Presentation on theme: "Different understandings of elder abuse: Implications for professional practice and policy Janet Carter Anand Queen’s University Belfast Old age."— Presentation transcript:
1Different understandings of elder abuse: Implications for professional practice and policy Janet Carter Anand Queen’s University BelfastOld age ceases to be respected, and is replaced bynegative stereotypes of ‘greedy geezers’ and ‘self centred spongers’ on society.Many older people are concerned about their perceived uselessness as citizensof the third age of leisure, and as they enter the fourth age of dependency thereis a sense that they should not be living so long. Of course I have somewhatexaggerated this presentation of the current situation. Many older people continueto contribute much and are valued especially within their families. Someolder people never enter the age of dependency. But the situation is changingremorselessly before our own eyes. Family relationships are weakening, andincreasing numbers of people are living longer in states of dependency. Wehave to rethink our understanding of the life course. (Colman2009)
2The team Marita O’Brien Independent Researcher Emer Begley Social Inclusion Officer, Age Action IrelandJanet Carter Anand Research Fellow, Social Policy and Ageing Research Centre, Trinity College Dublin and Lecturer in Social Work, Queens University, BelfastCampbell Killick Research Officer, South East Health and Social Care Trust, Northern IrelandBrian Taylor Senior Lecturer, Institute for Research in Social Science, University of UlsterEvelyn Doyle, Peer Researcher (NI)Mary McCarthy, Peer Researcher (ROI)Sam McCrossan, Peer Researcher (NI)Evelyn Moran, Peer Researcher (ROI)
3IntroductionLittle is known about older people’s conceptualisation of elder abuseResearch highlights that older people placed particular emphasis on the themes of rights, choice, dignity, respect and the devaluing of older people in families and communities (WHO 2002)Evidence of inconsistency in professional response to elder abuse (Taylor and Killick 2012)Limited consensus between older people and health professionals regarding what constitutes elder abuse(Selwood et al. 2007; Thompson-McCormack et al. 2009)Heath professionals are more likely to identify abusive and potential abusive strategies than older people (Hempton et al. 2011)
4Defining and Responding to Elder Abuse adapted from Harbison and Morrow (1998) Older Adultvulnerability protectionlegalcrimevictimhood personalisationPersonhoodagencyConsensus is required for:developing appropriate policy and service responses to elder abuseeducational programs for older people, family carers and processional carers and health processionalsempowering older people- older people are not victimsA standing or status bestowed on upon one human being by others in the context of a relationship and social being. It implies recognition, respect and trust.(Kitwood 1997:8)
5Study Aims Investigate what older adults perceive to be elder abuse Identify what older adults consider to be the main threats to their personal safety and well-being in their communitiesIdentify what services older people would use if they experienced abuseIdentify what changes to services older people would like to see
6Qualitative Methodology IrelandNorthern IrelandNumber of participants2137Gender17 female4 male33 femaleAge6 in each category, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79And 3 between 80-849 in range8 in 70-7410 in 75-794 in 80-842 in 85-894 age not indicatedLocation12 rural9 urban19 rural18 urbanoccupation17 worked outside of home4 home based work33 worked outside of home4 home basedDesign: ParticipatoryData Collection: Focus groupsRecruitment and SampleData Analysis: Grounded TheoryEthical Approval: QUB (NI) and TCD (ROI)Validity and Reliability: - Insider perspectiveLimitations: No representativeness nor generalisabilityReflections: Involvement of peer researchers!
7FINDINGS: Safety and Wellbeing You become more vulnerable as you become older for the simple reason that maybe your health isn’t good, become dependent on people (Paula, ROI, rural)My experience of homes is terrible and the smell of urine when you went in the door, it was terrible…I dread the stage of where maybe I would have to go to one of those places myself, seeing all that I have seen (Liz, ROI, urban)
8Loss of decision-making “a big mistake...it’s absolutely lethal no-one with cop on will do it, you’ll end up in a nursing home [in] 2 seconds flat” (Joan, ROI, urban).The one thing that would set me off, trying to put me in a care home...I would gladly go into sheltered accommodation, provided it was within Suburb, [where Joe lives] where I’ve got friends…care homes, it’s like a very gentle prison for doting people…but in sheltered accommodation you have a certain independence, you are still paying a rent…a [name of organisation] dwelling with a good size communal hall in it, where people, men and women could play bowls or play other indoor games…and still have their own flat within it, where they would still have that degree of independence (Joe, NI, urban).
9Reasons for non-disclosure Report it…sometimes they think you are a busy-body and are afraid to get involved in case people say oh you shouldn’t be interfering, it’s none of your business anyway (Stella, NI, urban).The neighbour knows that they are being abused, what can that neighbour do because the person that’s been abused will not turn against their own family and support the person that might make the complaint. If you made a complaint to somebody about that, it is you that would get into cold water, the people that are doing the abusing, would go free (John, NI, rural)Vera: You won’t really want anybody to know, you would hide it rather than let anyone know if your family was being bad to you, won’t you.John: Or otherwise they’d put you into a home (Vera and John, NI, rural)[They are] over efficient, [as they] look into things they have no need to look into” (John, NI, rural)Cultural norms relating to family privacy:Reluctance to corroborate others accounts even if a family member is abusive:Fear of alternatives to family careParticipants’ assertion that admission to nursing homes was an older person’s biggest dread:Fear of the consequence of disclosing and subsequent repercussions:Negative perceptions of formal social service responses not being helpful or appropriate:
10Staying ConnectedThere is a great bus service, I’m collected at my house on a Friday morning …we can do our bits and pieces and leave everything at the shop in our bags, and when it’s time to go home, the minibus comes for us and the driver of the bus lifts all the bags out and then when he leaves us off at our houses, he walks us to the door and will carry the stuff in and put it on the kitchen table…people otherwise won’t be able to get out to do their own shopping unless a member of their family [brings them] and when your with [a] member of family ‘oh hurry up’, you have only so long and all this sort of thing whereas when older people go out like that…you can sit in the wee place [local grocers with bar] they have for us to sit until the bus comes and we can chat away, whereas if you are with your family, what are you doing talking there, will you hurry up come on, they can’t wait for you, why are you taking so long (Helen, ROI, rural)
11Supporting Family Carers I mean we didn’t want to have her in a home, we couldn’t, we were spread all over the place and we couldn’t, and there was nothing done to ease the sort of guilt, that we felt about having to have her there (Janet, NI urban). All the books in the world about babies but there is nothing to tell you this may happen [to an older person] (Eve, NI urban).
12Creating Awarenessthe importance of social interaction and friendship networks for positive mental health;planning for future care needs;dementia education and training;practical education for family caregivers;educating young people through multi-generational programmes at post-primary level and civic programmes in national school to teach, “respect for elders”.
13Interaction with Professionals If they knew someone was coming round, the air-freshener was gone into the carpets, and there was vases of flowers, my reckoning is that, they should never be told when someone is coming (Sarah, NI, urban)The needs of vulnerable older people for emotional support…how do you vet a home for warmth, I’m talking about human dignity, warmth impossible to legislate or ensure the meeting of older people’s emotional needs for warmth and human dignity (Amy, NI, urban)
14Personhood, Recognition and Trust “I think it comes under the categories of physical abuse, financial and emotional, and emotional comes at the very top where I’m concerned…in the withdrawal of interaction, where the older person becomes almost invisible in the corner or wherever, and even touching you know, the whole withdrawal of human kindness almost” Amy ( NI, urban)…[family] they take you somewhere and they leave you and they say I haven’t time to stop... Well won’t you like them to come in and sit down and have a chat, usually they are saying I have to rush to take so and so home from school and I have to rush to do that, but you know they are so good but still. Tara (NI rural)…denying them of their basic rights and I would go as far to say even the knowledge of their basic rights, a total indifference to their dignity. Patsy (NI urban)
15Discussion Withdrawal of Personhood – a new type of abuse? How can professional practice and policy enhances personhood ?
16Implications for Professional Practice Practice that supports personhood at the subjective, interactive and social interface – Personhood Framework, Person Centred PracticeCentrality of knowing the person, their values, biography, relationships, seeing beyond the immediate needs and authenticity (McCormack 2004) -Life Course PerspectiveAddressing issues of loss and trauma (neglected area)Professional responsibility i.e. dignity and rights
17Implications for Policy Inclusion and RightsSafety and security e.g. fear of nursing homesBarriers to accessing services e.g. stigmaEmpowerment and enablement e.g. transport, role of community based groups, Good Morning Service, HOPEChoice and ControlPerson-centred and self directed servicesSupporting families e.g. mediation servicesAddressing fear e.g. fear of nursing homesCreating AwarenessProfessional educationPromoting personhood and citizenship
18It can be argued, that more sustainable and proactive models of service delivery which interweave informal sources of support (family, friends, peers, community etc.) with formal services (health, welfare, advocacy and legal services) are the key to empowering older people in communities. However, we first need to establish how older people think and feel about the issues and involve them in the response!
19Contact details For further information please contact: Dr Janet Carter AnandTelephone:Report available to download fromor