We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byRoger Warne
Modified about 1 year ago
”Operational stability of the Internet ” SANOG1 - Kathmandu, Nepal Kurtis Lindqvist
Sida 1 © Netnod AB Slides available at
Sida 2 © Netnod AB Who is Netnod? Continuation of D-GIX Established in 1997 Operates four exchanges in Sweden –Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö, Sundsvall Have been the first (only) exchange point to use DPT/SRP/RPR/ –Switching to Gigabit Ethernet
Sida 3 © Netnod AB The Internet has changed
Sida 4 © Netnod AB Different needs Medical applications on STM-1 based IP- VPNs On-line banking applications Production dependent IP-VPNs VoIP Down-time is starting to have an effect
Sida 5 © Netnod AB The Internet of today won’t do it IGP convergence Will impact your service offering –IP-VPNs –VoIP services –Banking? Not really new… …and relatively easy to fix
Sida 6 © Netnod AB The Internet of today won’t do it IGP convergence –Can be improved with IGP timers for both ISIS and OSPF
Sida 7 © Netnod AB The Internet of today won’t do it IGP convergence Suggestions to fix the protocol also exists –See Cengiz Alaettinoglu presentation at the ISIS-WG in San Diego Dec 2000 But also be done at Layer 2…
Sida 8 © Netnod AB The Internet of today won’t do it BGP Convergence Convergence is poor as documented by Abha Ahuja and Craig Labovitz Will also impact your service offering –How do I do intra-provider VoIP?
Sida 9 © Netnod AB The Internet of today won’t do it BGP convergence Harder to fix –Problem with the protocol A number of suggestions are out there –Dampening might harm you, see Randy Bush et al at RIPE in Rhodes and last Nanog For a long term fix we need to find a better way of doing this…
Sida 10 © Netnod AB we still need to do Interconnects…
Sida 11 © Netnod AB Interconnections Transit connections Direct peerings Exchange points
Sida 12 © Netnod AB Transit connections ”Where the rest goes” –Your way to the most of the Internet Often protected so that you won’t get isolated in case of failures Critical as otherwise you will be an isolated island of the Internet
Sida 13 © Netnod AB Direct peerings Direct links between two ISPs Normally redundant –For economical ”fairness” Not really crucial as you can send traffic through the upstream –But might be crucial depending on your traffic ratio
Sida 14 © Netnod AB Exchange points Many ISPs connected to common and shared media Normally limited protection Limited effect if lost –But can still force large volume of traffic to be shifted and leading to higher cost
Sida 15 © Netnod AB What if we loose an exchange point? Tested in full scale at Netnod Migration of mountain cave
Sida 16 © Netnod AB Netnod is running a number of exchangepoint medias Cisco DPT / SRP –622 Mbps –2.5Gbps FDDI –Legacy Gigabit Ethernet –Bridged to FDDI
Sida 17 © Netnod AB Netnod setup - GigE 1 Customer router Extreme switches FDDI Switches AB
Sida 18 © Netnod AB Netnod setup - GigE 2 Customer routers Extreme switches FDDI Switches AB
Sida 19 © Netnod AB Netnod setup - DPT
Sida 20 © Netnod AB …and then we migrated ”A”… …so what happened? Nothing really…
Sida 21 © Netnod AB Government project Study of the overall stability of the Internet in Sweden –DNS –Exchange points Gathered a number of data –BGP logs of 10 ISPs…almost –BGP listening on US East/west coast –Load graphs
Sida 22 © Netnod AB Traffic shifted as planned
Sida 23 © Netnod AB No real BGP activity - withdrawals
Sida 24 © Netnod AB No real BGP activity - Advertisement
Sida 25 © Netnod AB BGP Activity - details
Sida 26 © Netnod AB What conclusions can we make? Exchange points are not really crucial –Some ISPs actually shifted the traffic beforehand Interconnects can be made stable –Layer 2 convergence will help –But GigE can also be made to work… –…but you need to be careful
Sida 27 © Netnod AB So what do we think happened? Well, the only thing that really changed was the NEXT_HOP Backup paths was known So BGP recalculation was very limited, if at all But this needs planning and luck! –And not necessarily in that order…
Sida 28 © Netnod AB Operational stability All this is examples of how to improve operational stability But why do I needed it? –The answer is obvious Or is it? –How dependent is your country on the Internet?
Sida 29 © Netnod AB Operational stability Netnod was to some extent created out of the needs for stable Internet in Sweden –The physical exchange is located in caves owned by the government –But they have no control over it Gov and we where concerned about physical security –As far as I know unique - which have proved to be useful
Sida 30 © Netnod AB Operational stability Physical security is the easy part –Todays attacks are logical The Swedish government is moving into CERT like functions and is trying to find their role –The idea is good –But they add little value to the solution of the real problem –Still they are needed and can be useful –Early start is goood
Sida 31 © Netnod AB Operational stability The challenge in the future lies in moving forward on two fronts –Physical –Logical Both are well understood… …but poorly implemented
Sida 32 © Netnod AB Conclusions Operational stability is becoming more and more crucial –For revenue and infrastructure Work with your goverment before they work with you There is a lot you can do (should have done) to increase the stability of your network –And the rest of the Internet Conferences like these are good!
Sida 33 © Netnod AB Go do it! Before you wake up and is forced to!
Sida 34 © Netnod AB ?
Sida 35 © Netnod AB Contact Netnod Internet Exchange i Sverige AB Bellmansgatan 30 I SE Stockholm Sweden Office address: Bellmansgatan 30 I Telephone: Telefax: URL: http//www.netnod.se/
Multihoming and Multi-path Routing CS 7260 Nick Feamster January
Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) Scalable Infrastructure Workshop.
Multihoming and Multi-path Routing CS 4251: Computer Networking II Nick Feamster Fall 2008.
What is a Peering Coordinator? May 26, 2008 Copyright © 2008 Limelight Networks. All rights reserved.
Routers and Routing Basics CCNA 2 Chapter 7.
9/4/20141 Iterative Project Management Chapter 2 – How Do Iterative Projects Function? Iterative Project Management / 01 - Iterative and Incremental Development.
Use of BGP and MPLS VPNs: A Case Study Fred P. Baker CCIE#3555.
Management: Fault Detection and Troubleshooting Nick Feamster CS 7260 February 5, 2007.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco PublicITE I Chapter 6 1 Implement Spanning Tree Protocols PART-II LAN Switching and Wireless – Chapter.
1 Chapter 7 Local Area Networks : The Basics Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business Users Approach.
Improving Internet Availability Nick Feamster Georgia Tech.
1 Current Counter-measures and Responses by the Domain Name System Community Paul Twomey President and CEO 22 April 2007 APEC-OECD Malware Workshop Manila,
New Mexico Broadband Program Introduction to the Internet Module 1 Understanding the Internet Key Features of Websites Navigating within a website.
Jean McKay PuttyCove, Inc. An introduction to High Cost of Doing Nothing 4/18/2012.
Chapter 7 Local Area Networks: The Basics. 2 Primary Function of a LAN File serving – large storage disk drive acts as a central storage repository Print.
1 Designing a future Internet: Architecture and requirements David Clark MIT CSAIL August 2008.
©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 10Slide 1 Chapter 10 Architectural Design.
© 2007 – 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public ROUTE v6 Chapter 5 1 Chapter 5: Implement Path Control CCNP ROUTE: Implementing IP.
Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Business Data Communications and Networking 11th Edition Jerry Fitzgerald and Alan Dennis John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 6 Architectural Design Slide 1 Chapter 6 Architectural Design.
1 GREY BOX TESTING Web Apps & Networking Session 10 Boris Grinberg
1 IPv6 – Now or Never? Geoff Huston APNIC Geoff Huston Research Scientist APNIC.
Carleton University 1 February 25th, 2014 Voice over IP Presenter: Tony Hutchinson System Engineering Manager.
Sofía Silva Berenguer lacnic.net Paramaribo - Surinam Internet Exchange Points Workshop.
Slide 1 FastFacts Feature Presentation June 19 th, 2008 We are using audio during this session, so please dial in to our conference line… Phone number:
The Web and Content Distribution Networks Nick Feamster CS 6250 Fall 2011 (some notes from David Andersen and Christian Kauffman)
Ethical Issues Raised by Current Research on Drug Addiction Dr Tom Walker Centre for Professional Ethics Keele University United Kingdom.
Path Splicing Nick Feamster Georgia Tech Joint work with Murtaza Motiwala, Santosh Vempala, Megan Elmore.
1 Notes content copyright © 2004 Ian Sommerville. NU-specific content copyright © 2004 M. E. Kabay. All rights reserved. Requirements Engineering Processes.
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.