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ENGLISH LANGUAGE A1. Eva Pospíšilová

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Presentation on theme: "ENGLISH LANGUAGE A1. Eva Pospíšilová"— Presentation transcript:

1 ENGLISH LANGUAGE A1

2 Eva Pospíšilová

3 UNIT 6

4 MODAL VERBS + ADVERBS and ADJECTIVES In this chapter you will learn how to use modal verbs and how to form comparatives, superlatives and adverbs.

5 I work for a magazine, which was writing an article about English language learners. As an experiment, they asked me to learn a completely new language in one month. Then I had to go to the country and do some tests to see if I could survive in different situations. I decided to learn Spanish because this language is spoken in many countries. I have just finished an intensive course at a language school. Now I am going to Madrid to do my tests. I was told that I have to ask for directions, ask somebody the time and phone and ask to speak to someone. I mustn’t use a dictionary and I shouldn’t speak English at any time.

6 1)Have a look at the verb highlighted in blue. What is the present tense? What does it express – ability or obligation? 2)Have a look at the verbs highlighted in red? What modal verb has the same or similar meaning? 3)Look at the verb highlighted in green? Does it mean that something is not obligatory or that it is prohibited? Compare it with the orange example. Are you more likely to speak English or use a dictionary?

7 MODAL VERBS modal verb + base Modal verbs form the questions without any auxiliary verb. E.g. Can I come in? They do not add s in the 3 rd person sg. E.g. He must go there. TB p / ex. 4

8  can, could (Ex. I can go) – expressing ability, possibility x cannot (can’t), could not (couldn’t) = be able to  may, might (Ex. I might come) – expressing possibility x may not, might not = be allowed to  must (Ex. I must work) – expressing obligation x do not need to !!!must not (mustn’t) – expressing prohibition (Ex. You mustn’t smoke here) = have to ( x don’t have to)  should (Ex. You should change your job) – expressing advice, necessity x should not (shouldn’t) = ought to

9 ADJECTIVES -ED X -ING E.g. I am bored. X The film was boring. I am interested in literature. X This book is interesting.

10 ADVERBS form adverbs with the suffix - ly E.g. slow - slowly bad - badly IRR.good – well hard – hard fast – fast TB p / ex. 8-14

11 COMPARATIVES - ER E.g. short – shorter big – bigger busy - busier IRR.good – better bad – worse far – further MORE 2 or more syllables E.g. more interesting

12 SUPERLATIVES THE…. - EST E.g. short – the shortest big – the biggest busy – the busiest IRR.good – the best bad – the worst far – the furthest THE MOST 2 or more syllables E.g. the most interesting

13 UNIT 7

14 MODAL VERBS + CONDITIONALS In this chapter you will learn how to use modal verbs in the past and how to speak about possible situations and hypothetical situations.

15 MODAL VERBS IN THE PAST modal verb + have + PP Ex. He must have done it. You should have told the truth. It might have happened.

16 MUST speaker imposes the obligation I must visit my grandmother, she has a birthday. HAVE TO rules, regulations, laws English children have to wear uniforms at school.

17 “What will you do if you don’t pass the final exams?” “I don’t know. I am worried about it. I hope that if I work hard now, I will pass them. But I will be really unhappy if I fail.” “Will your parents be angry with you if you fail the exams?” “My parents will be very disappointed if I fail but they won’t be surprised. I have never been a good student.”

18 1)Find the examples of the first conditional. Which tense do we use after IF? What do we use in the 2nd part of the sentence? 2)Do we use a comma between the clauses? 3)Is it a real possibility or hypothetical situation?

19 1 st CONDITIONAL If + present, will Ex. If it rains at the weekend, I will (’ll) stay at home. What will you do if you miss the bus? Use it for possible future situations.

20 “ What would you do if you won in a lottery?” “If I won in a lottery, I would be shocked. I’ve always thought that if I had enough money, I would travel a lot. I am really interested in travelling and seeing different cultures.”

21 1)Find the examples of the second conditional. Which tense do we use after IF? What do we use in the 2nd part of the sentence? 2)Is it a real possibility or hypothetical situation?

22 2 nd CONDITIONAL If + past, would Ex. If I won in a lottery, I would (I’d) buy a house. What would you do if a shark attacked you? Use it for hypothetical situations.

23 “Would you have told me the truth if you had known it?” “Yes, of course. If I had known it, I would have told you everything but I didn't know about it.”

24 1)Find the examples of the third conditional. Which tense do we use after IF? What do we use in the 2nd part of the sentence? 2)Can this situation ever happen?

25 3 rd CONDITIONAL If + past perfect, would + have + PP Ex. If I had known it, I wouldn't have come. Would you have gone there if you hadn't been sick? Use it for hypothetical situations in the past. The condition wasn't fulfilled and the situation can never happen.

26 UNIT 8

27 PASSIVE VOICE and COUNTABILITY In this chapter you will learn how to transform active voice into passive and how to distinguish between countable and uncountable nouns.

28 Text-messaging was invented by the Finnish company Nokia. They wanted to help Finnish teenagers, who were very shy. They found it easier to text their friends than to phone them. Nowadays it is used in everyday communication. Although penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming, he didn't know how to make it into a medicine. It was first made into a medicine ten years later, by an Australian scientist Howard Florey. Since then it has been used for curing various diseases.

29 Look at the highlighted examples. How do we form passive voice – what auxiliary verb and what form of the verb do we use?

30 PASSIVE VOICE to be + PP Ex. The rooms are cleaned by our staff. The rooms were cleaned by our staff. The rooms are being cleaned now. The rooms have already been cleaned.

31 The rooms are cleaned by our staff. In the passive sentence, the rooms are focused. You can also use the passive voice when you don't know or it isn’t important who does or did the action. Our staff clean the rooms. In the active sentence, the staff is focused.

32 COUNTABILITY Countable nouns can be singular or plural. (Ex. a car -> cars, foot -> feet) you can use them with an indefinite article you use them with How many? Uncountable nouns have only one form, they aren't used in plural. (Ex. water, milk, money, bread) you cannot use them with an indefinite article you use them with How much?

33 Often used uncountable nouns: food : chocolate, bread, water, cheese, meat etc. abstract nouns: behaviour, love, luck etc. !!! information, accommodation, luggage, news, money, experience etc. You can change uncountable nouns into countable nouns by using expressions such as a piece of, a bit of, a bar of, a loaf of, a cup of etc.

34 UNIT 9

35 REPORTED SPEECH In this chapter you will learn how to report what other people said.

36 I asked Jim and Sue if they had been doing anything interesting at the weekend. Jim said that he had been at the party. He told me that he had met a lot of interesting people there. Sue told me that she had been swimming and after that she had gone for a walk with her dog. I asked them then what they were going to do the next weekend. They said that they wanted to go to the mountains for the whole weekend. They said that they were going to ski and they offered me that I could go with them. I told them I would think about it.

37 1.These quotations are reported in the text. Find them. “I was at the party.” “I was swimming.” “We want to go to the mountains.” “We are going to ski.” “You can go with us.” “I will think about it.” 2.Compare the tenses in the quotations and in the reported sentences. How do they change?

38 REPORTED STATEMENT tense change PRESENT SIMPLEPAST SIMPLESHE WORKS -> SHE SAID SHE WORKED PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUSSHE IS WORKING -> SHE SAID SHE WAS WORKING PAST SIMPLEPAST PERFECT SIMPLESHE WORKED -> SHE SAID SHE HAD WORKED PAST CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS SHE WAS WORKING -> SHE SAID SHE HAD BEEN WORKING PRESENT PERFECTPAST PERFECTSHE HAS WORKED -> SHE SAID SHE HAD WORKED WILLWOULDSHE WILL WORK -> SHE SAID SHE WOULD WORK CANCOULDSHE CAN WORK -> SHE SAID SHE COULD WORK

39 pronouns change “I’m tired,” she said. -> She said she was tired. time expressions change today -> that day yesterday -> the day before last month -> the month before next week -> the next week

40 I asked Jim and Sue if they had been doing anything interesting at the weekend. Jim said that he had been at the party. He told me that he had met a lot of interesting people there. Sue told me that she had been swimming and after that she had gone for a walk with her dog. I asked them then what they were going to do the next weekend. They said that they wanted to go to the mountains for the whole weekend. They said that they were going to ski and they offered me that I could go with them. I told them I would think about it.

41 1.Look at the examples of reported questions. Try to write the direct questions. 2.Compare direct and reported questions and choose the correct alternative: The subject comes before / after verb. The tense change is/ isn’t the same as for reported statement. We use that/ if when we report yes/no questions.

42 REPORTED QUESTIONS “Did you go there?” -> She asked him if he had gone there. The word order in a reported question is the same as in the statement – subject before verb. We use if when we report yes/no questions.

43 RELATIVE CLAUSES WHO-people WHICH -animals, things WHOSE-indicating possession WHOM-indicating object WHERE -place

44 defining relative clause is necessary. It´s the man who lives next door. non-defining relative clause isn´t necessary. My sister, who lives in London, is a doctor.

45 You must use the relative pronoun when it is the subject of the sentence. The woman who lives next door is a doctor. You can omit it when it is the object. The woman (who) I wanted to see was away.

46 UNIT 10

47 REVISION

48 TENSE REVISION- present and past TENSE+-? PRESENT SIMPLEhe speakshe doesn’t speakdoes he speak PRESENT CONTINUOUS he is speakinghe isn’t speakingis he speaking PAST SIMPLEhe spokehe didn’t speakdid he speak PAST CONTINUOUS he was speakinghe wasn’t speakingwas he speaking PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE he has spokenhe hasn’t spokenhas he spoken PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS he has been speaking he hasn’t been speaking has he been speaking PAST PERFECT SIMPLE he had spokenhe hadn’t spokenhad he spoken PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS he had been speaking he hadn’t been speaking had he been speaking

49 TENSE REVISION- future EXPRESSING FUTURE +-? FUTURE SIMPLEhe will leavehe won’t leavewill he leave GOING TO (plan)he’s going to leave he isn’t going to leave is he going to leave PRESENT CONTINUOUS (arrangement) he is leavinghe isn’t leavingis he leaving FUTURE CONTINUOUS he will be leaving he won’t be leaving will he be leaving FUTURE PERFECT he will have lefthe won’t have leftwill he have left

50 CONDITIONALS FORMEXAMPLE 1 st If + present, will If it rains at the weekend, I will stay at home. 2 nd If + past, would If I won in a lottery, I would buy a house. 3 rd If + past perfect, would + have + PP If I had known it, I wouldn't have come.

51 PASSIVE VOICE TENSE+? PRESENT SIMPLEit is usedis it used PAST SIMPLEit was usedwas it used PRESENT CONTINUOUS it is being usedis it being used PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE it has been usedhas it been used PAST PERFECT SIMPLEit had been usedhad it been used FUTURE SIMPLEit will be usedwill it be used

52 REPORTED SPEECH PRESENT SIMPLEPAST SIMPLESHE WORKS -> SHE SAID SHE WORKED PRESENT CONTINUOUS PAST CONTINUOUSSHE IS WORKING -> SHE SAID SHE WAS WORKING PAST SIMPLEPAST PERFECT SIMPLESHE WORKED -> SHE SAID SHE HAD WORKED PAST CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS SHE WAS WORKING -> SHE SAID SHE HAD BEEN WORKING PRESENT PERFECTPAST PERFECTSHE HAS WORKED -> SHE SAID SHE HAD WORKED WILLWOULDSHE WILL WORK -> SHE SAID SHE WOULD WORK CANCOULDSHE CAN WORK -> SHE SAID SHE COULD WORK


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