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ATLAS RPC phase-2 proposal Completion of the detector for the barrel muon trigger via the installation of new trigger stations in the inner layer of the.

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Presentation on theme: "ATLAS RPC phase-2 proposal Completion of the detector for the barrel muon trigger via the installation of new trigger stations in the inner layer of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 ATLAS RPC phase-2 proposal Completion of the detector for the barrel muon trigger via the installation of new trigger stations in the inner layer of the spectrometer (currently equipped only with MDTs) Increase the number of measurement stations from 2  3 Increase the number of independent layers from 6  9 RPC0 (BI) RPC3 RPC2 RPC1 D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th 20141

2 ATLAS RPC phase-2 proposal The inner layer was already considered in the original project of the barrel trigger detector, but at that time the need for the 3 rd station was not stringent and it was cancelled Trigger performance improvements with the new RPC inner layer: -larger acceptance The new chambers will substantially increase the trigger coverage by filling the acceptance holes due to the barrel toroid support structures -increased selectivity The larger lever arm and the improved spatial and time resolution of the new RPCs will allow to apply a sharper momentum cut -increased chamber redundancy and longevity the new layer will increase the redundancy well above the current 3/4 low-pt majority. This will also allow to operate the middle chambers at lower voltage, decreasing the integrated charge, without loss in the overall trigger efficiency D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th 20142

3 Barrel trigger coverage High-Pt trigger acceptance currently limited at ~72% due to non-instrumented regions in: -feet + elevators (partial recovery in LS1) -toroid (and ribs) in BM chambers of small sectors Holes are not projective and 3/3 RPC chambers are required in the trigger  with RPC BI chambers use 3/4 request LVL1 barrel η=0.0 D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th 20143

4 Barrel trigger coverage Single muon MC study for different trigger options current trigger logic D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th 20144

5 Redundancy exploitation The produced charge, responsible for the detector aging, can be reduced by decreasing the operating voltage (this is equivalent to work at lower rate and much lower current) The detector efficiency will consequently decrease - the loss in efficiency is compensated by a less stringent requirement in low-pt trigger: 3/4  2/4 majority - the rejection power would be guaranteed by the additional RPC in the BI chambers 2/4 3/4 D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th 20145

6 Requirements on the new RPCs According to Atlas requirements the qualification tests were done taking as reference luminosity L=10 34 cm -2 s -1, assuming 10 years of running at max background rate of 100 Hz/cm 2 (including a safety factor of 5 wrt simulation) Expected max rate in new inner layer ~1 kHz/cm 2 : need to improve the long term RPC rate capability to sustain the LHC luminosity in phase-2 Limited space available for the installation in the inner layer: ~5cm Reduced gas gain: -thinner gap 2  1 mm -thinner electrodes 1.8  1.2 mm -increased amplification in front-end electronics Improved spatial and time resolution: -timing is improved by reducing the gap thickness -use ToT and charge centroid to improve spatial resolution Reduced detector thickness -higher-quality mechanical structures D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th 20146

7 CMS RPC phase-2 proposal Two types of upgrades proposed for the CMS RPC muon system: 1.Aging and longevity: built in 2003 and installed in 2007, must continue to operate without significant degradation degradation ( = 95%, CS < 3, noise < 1 Hz/cm 2 ) well beyond the design expectations of the LHC; in particular, with respect to a large integrated radiation dose and also a very long time period of operation. 2.Upgrade of high eta region: keep performance of trigger and low p T <20GeV threshold even at an increased luminosity Background rejection and muon reconstruction Costant trigger rate with P T < 20 GeV H  ZZ*   ; H       X; etc NEW STATIONS RE3/1 and RE4/1 Technical Proposal in progress due July 2014 D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th 20147

8 RE3/1 & RE4/1 – 144 chambers (about m 2 area) for the inner (ring n.1) region of disks 3 and 4 – Rate: 1-2 kHz/cm 2  x5 limit tested for existing RPC chambers – Integrated charge: 1-2 C/cm 3000fb -1 Propose to cover the very forward region (1.6< |  | <2.4) Barrel muon system is covered with 8 layers of chambers (58 hits max) Endcap region is covered with 8 layers (28 hits max) High eta region is covered with 4 layers (24 hits max) D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th 20148

9 CMS RPC in muon reconstruction Recovery of efficiency thanks to RPC tracking During RUN1 the stability of the muon system has been assured thanks to the 2 independent trigger/detector systems. A major CSC faults occurred in the 2012 (7 chambers off in ring1) but thanks to the RPC (ring 2) we were able to recover part of the inefficiency even in this region. With a full coverage the system will be stable in case of any trouble. D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th 20149

10 CMS RPC in muon trigger D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th All 3 muon triggers (RPC, DT, CSC) contribute to the stability of the muon trigger efficiency and to the control of the rate. From year 2016, all the muon data will be used in a unique algorithm in order to have more robust system in the view of the lumi/background increment planned.

11 Joint ATLAS-CMS phase 2 R&D CMS-specific Operation at 1-2kHz/cm 2, 1-2 C/cm -1 Improved time resolution (10-100)ps – Background reduction – Secondary vertices iRPC – Large area, improved: Thin gap Multigap High voltage connections Gas distribution and inlet. – with HPL / glass electrodes D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

12 1. Electrodes D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th Lower resistivity materials will be investigated -construction of low resistivity HPL electrodes  higher rate -Investigation of low resistivity glass electrodes and chamber developed by Chinese Tech. Univ.  higher rate + multigap (timing) Thinner electrodes will be tested to improve the S/N ratio, the spatial resolution and to reduce the stress (HV working point) and the aging -construction of gas volumes with thin HPL electrodes -Construction of multi-gap RPC based on thin HPL electrodes

13 HPL: R&D relativo alla produzione di lastre di HPL a bassa resistività. Obiettivo è il raggiungimento di un valore di resistività inferiore di un ordine di grandezza rispetto a quello attualmente utilizzato (1÷6 x Ohm cm). Questo R&D è di interese comune ATLAS-CMS ma sarà seguito da CMS che ha studiato e contribuito allo sviluppo della produzione di HPL per RE4 con una nuova ditta di laminati (Puricelli) dopo la chiusura della ditta Panpla che aveva prodotto tutto l’ HPL per gli RPC degli esperimenti a LHC. La misura di resistività sarà fatta da CMS mentre il test della long term conductivity da ATLAS Tot35 HPL20 Transportation5 Resistivity Meas10 Acquisto di un batch di HPL (1 batch= 80 lastre da 1.6 m x 3.2 ;). Questo quantitativo è sufficiente per un certo numero di prototipi da 1mq per entrambi gli esperimenti e per circa 5 prototipi0 (fulls size) per ogni esperimento : 8 kEuro Sperimentazione bassa resistività presso la ditta Puricelli : 12 kEuro (basato su circa 50 test ) Misure di resistività: costruzione di uno strumento portatile per la misura di resistività (alimentatore,adc,elettrovalvole, consumables) 7 keuro Test di long term conductivity sull’HPL : 3 keuto Trasporti: le lastre saranno tagliate presso una ditta milanese e inviate alla GT per la costruzione dei prototipi: 5 keuro D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th TRADURRE E CONDENSARE O SPARES

14 2. Chamber prototypes D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th construction of a small set of reduced size prototype (thin, multi-gap, different resistivity...) for a maximum of 10 chambers to test in common (ATLAS/CMS) -Test at GIF++ and in the lab. -construction of a finale module -1 prototypes that fits all the specific requirements of the two experiments. -Test at GIF++ and in the lab. -Technological improvements: -Gas inlets and connection to the internal pipes -Gas distribution and connectors (simulation and test) -High voltage connection on the gap and connectors -Mechanics for the thin gap and multigap (also for the specific requests of the two experiment) -Strip foils and connection to the electronics -Cooling for the new electronics

15 3. High performance FEE Preliminary results Preliminary results CMS production chamber ATLAS lab Total charge vs HVeff Highlighted points at 90% efficiency Red: ATLAS FE / Blue: new Si FE Total charge vs HVeff Highlighted points at 90% efficiency Red: ATLAS FE / Blue: new Si FE Prototype developed by R.Cardarelli Tests on 2mm gaps -CMS turn-on efficiency curve shifted by ~460V -ATLAS comparison in lab with the ATLAS FE at the same efficiency: x7 reduced charge; fully efficient up to 7 kHz/cm 2 at GIF D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

16 The block diagram of the preamplifier The same scheme can be used for both Si and SiGe technology for a comparison Si technologySiGe technology 16 D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th 2014

17 Signal and noise from Si-amplifier and SiGe-amplifier Pulses recorded from a 500 micron diamond sensor irradiated by 241 Am source SiGe amplifier Silicon amplifier Noise comparison (same scale) Signal amplification x1.4 improvement (same scale) D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

18 Cost estimation Il presente progetto mira a realizzare, in forma di multi-project presso la ditta Europractice, 40 circuiti full custom da 8 canali ciascuno Il programma prevede i passi seguenti – Dis.+Test circuito analogico: 1 giro di fonderia, 15 kE – Dis +Test Circuito analogico+digitale: “ “ 50 “ – Ottimizzazione “ “ “ “ 50 “ – Produzione di 40 prototipi “ “ 50 “ I primi tre punti sono già coperti da altri progetti-finanziamenti. Si richiede il finanziamento di un giro di fonderia dedicato alla produzione dei prototipi da utilizzare nel proposto R&D D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th TRANSLATE AND/OR MOVE TO SPARES

19 4. The Quest for ecogases Ref: CMS Technical Proposal (July 2014)  The European Community has prohibited the production and use of gas mixtures with Global Warming Power > 150 (GWP(CO 2 ) = 1) This is valid mainly for industrial (refrigerator plants) applications  C 2 H 2 F 4 is the main component of the present RPC gas mixture: GWP(C 2 H 2 F 4 ) = 1430, GWP(SF 6 ) = 23900, GWP(iC 2 H 10 ) = 3.3  C 2 H 2 F 4 and SF 6 Crucial to ensure a stable working point in avalanche Similar problem for CF 4 (GWP = 5800) used in GEMs for time resolution  On the physical and chemical properties of this components we: Designed FE electronics and chambers Did all performance, ageing and calibration tests D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

20  Test molecules similar to C 2 H 2 F 4 but with lower GWP  C 3 H 2 F 4 – tetrafluoropropene (GWP=4) Should replace C 2 H 2 F 4 as automotive air-conditioning refrigerant C 2 H 4 F 2 – difluoroethane (GWP=120) Also studied to replace C 2 H 2 F 4 as a refrigerant C 2 HF 3 Cl 2 (GWP=93), others…  Plan to measure all the detector response parameter (time, charge spectrum, streamer separation, noise, efficiency, possibly drift velocity, etc)  HUGE PARAMETER SPACE, NEED TO DIVIDE MEASUREMENTS BETWEEN FACILITIES  Test at the GIF++ will follow on a short list of candidates ecogases to measure the performance in a realistic environment Rate capability, performance under stress, HF yield  already being setup at GIF New ageing tests (to be performed also at GIF++) 4. The Quest for ecogases: Plan D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

21 D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th Isobutane C 4 H 10 CAS R 600a Difluroetano C 2 H 4 F 2 CAS R152a Cloropentafluoroethane C 2 ClF 5 CAS R 115 Pentafluoroethane CF 3 CHF 2 CAS R 125 Propane C 3 H 8 CAS R290 Tetrafluoroethane CH 2 FCF 3 CAS R134a Diclorotrifluoroethane C 2 HCl 2 F 3 CAS R123 Sulphur hexafluoride SF 6 CAS R ,3,3-tetrafluoropropene CAS HFO-1234yf 1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene CAS HFO-1234ze 1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene HFO-1233zd Methane, trifluoroiodo- CAS R13I1 RPC standard gases and their candidate ecoreplacements

22 TFP has a strong effect both in quenching and in keeping the charge at low level mixtures are promising even for avalanche working mode with an appropriate FEE and a dedicated chamber layout First results on new gas mixtures for RPCs Gas mixtures tested: Ar/C 4 H 10 /TP with increasing % of SF 6 Preliminary A long R&D program is needed to analyze all the proposed gases and variants First with cosmics, then at GIF Single-gap ATLAS prototype, read on the oscilloscope, average charge vs. efficiency Ref: B.Liberti et al, RPC2014 Beijing D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

23 The Quest for ecogases: ATLAS Tor Vergata lab Spazio per foto e qualche riga sul laboratorio di Tor Vergata D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

24 D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th The Quest for ecogases: CMS Frascati lab TIME&CHARGE WAVEFORM 12 RPC IN CR TELESCOPE AND T, H CONTROLLED HUT 2 independent gas mix lines for event-by-event comparison VME adc+tdc digitizer Plot adc charge distrib gaschromatograph 2 independent gas mixing lines

25 The Quest for Ecogases characterizing interaction of candidate ecogases with RPC materials Chemistry Reactivity Outgassing Production of HF ? Production of other contaminants? – Ex.: CF 3 I under discharge releases CF 3 strong acid and corrosive R&D on optical sensor for gas contaminants (see spares) Before and after irradiation D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

26  analysis setup at CMS Frascati and associates (Sapienza Ingegneria Materiali, ENEA, Politecnico Torino) D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th The Quest for Ecogas characterizing interaction of candidate ecogases with RPC materials Optical sensors for RPC 1.M.Caponero et al., Use of fiber op4c technology for rela4ve humidity monitoring in RPC detectors JINST 8 (2013) T S.Grassini et al., Gas monitoring in RPC by means of non-­‐invasive plasma-­‐coated POF sensors JINST 7 (2012) P12006 Gas mixtures for RPC 1. S.Colafranceschi et al., A study of gas contaminants and interac4on with materials in RPC closed loop systems JINST 8 (2013) T S.Colafranceschi et al., Performance of the Gas Gain Monitoring system of the CMS RPC muon detector and effec4ve working point fine tuning INST 7 (2012) P L.Benussi et al., A New approach in modeling the response of RPC detectors Nucl.Instrum.Meth. A661 (2012) S182-­‐ S185 4.L.Benussi et al, Study of gas purifiers for the CMS RPC detector Nucl.Instrum.Meth. A661 (2012) S241-­‐S244 Materials for gaseous detectors 1.G.Saviano et al., A study of film and foil materials for the GEM detector proposed for the CMS muon system upgrade accepted by JINST (2014) GasCromatograph-Mass Spectrometer Scanning Electron Microscope - EDS X-Ray Diffractrometry Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy Chemistry Lab

27 5. Irradiation tests Test di aging su rivelatori e materiali……….. Test di aging e single event effect dell’elettronica di FE, test con fasci (BTF a Frascati, etc) delle prestazioni (rate, efficienza, risoluzione temporale, sensitivita’ a fotoni e neutroni) dei prototipi iRPC. Questi test sono fondamentali sia per il front-end presente che per quello futuro. Tutte le schede elettroniche attualmente installate dovranno essere verificate fino a 10 anni di HL-LHC. D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th RIDURRE

28 Single Event Effects study on the FE boards of the improved RPC ( ) Motivations: study of radiation transient effects on the FE electronics of the iRPC Study : cross section measurement of the transient fenomena induced by neutrons on the open input FE boards. We plan to use the following facilities: the Triga Mark II reactor in Pavia and the Louvain cyclotron. The first one covers a energy range till 18MeV which can be extended till 50MeV by the second one. Setup : a measurement station has been already assembled and used for previous tests. The station has been instrumented with : VME crate, LVoltage PS, VME scalers, NIM crate and NIM modules, PC. Additional costs to be addressed: – irradiation and targets for flux measurement at Triga Mark II  4kEuro – irradiation and transport costs for Louvain  7kEuro D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

29 6. New trigger electronics (ATLAS) The current system is not compatible with the Phase-2 trigger requests -2 trigger levels (L0 + L1) -minimum 500 kHz L0 rate, minimum 200 kHz L1 rate -6 µs L0 latency, 30 µs L1 latency -use of GBT system for the distribution of the LHC timing signals -readout system based on Felix The current on-detector electronics will be replaced with the new DCT boxes (Data Collector Transmitter, about 800 in total) -use of FPGAs instead of ASICs for the on-detector electronics -the DCT box will collect RPC front-end data, and perform some simple logic before sending the data off-detector Most of the trigger logic will be located in the off-detector (USA15) new Sector Logic boards (64 in total): -increased algorithm flexibility, easier operations and maintenance, no radiation D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

30 New trigger scheme RPC1 RPC2 RPC3 1 per crate Sector Logic 64 GBT fibres Init/control PC readout data trigger data to MuCTPi / CTP to ethernet switch / ROD control data on-detectoroff-detector RPC0 DCT 208 DCT trigger fibres Felix D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

31 R&D: new trigger electronics Additional trigger logic with respect to the current one is being defined: -Increased trigger coverage could be feasible by changing the trigger algorithm (and possibly by adding new RPCs in the inner barrel layer) -Increased steepness of the trigger turn-on curve could be feasible thanks to the improved spatial resolution -Muon charge info could be added to the trigger data -Trigger thresholds could be fully programmable and more flexible (possibly > 6) Interest in the project expressed by the INFN groups -Bologna, Napoli, Roma, Roma Tor Vergata (about 10 physicists, 4 FTE) R&D: -2 commercial FPGA evaluation boards (3 k€ ciascuna) -2 adapter boards (1 k€ ciascuna) -1 prototype (5 k€) Total R&D: 13 k€ (2015: 6 k€ : 2 k€ : 5 k€) D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

32 Financial Requests ( ) D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th ATLAS/CMS CMS ATLAS keurocommentskeurocommentskeurocomments ITEMTASK ElectrodeTot35 10 HPL20 development low Res thin (10) and Proto (10) Glass 10 2 chambers Transportation5 from company to Lab Resistivity Meas10 production resistivity and long term conductivity Chamb/ProtoTot Thin/multi GapChamber prod.35 scaling from small to full size Multiplet mech. frame4 precision frame for 4 chambers + local gas distrib syst Gas comp. & distrib.4 design and test of new gas I & T prototype -1 8 CMS layout prototype 8 ATLAS layout prototype Consumable15 Front-endTot Chip prototype45 Chip design and development Adaptor board for CMS and ATLAS exp. 5 chip/DAQ board 13 On chamber LVL1 Roma 1 Test in lab11 Single Event Effects Eco-gasTot Gas20 unit cost 2 Keuro Consumable2 equipment4 flowmeters interaction w/ materials10 chemical materials and sensors GIF++, BTF, etcTot Electronics12 DAQ/DCS epool rent RPC user gas system10 Cables and sensors4 Gas use12 Running test consumable8 Trolley and support2

33 Funding profile (temptative) Task TOTALE Electrode Chamb/Proto Front-end Eco-gas GIF D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th Milestones Electrode Chamber/Proto Front-end Ecogas GIF++ Advance in 2014: ……TBD

34 Personnel ATLAS RPC ……….. 4 FTE – Bologna – Roma 1 – Roma 2 – Napoli CMS RPC ………….. 5 FTE – Bari (Abbrescia, Iaselli, Maggi, Pugliese) – Frascati (Benussi, Bianco, Piccolo, Saviano) – Napoli (Buontempo, Paolucci, Thiessen) – Pavia D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

35 spares D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th

36 D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th The Quest for Ecogas characterizing interaction of candidate ecogases with RPC materials Optical sensors for gas contaminants Developed for HF detection and tested at GIF S.Grassini M.Parvis L.Benussi S.Bianco D.Piccolo, Gas monitoring in RPC by means of non-invasive plasma-coated POF sensors JINST 7 (2012) P12006 Simple, optical, compact, inexpensive Test and optimize for ecogases Develop compact and inexpensive standalone readout If successful, study deployment

37 HPL: R&D relativo alla produzione di lastre di HPL a bassa resistività. Obiettivo è il raggiungimento di un valore di resistività inferiore di un ordine di grandezza rispetto a quello attualmente utilizzato (1÷6 x Ohm cm). Questo R&D è di interese comune ATLAS-CMS ma sarà seguito da CMS che ha studiato e contribuito allo sviluppo della produzione di HPL per RE4 con una nuova ditta di laminati (Puricelli) dopo la chiusura della ditta Panpla che aveva prodotto tutto l’ HPL per gli RPC degli esperimenti a LHC. La misura di resistività sarà fatta da CMS mentre il test della long term conductivity da ATLAS Tot35 HPL20 Transportation5 Resistivity Meas10 Acquisto di un batch di HPL (1 batch= 80 lastre da 1.6 m x 3.2 ;). Questo quantitativo è sufficiente per un certo numero di prototipi da 1mq per entrambi gli esperimenti e per circa 5 prototipi0 (fulls size) per ogni esperimento : 8 kEuro Sperimentazione bassa resistività presso la ditta Puricelli : 12 kEuro (basato su circa 50 test ) Misure di resistività: costruzione di uno strumento portatile per la misura di resistività (alimentatore,adc,elettrovalvole, consumables) 7 keuro Test di long term conductivity sull’HPL : 3 keuto Trasporti: le lastre saranno tagliate presso una ditta milanese e inviate alla GT per la costruzione dei prototipi: 5 keuro D.Boscherini for the ATLAS Coll. and S.Bianco for the CMS Coll. R&D RPC phase2 - Rome May 9th


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