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Presentation on theme: "COGNTION & LEARNING: STAGES OF INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT Jennifer Lange."— Presentation transcript:


2 Perry Game Your Task: 1. Sort the statements into categories based on attitudes about learning. 2. Assign a label to each category that describes the intellectual stage shown. 3. Debrief – what are your categories and why did you choose those statements as a group? Adapted from Reimers & Roberson 2001

3 Theories of Intellectual Development  Describe how our views change over time from unsophisticated (black & white) positions to ones that embrace complexity  Changes are responses to intellectual, social, or emotional challenges  Students begin to question values and assumptions presented to them by family and society; they start to develop their own

4 Theories of Intellectual Development  Describes students in aggregate, not individually  Development is not always forward  Can be in different stages at the same time in response to different intellectual challenges

5 Research  Perry (1970)  464 interviews with 140 male Harvard students in the 50’s & 60’s  Belenky et al. (1986)  135 women (90 students) in US in 70’s & 80’s  Baxer-Magolda (1992)  Followed 101 (half male/half female) Miami University students from 1986-1991

6 Research PerryDualismMultiplicityRelativismCommitment Belenky et. al SilenceReceived knowledgeSubjective knowledge Procedural knowledge: separated connected Constructed Baxter- Magolda Absolute knowledge Transitional knowledge Independent knowledge Contextual knowledge

7 Stages  Dualism/Received/Absolute  Knowledge is viewed as received truth  What matters is if facts are right or wrong  Information is always known and is passed down  Teacher = one that has the answers  Learning = memorizing notes for tests, getting the A is what counts Student Frustration: Why won’t the teacher directly answer my questions?

8 Stages  Transitional  Similar to dualism/received/absolute with the exception that they recognize a question may not be able to be answered, and this is ok Student Frustration: Why won’t the teacher directly answer my questions?

9 Stages  Multiplicity/Subjective/Independent  Knowledge is a matter of opinion  Teacher = not the authority, just another opinion  Learning = a purely personal exercise  People can disagree and both can be right  Justification isn’t necessary, so shouldn’t judge Student Frustration: How can the teacher evaluate my work?

10 Stages  Relativism/Procedural/Contextual  Knowledge is based on evidence  Supporting your argument with reasons is key  Teacher = conversation partner, guide  Learning = what we “know” is dependent on context  Arrive at this through teacher guidance – “give 3 pieces of evidence to back up your statement”  No decision made between options, just multiple supported categories Student Question: What are more sources of information?

11 Stages  Commitment/Constructed  Knowledge is based on evidence and leads to decision and action  Facts, feelings, and perspectives all matter – how will I act upon them?  Teacher = one source of many  Learning = making choices, acting on them, taking responsibility  Makes provisional commitment based on current evidence; could change if contradictory evidence arises Student Question: What were the results of my actions? What does that mean about my future actions & principles I live by?

12 Intellectual Development by Year Adapted from Baxter-Magolda (1992) Percentage of students

13 Implications?  If most of our students are in the absolute or transitional stages, what can we do to promote movement to the next stage?  How might this affect how we evaluate their critical thinking skills?  Others? Modified from DiPitro @ POD 2010


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