Presentation on theme: "Cooperation and implicature. We assume that speakers and listeners involved in conversation are generally cooperating with each other.  A hamburger."— Presentation transcript:
Cooperation and implicature
We assume that speakers and listeners involved in conversation are generally cooperating with each other.  A hamburger is a hamburger. Tautologies have no communicative value Implicature have something more than what the words mean.
The cooperative principle: Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose of direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged. The maxims Quantity 1- Make your contribution as informative as is required. 2- Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.
Quality Try to make your contribution one that is true 1- Do not say what you believe to be false. 2- Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence. Relation Be relevant Manner Be perspicuous 1- Avoid obscurity of expression 2- Avoid ambiguity 3- Be brief 4- Be orderly
Hedges are cautious notes or expressions used by the speaker to indicate that he/she is conscious of the CP maxims Quality: the initial phrases in [3a-c] and the final phrase in [3d] are hedges regarding the accuracy of the main statement.  a. As far as I know, they’re married. b. I may be mistaken, but I thought I saw a wedding ring on her finger. c. I’m not sure if this is right, but I heard it was a secret ceremony in Hawaii. d. He couldn’t live without her, I guess.
Quantity: the initial phrases in [4a-c] are hedges which show that the speaker is conscious of this maxim.  a. As you probably know, I am terrified of bugs. b. So, to cut a long story short, we grabbled our stuff and ran. c. I won’t bore you with all the details, but it was an exciting trip. Relation: the initial phrases in [5a-c] are hedges which show that the speaker is conscious of this maxim.  a. I don’t know if this is important, but some files are missing. b. This may sound like a dumb question, but whose handwriting is this?
c. Not to change the subject, but is this related to the budget? Manner: the initial phrases in [6a-c] are hedges which show that the speaker is conscious of this maxim.  a. This may be a bit confused, but I remember being in a car. b. I’m not sure if this makes sense, but the car had no lights. c. I don’t know if this is clear at all, but I think the other car was reversing. All these examples show that the speakers are not only aware of the maxims but also trying to observe them.
Conversational implicature It is speakers additional information conveyed in more than what is said. And listeners recognized this communicated information via inference. The symbol +> is used for implicature.  A: I hope you bought the bread and the cheese? B: Ah, I bought the bread. The additional conveyed meaning (B didn’t buy the cheese) can be represented as in .  A: b & c? B: b (+> NOT c)
Generalized conversational implicatures When no special knowledge is required in the context to calculate the additional conveyed meaning, as in  to , it is called generalized conversational implicature. Scalar implicatures A number of generalized conversational implicatures are commonly communicated on the basis of a scale of values and consequently known as scalar implicatures. 
When producing an utterance, a speaker selects the word from the scale which is the most informative and truthful in the circumstances as in   I’m studying linguistics and I’ve completed some of the required courses. (+> not all) The basis of scalar implicature is that, when any form in the scale is asserted, the negative of all forms higher on the scale is implicated.  They’re sometimes really interesting. (+> not always, +> not often)
There are many scalar implicatures produced by the use of expressions that are not part of any scale  a. It is possible that they were delayed. (+> not certain) as a higher value on the scale of ‘likelihood’.  b, This should be stored in a cool place. (+> not must) on a scale of obligation and (+> not frozen) on a scale of ‘coldness’.
Particularized conversational implicatures When special knowledge of a particular context is required to calculate the additional conveyed meaning, as in , it is called particularized conversational implicature or just implicatures.  Leila: Whoa! Has your boss gone crazy? Mary: Let’s go get some coffee. Properties of conversational implicatures They can be calculated, suspended, cancelled, denied and reinforced.
For example, there is a standard implicature associated with stating a number, that the speaker means only that number, as shown in .  You have won five dollars! (+> only five) However, it is easy for a speaker to suspend the implicature (+> only) using the expression ‘at least’: [22 a] You’ve won at least five dollars! Or to cancel the implicature by adding further information, often following the expression ‘in fact’: [22 b] You’ve won five dollars, in fact, you’ve won ten! Or to reinforce the implicature with additional information: [22 c] You’ve won five dollars, that’s four more than one!
Conventional implicatures They do not occur in conversation nor depend on special contexts for their interpretation. They are associated with specific words and result in additional conveyed meanings when those words are used. The English conjunction ‘but’ is one of these words with the implicature of ‘contrast’.  a. Mary suggested black, but I chose white. b. p & q (+> p is in contrast to q)
Other English words such as ‘even’ and ‘yet’ also have conventional implicatures. The conventional implicatures of ‘even’ is ‘contrary to expectation’ and of ‘yet’ is that the present situation is expected to be different, or perhaps the opposite, at a later time..  Even John came to the party.  a. Dennis isn’t here yet. (= NOT p) b. NOT p is true (+> p expected to be true later)
The different meanings of ‘and’ can be treated as instances of conventional implicature in different structures. *When two statements containing static information are joined by ‘and’, the implicature is ‘in addition’ or ‘plus’.  a. Yesterday, Mary was happy and ready to work. (p & q, +> p plus q) *When the two statements contain dynamic, action- related information, the implicature is ‘and then’. b. She put on her clothes and left the house. (p & q, +> q after p)