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The Basics! © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.1 Chapter 1: First of Two Parts.

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Presentation on theme: "The Basics! © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.1 Chapter 1: First of Two Parts."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Basics! © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.1 Chapter 1: First of Two Parts

3 When you try to support or prove a claim, you give a what? An argument © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.2

4 The part of an argument you try to support is called the what? The conclusion 3© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

5 The part that does the supporting is? The premise (or premises) 4© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

6 A. One only B. More than one An argument can have how many conclusions? 5© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

7 How many premises can an argument have? A. One only B. More than one 6© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

8 “Carl would like to help out, but he won't be in town. So we'll have to find someone else who owns a truck.” Is this an argument? A.Yes B.No 7© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

9 “Carl would like to help out, but he won't be in town. So we'll have to find someone else who owns a truck.” What’s the conclusion? A.First sentence B.Second sentence 8© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

10 “The Directory of Intentional Communities lists more than two hundred groups across the country organized around a wide variety of purposes, including environmentally aware living.” Argument? A.Yes B.No 9© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

11 “Fears that chemicals in teething rings and soft plastic toys may cause cancer may be justified. Last week, the Consumer Product Safety Commission issued a report confirming that low amounts of DEHP, known to cause liver cancer in lab animals, may be absorbed from certain infant products.” Argument? A.Yes B.No 10© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

12 “Can it be established that genetic humanity is sufficient for moral humanity? I think there are very good reasons for not defining the moral community in this way.” Argument? A.Yes B.No 11© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

13 “Was Bush a good president? Heck yeah! He was great! If you don’t know that, your parents must be brother and sister.” Arg? A.Yes B.No 12© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

14 “Computers will never be able to converse intelligently through speech. A simple example proves this is so. The sentences ‘How do you recognize speech?’ and ‘How do you wreck a nice beach?’ have entirely different meanings, but they sound similar enough that a computer could not distinguish the two.” Argument? A.Yes B.No 13© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

15 “Computers will never be able to converse intelligently through speech. A simple example proves this is so. The sentences ‘How do you recognize speech?’ and ‘How do you wreck a nice beach?’ have entirely different meanings, but they sound similar enough that a computer could not distinguish the two.” What is the conclusion of this argument? A.The first sentence B.The second sentence C.The third sentence 14© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

16 “Will hot water freeze faster than cold water? A lot of people have that idea, but they are wrong. Cold water freezes faster than hot water.” What sentence contains the conclusion? A.The first sentence B.The second sentence C.The third sentence 15© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

17 16 ? © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

18 “Will hot water freeze faster that cold water? A lot of people have that idea, but they are wrong. Cold water freezes faster than hot water.” Ha! It isn’t an argument! 17© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

19 “Who do I think will win American Idol next time? Not Fred Thompson.” What sentence contains the conclusion? A.The second sentence B.The third sentence C.This isn’t an argument. 18© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

20 "Some theorists believe it is appropriate to prevent people who enter politics from using their office to make financial gains. Others feel it may be shortsighted to create situations that violate the essence of political representation. Neither point of view is correct." What sentence contains the conclusion? A.The first sentence B.The second sentence C.The third sentence D.This isn’t an argument. 19© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

21 "The victims' blood was on the glove they found behind Simpson's house. That means Simpson committed the murders.” Which of these statements implies that the PREMISE is false? 1.“Maybe someone planted the glove behind his house.” 2.“So what? They didn’t link the glove to Simpson.” 3.“It was the same blood type, but it wasn’t their blood.” 20© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

22 “The lawn was reseeded this fall. Therefore, we won’t track mud into the house in the spring.” Which of these statements implies that the PREMISE is false? a.Maybe the new seed won’t germinate. b.Maybe the seed will germinate but will die out before spring. c.Both of the above d.None of the above 21© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

23 New Topic. What is an ISSUE?????? 22 Issue: a question that’s been raised © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

24 Can a single person raise an issue? Yes 23© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

25 “Let me tell you why Hank shouldn’t take that math course. First, it's too hard, and he'll probably flunk it. Second, he's going to spend the whole term in a state of frustration. Third, he'll probably get depressed and do poorly in all the rest of his courses.” The issue? A.Whether Hank should take the math course B.Whether Hank would flunk the math course C.Whether Hank will spend the whole term in a state of frustration D.Whether Hank will get depressed and do poorly in all the rest of his courses 24© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

26 “The defeat of the school voucher initiative was a bad thing for the country because now there won't be any incentive for public schools to clean up their act. Furthermore, the defeat perpetuates the private-school- for-the-rich, public-school-for-the-poor syndrome.” What is the issue? 25© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

27 The issue is… A.Whether there is now any incentive for public schools to clean up their act B.Whether the defeat of the school voucher initiative was bad for the country C.Two issues are equally stressed in the passage; whether there is now any incentive for public schools to clean up their acts, AND whether the private- school-for-the-rich, public-school-for-the- poor syndrome will be perpetuated. 26© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

28 “The party image of Choo-Choo State is not exaggerated. Surveys indicate a majority of Choo-Choo State students spend more time ‘socializing’ than preparing for classes.” What is the issue? A.Whether the surveys are accurate B.Whether the surveys show the party image is exaggerated C.Whether the party image is exaggerated 27© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

29 “The party image of Choo-Choo State is not exaggerated. Surveys indicate a majority of Choo-Choo State students say they spend more time ‘socializing’ than preparing for classes.” What is the speaker’s POSITION on the issue? A.The party image of Choo-Choo State is exaggerated. B.The party image of Choo-Choo State is not exaggerated. 28© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

30 “The party image of Choo-Choo State is not exaggerated. Surveys indicate a majority of Choo-Choo State students say they spend more time ‘socializing’ than preparing for classes.” Repeat: the ISSUE is… WHETHER the party image of Choo-Choo State is exaggerated. The speaker’s POSITION is… THAT the party image of Choo- Choo State is NOT exaggerated. 29© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

31 “California’s telecom providers are getting a nice break from Schwarzenegger. He’s waiving their fees for installing fiber optic conduit along state-owned rights of way.” What is the issue? A.Whether Calif’s telecom providers are getting a nice break from Schwarzenegger B.Whether Schwarzenegger is waiving the providers’ fees C.Whether Schwarzenegger is doing the right thing by waiving the providers’ fees D.That Calif’s telecom providers are getting a nice break from Schwarzenegger 30© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

32 PENELOPE: I think toilet paper looks better if it unwinds from the back side of the spool. PENNY: Not me. I think it looks better the other way. Is Penny addressing the issue raised by Penelope? A.Yes B.No 31© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

33 Review Argument Premise vs. Conclusion Issue vs. position on an issue Conclusion is a person’s position on an issue 32© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

34 PARKER: Bush’s latest Iraq proposal is going to make matters worse. MOORE: You’re just saying that because you’re a Democrat. Is Moore addressing the issue raised by Parker? A.Yes B.No 33© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

35 R.J: As far as I am concerned, there are too many casinos around already. They should stop building new ones. R.J.’s GIRL FRIEND: Yeah? Well, that’s a strange idea coming from someone who plays the lottery all the time. Is R.J.’s girl friend addressing the issue raised by R.J.? A.Yes B.No 34© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

36 KATIE: Hey, Jennifer. I hate to say this, but if you picked up your stuff once in a while this place would look a lot better. JENNIFER: Hey, you leave things laying around too. You and your stupid boy friend. Is Jennifer addressing the issue raised by Katie? A.Yes B.No 35© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

37 DEZRA: What are you doing riding a motorcycle without a helmet? That’s totally unsafe. DENNIS: C’mon. I’ve seen you driving around without a seat belt. Is DENNIS addressing the issue raised by DEZRA? A.Yes B.No 36© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

38 LEE: Nice thing about Macs…they don’t get viruses. HAM: Of course you would say that. You own one. Is HAM addressing the issue raised by LEE? A.Yes B.No 37 HAM doesn’t address the issue of whether Macs get viruses. Instead, he addresses the issue of LEE’s motivation for praising Macs. © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

39 Want to see the second part? 38© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

40 39 Royalty-Free/CORBIS Bring ‘er on! Yeah! © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


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