 26% Breast CancerAA 17% Latina 32% White 11% (p=.005) If a woman is poor, she won’t get cured from cancer, because she won’t get the best treatment. Gen Pop AA 29% Latina 25% White 42% SymptomsAA 22% Latina 12% White 4% (p=.07) Breast CancerAA 21% Latina 40% White 30% (p=.02)

43 Futility of Treatment If breast cancer is cut open in surgery, it will grow faster. Gen Pop AA 32% Latina 14% White 8% (p=.019) SymptomsAA 31% Latina 33% White 26% Breast CancerAA 17% Latina 32% White 11% (p=.005) If a woman is poor, she won’t get cured from cancer, because she won’t get the best treatment. Gen Pop AA 29% Latina 25% White 42% SymptomsAA 22% Latina 12% White 4% (p=.07) Breast CancerAA 21% Latina 40% White 30% (p=.02) If breast cancer is treated correctly, it can be cured. (FALSE) Gen Pop AA 13% Latina 19% White 10% SymptomsAA 10% Latina 0% White 11% (p=.07) Breast CancerAA 8% Latina 4% White 13%

44 Futility of Treatment If breast cancer is cut open in surgery, it will grow faster. Gen Pop AA 32% Latina 14% White 8% (p=.019) SymptomsAA 31% Latina 33% White 26% Breast CancerAA 17% Latina 32% White 11% (p=.005) If a woman is poor, she won’t get cured from cancer, because she won’t get the best treatment. Gen Pop AA 29% Latina 25% White 42% SymptomsAA 22% Latina 12% White 4% (p=.07) Breast CancerAA 21% Latina 40% White 30% (p=.02) If breast cancer is treated correctly, it can be cured. (FALSE) Gen Pop AA 13% Latina 19% White 10% SymptomsAA 10% Latina 0% White 11% (p=.07) Breast CancerAA 8% Latina 4% White 13% It doesn’t really matter if you get treated for breast cancer, because if you get cancer, it will kill you sooner or later. Gen Pop AA 13% Latina 11% White 13% SymptomsAA 3% Latina 14% White 0% Breast CancerAA 8% Latina 36% White 2% (p<.0001)

45  American Cancer Society Guidelines –Released January 2011  Report of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force –37 Evidence-Based Recommendations  Illinois Breast Cancer Disparities Act –Komen Foundation (Janice Phillips)

46 Study 3. Disseminating Information to address Cultural Beliefs about Breast Cancer in African American Women

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48 Beating Breast Cancer DVD Five African American women, all breast cancer survivors, are featured in the film. Unscripted; each woman tells her story in her own words. Addresses cultural beliefs and fear, which were identified as significant barriers in our earlier research. One of the featured survivors is a physician, and so provides the credibility of a medical expert.

49 DVD: Beating Breast Cancer "What about your male friends? How are they going to look at you? And I looked at him and I said, 'It's not about them. It's about me. I'm still a woman...and I'm focusing on living.'" Tasha, age 37

50 Beating Breast Cancer DVD Endorsed by the American Cancer Society, Illinois Region. Endorsed by Chicago Department of Public Health. National Telly Award, Health and Wellness Category for short film,  YouTube 1,168 views

51 Beating Breast Cancer Program  Events within four African American communities with high death rates from breast cancer: Roseland, Pullman, West Pullman, and Riverdale. These events take place in a variety of locations, such as churches, beauty shops, food pantries, school events for parents, and others.  Short Film on DVD addressing the worries about breast cancer that keep women from getting screened, presented by five African American cancer survivors.  Nurse Educators (n=36) from the National Black Nurses Association and the Alpha Eta Chapter of the Chi Eta Phi Sorority provide expert information for women at our events.

52 Beating Breast Cancer Program  Navigation: Our staff provide personal guidance (one- on-one) for women who need help in finding a mammogram they can afford.  Tote Bags distributed to those attending events, containing information on (1) where to go for low-cost and no-cost mammograms; (2) copy of the DVD to watch and share with others; (3) brochures on mammography and breast health.

53 Women Participating at Events 245 educational events have been held in the four target communities. 4,750 women have attended events and completed questionnaires Almost all women are African American, so we are reaching the intended audience.

54 Responses to Beating Breast Cancer DVD 99% thought the DVD was worth watching 89% stated they learned something new from the DVD 85% reported that the DVD helped them to decide to get a mammogram.

55 Navigation for Finding an Affordable Mammogram Of women attending the events, 760 have requested assistance in finding an affordable mammogram (16%) After the navigation process is completed, we continue to follow-up on an annual basis to encourage subsequent screening..

56 With gratitude to our funders: Roybal Center for Health Promotion and Translation, University of Illinois at Chicago (NIH National Institute on Aging P30 AG022849) Center for Population Health and Health Disparities, University of Illinois at Chicago (NIH National Cancer Institute P50 CA106743) Center of Excellence in Eliminating Health Disparities, University of Illinois at Chicago (NIH Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities P60 MD003424).

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