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Thursday Testing Schedule

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1 Thursday Testing Schedule
Benchmark Testing Bell Schedule Thursday February 26, 2015 Homeroom 8:35 - 8:45 Students receive schedule for day/announcements Period 1 8:50 - 9:40 Period 2 9: :35 ADA Period 3 10: :30 1st Lunch 11: :00 Period 4 12: :55 11: :25 2nd Lunch 12: :55 Period 5 1:00 - 1:50 Period 6 1:55 - 2:45 Testers rejoin classes*

2 Bell Ringer Instructions
Each day you will have vocabulary words to copy when the bell rings to start class. Copy each word onto a list in your notebook. These should be on loose-leaf paper. LISTEN to the definitions of the words as I go over them in class each day. There will be a QUIZ on the words at the end of each list—Every 25 words You will turn in your Bell Ringer words on the QUIZ day for a grade.

3 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-1
Accelerant--A substance, chemical, or compound that speeds the combustion process Accessory--One who assists in a subordinate capacity in the commission of an offense; one who aids and assists Accomplice--A partner in a given crime; one who knowingly and voluntarily assists another in the commission of an unlawful act Accountability--The state of being culpable, answerable, liable, or responsible

4 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-2
Acquittal--A setting free, absolving, release, or discharge of a defendant from a formal accusation Admissibility of evidence--The ruling by the trial judge as to whether evidence is admissible at trial Admission--A voluntary acknowledgment made by a suspect to the existence of a fact or facts at issue in an investigation. Affidavit--A written statement of facts voluntarily made under oath.

5 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-3
Age of accountability--The minimal age at which one is legally considered to have the mental capacity to be held accountable for his or her actions or inactions in a criminal context Age of consent--The minimal age at which a female may legally consent to sexual intercourse without placing her sexual partner in criminal jeopardy for charges of statutory rape or some like offense. Aiding and abetting--The affirmative assistance of facilitation in the commission of a crime through various forms of encouragement or support

6 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-4
Alibi--An excuse or explanation that the accused was elsewhere or otherwise could not have committed the alleged offense Altercation--A heated dispute, often ending in an assault or a battery Annulment--Invalidation or cancellation of something; the make void or abrogate Appeal--A review of the decision by a lower court by a higher court

7 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-5
Appellant--The person who initiates and carries forward an appeal from a lower court to a higher court Apprehension--The physical seizure, taking, or arresting of a person for violation of a law Arbitrator--A neutral person chosen to settle disputes, outside of the formal justice system Arrest--The deprivation of one’s liberty through legal authority, usually for the purpose of formally charging him or her with a crime

8 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-6
Arson--The intentional and malicious burning or explosion of another’s building, vehicle, or property or the burning or explosion of one’s own for the purpose of insurance fraud Assault--A willful and lawful attempt to deliver a battery or a gesture that places another in the position to reasonably expect to receive a battery Attorney-Client Privilege--A client’s privilege to disallow disclosure of any confidential communications between himself/herself and the attorney of record

9 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-7
Authenticating witness--One who testifies that a written document is what it purports and that it was generated by the party to whom it is attributed Automated Fingerprint Identification System--a relatively recent computer-based fingerprint recording and classification technology Autopsy--The physical examination and surgical dissection of a body in order to determine the cause of death

10 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-1
Bail--The surety or sureties, deposited with the court, procuring the release of a person under pretrial custody, for the purpose of ensuring the defendant’s appearance at trial Bailiff--An officer of the court responsible for the custody of prisoners while in court, the security of the court, as well as the protection of its personnel, property, and processes Battery--The unlawful use of force upon another, that which follows an assault. Battery is a technical word for “injury.”

11 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-2
Bench Trial--A trial before a judge without a jury; a trial where a jury waiver has been granted Benzidine Test--A preliminary chemical field test used on stains to detect the presence of blood Beyond a reasonable doubt--That level of proof required for a conviction for the violation of a criminal statute

12 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-3
Bias--The influence, prejudice, inclination, or predisposition of opinion that does not leave the mind open to fully and fairly consider all facts in a legal controversy Bill of Indictment--A legal document of accusation, often drafted by a prosecutor charging an individual with the commission of a crime (usually a felony).

13 Bell Ringer Vocab Words
Bill of Rights--The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution Blackmail--Extorted payment made to prevent the disclosure of information that could bring about public disgrace

14 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-4
Bond--An obligation imposed by money or other assets, which is deposited with the clerk of the court by the defendant, to secure temporary release from custody Booking--The administrative processing of an arrested person Bounty--An award or premium offered and authorized by the government for the carrying out of a particular act Bribe--Anything offered with the intention of inducing another to do something illegal, morally, or ethically wrong

15 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words 2-5
Brief--A written document prepared by an attorney representing a condensed statement of a larger document of facts and circumstances Burden of proof--The legal duty or responsibility to affirmatively establish a fact at issue Burglary--The unlawful entry of the dwelling of a place of another with the intent of committing a crime Cadaver--A dead human body

16 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-6
Caliber--The size of a firearm projectile, bullet, or shell casing according to its diameter Capacity--A legal qualification, ability, competency, or disability Capital offense--Any offense punishable by death

17 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-7
Career criminal--A person with a history of criminal arrests and convictions for various offenses Cease-and-desist order--A formal order issued by a court forbidding a person, persons, organization, or business to continue a specific act, actions, or course of conduct. Chain of command--An organizational hierarchy through which information and orders flow

18 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-1
Chain of custody--A formal accounting for the security of evidence to be used by the prosecution at trial to ensure the integrity of the evidence Change of venue--The movement of a case from one judicial venue to another, often granted when one of the parties to the case demonstrates that an impartial trial cannot be had in the original district Character evidence--Evidence concerning one’s reputation or moral standing in the community.

19 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-2
Charge--An allegation of a criminal act or acts against an individual, appearing in a formal complaint in misdemeanor cases or information or an indictment in a felony case. Child abuse--Acts or omissions endangering a child’s physical or emotional well-being. Child molester--One, often a pedophile, who in some capacity knowingly assaults a child sexually. Child neglect--The willing failure to adequately provide a minor child with the basic necessities of life, including but not limited to nutrition, clothing, housing, education, and adult supervision.

20 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-3
Chronic offender--One who continues to violate the law long-term. Circumstantial evidence--Evidence, often testimonial, establishing facts from which a jury may make inferences regarding other facts at hand. Citation--A written order executed by a police agency to appear before a judge at a specified date and time

21 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-4
Citizen’s arrest--A warrantless arrest executed by a private citizen for a violation of a serious breach of peace. Civil commitment--A civil detention or confinement of individuals who are disordered, alcoholically or chemically dependent, or insane. Civil death--The act of losing certain privileges such as the right to vote, litigate, hold public office, because of a felony conviction

22 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-5
Civil disobedience--A method of drawing attention to perceived injustice, condition, or law by purposely breaking another law. Civil law--That body of law dealing exclusively with private wrongs between individuals Civil liberties--Those liberties enumerated in the first ten amendments of the US Constitution that expressively states what the government can and cannot do to its people

23 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-6
Civil rights--Those privileges to which a citizen may lawfully request affirmative governmental assistance, such as the right to vote. Clemency--A form of final nonjudicial relief for alleged crimes, generally issued by a governor of a state Coercion--Any compulsion or constraint, whether physical, psychological, direct or indirect, that compels one to act against their will

24 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-7
Competency--Those factors that make a witness legally qualified or disqualified to give testimony or evidence to be admitted or excluded from trial Complaint--A formal written accusation, made under oath and providing facts required to support a criminal charge Condemn--To pass judgment or pronounce guilty

25 Bell Ringer Vocabulary List 3-8
Confession--A statement that is usually recorded in some fashion, being composed of a number of admissions concerning the commission of a crime or crimes Confiscation--The authorized seizure of property without compensation Conflict of interest--A condition arising from decisions and actions by officials when they have a vested interest in the outcome of a controversy and cannot act in a neutral capacity QUIZ TOMORROW!

26 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-1
Constitutional right--A right or a protection granted to the citizens of a commonwealth in the law of the sovereign Continuance--The postponement of a court proceeding for cause Contraband--Any property, material, object, or substance that is unlawful to possess, transport, or manufacture Convict--To find one guilty of a criminal offense

27 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-2
Conviction--The affirmative determination or judgment of a court arising from a jury verdict or the decision of a judge at a bench trial Copycat Syndrome--The committing of an act, often criminal, in imitation of what others have recently done Coroner--An elected county-level criminal justice official charged with the duty of determining the cause of death where suspicious circumstances are present

28 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words list 4-3
Correctional institution--A facility dedicated to administering the sanctions pronounced by the criminal courts following guilty verdicts Counselor--A licensed member of the legal profession who renders legal advice on issues of the law Count--A synonym for “charge” in criminal proceedings Court order--Any command or directive issued under the authority of a judicial officer Open Note test on Friday over Victims/Witnesses If you have handcuffs, please bring on Monday 

29 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-4
Crime--Any act that a reasonable person would or should have known intuitively was a wrong Criminal contempt--The willful vilification of the court in the presence of the court Criminal intent--An element inherent in all crimes that must be proven in order to achieve a criminal conviction Criminalist--A forensic scientist who is employed by a crime laboratory

30 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-5
Cross-examination--The reexamination of a witness by a party other than the original examiner Cruel and unusual punishment--Punishment prohibited by the Eighth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution Curfew--A law, rule, or regulation establishing a time at which all persons of a specified age or class must be out of public places Custody--The legal detention of a person or thing

31 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-6
Deadly weapon--Any weapon, instrument, tool, object, material, or substance used in a manner intended to cause death or great bodily harm to another Death penalty--The imposition or sanction of death upon a criminal conviction for a small band of criminal offenses that meet special circumstances Decedent--The deceased or a dead person

32 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-7
Defendant--One who is civilly sued or is criminally accused Defense--The defendant and his or her attorney collectively Delinquent--A juvenile offender QUIZ TOMORROW!

33 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-1
Demeanor--Conduct or outwardly observable behavior Deportation--The banishment of a person to another nation state, often accompanied by confiscation of properties and the withdrawal of civil rights and liberties Detain--To restrain, delay, or keep in custody Detention--A noninvasive technical arrest where the decision to charge has not formally been made

34 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-2
Direct evidence--Evidence proving the existence of facts at issue deriving from the testimony of a first-hand witness Direct examination--The first examination of a witness by the party who summoned him or her Discretion--A legally recognized prerogative granted to public functionaries to make their own judgments and to act in an official capacity in situations that are ambiguous

35 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-3
Disorderly conduct--Any act against public morals, peace, and safety DNA fingerprinting--A metaphor for the unique identification rendered through biological processes, where comparisons are made upon a probability estimate Docket--The formal register in which the proceedings of the significant acts done in a court of justice are recorded

36 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-4
Doe, John--A fictitious name given to a party in a legal action where his or her name is unknown or where he or she wishes to remain anonymous Domain--The sovereign authority of a state, allowing for public control, usage, or ownership of private property Domestic violence--An assault or battery upon a member of the household including a spouse, parent, child or other blood-related family member, or others living in the house

37 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-5
Double jeopardy--A prohibition found in common-law and the Fifth Amendment against a second prosecution for the same offense Due process clause--Found in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments—individuals are guaranteed fundamental fairness in legal proceedings and the right to prevent government interference Duress--The unlawful influence inducing one to commit an act or crime otherwise not contemplated by the actor

38 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-6
Embezzlement--The unlawful appropriation and or conversion of money or other assets places in one’s care to his or her gain Eminent domain--A legal document granting the state the right to seize private property for public interests with adequate compensation to the owner Entrapment--The act of the government inducing one to violate a criminal statute for the express purpose of arresting him or her

39 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-7
Evidence--Something presented at trial with probative value, providing information to the court regarding matters in controversy, including documents, objects, substances, and testimony Examination--An investigation, search, or interrogation of a subject Exclusionary rule--A court-generated rule holding that evidence obtained in violation of the U.S. Constitution becomes tainted and thus, is inadmissible at trial

40 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-8
Execution--The lawful putting to death of a person thus sentenced Executive order--Any order or regulation issued by the president or administrative agency of government by the president’s authority to interpret or carry out a law Exemplar--A form on nontestimonial evidence taken from or produced by the defendants QUIZ TOMORROW!

41 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-1
Exhibit--Any physical object offered in evidence at a trial Exhumation--The digging up of a corpse Exonerate--To free one from the verdict of guilt Extortion--the exacting of something of value from another through threats, violence, or the law

42 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-2
Extradition--The process of formally surrendering a person wanted on criminal charges by one nation to another Eyewitness--One offering direct testimony concerning something that he or she has observed first-hand. Felony--A crime of greater gravity than a misdemeanor Finding--A decision on a question of fact by a jury, court, or other tribunal

43 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-3
Fine--A sanction imposed by the court on a convicted person, stipulating a specific sum of money to be paid to the court Flight--The act of knowingly and voluntarily escaping or fleeing from justice Forgery--The unlawful act of imitating or counterfeiting documents or personal signatures for the purpose of deception with the intent to knowingly injure or defraud another Fraud--The knowing and unlawful deception of another with the intent to cause him or her to unwillingly surrender property, rights, or money

44 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-4
Fugitive--One who knowingly and intentionally flees from justice Gag order--An order issued by the court to attorneys and witnesses that prevents them from discussing a trial with the media in attempt to assure the defendant a fair trial Grandfather clause--A policy exempting those already vested under a preexisting rule to continue to do what a new rule disallows

45 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-5
Grand jury--A group of citizens judicially impaneled for the purpose of determining whether there is sufficient cause to bind a criminal defendant over for trial Grievance--A formal complaint filed by the proper union representative with an organization regarding an issue covered under a collective bargaining agreement Hate crimes--Acts of violence or intimidation intended to victimize, terrorize, or frighten unpopular groups or individuals as a result of the ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation

46 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-6
Hearing --A proceeding, generally before a trial, where facts, evidence, witnesses and arguments are reviewed or heard by a judge without a jury Hearsay--Out-of-court statements offered with the intent of proving the truth of a matter Hijacking--Taking control of any vehicle and/or the driver and passengers through the use of force or intimidation

47 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-7
Hit and run--The unlawful flight by the operator of a motor vehicle from the scene of an accident resulting in death, injury, or damage to the property of another Homicide--The killing of a human being by another Hostage--One confined or offered as a pledge for the attainment of specified agreements or conditions House arrest--The monitored restriction of a subject to his or her residence before a hearing QUIZ TOMORROW!

48 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-1
Hung jury--A jury that is so irreconcilably divided as to be unable to come to a decision Immunity--Exemption, release, or freedom from legal obligations, duties, and requirements Impoundment--The confiscation or seizure by police or law enforcement authorities of evidence or materials used in the commission of a crime Inadmissibility--The inability to gain admittance into evidence for trial, under recognized rules or evidence and procedure

49 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-2
Inalienable rights--Those rights that are not capable of surrender or transfer without the express consent of the person in possession of such rights Incapacitation--The lack of legal, physical, moral, or mental capacity Incarceration--An imprisonment or confinement in a penal, correctional, or custodial facility Incendiary--A type of device used to set a fire

50 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-3
Incriminate--To blame, accuse, or suggest culpability in crime Indictment--A formal written accusation presented to the court by a grand jury, charging one or more persons with the violation of a statute after examination of facts Informant--One who provides information and is used as a source Injunction--A judicial order directed to a person, requiring that a person do or refrain from doing a particular act or thing

51 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-4
Insanity--A term indicating the necessary degree of mental illness or capacity to negate one’s legal culpability, responsibility, or capacity Intelligence--The acquisition of information relative to crime Intent--The state of mind behind a criminal act Internal Affairs Division (IAD)--A unit within a police agency charged with investigating police wrongdoing

52 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-5
Interrogation--A forceful questioning or examination of a suspect in a criminal investigation Intrinsic evidence--The evidence garnered from a document needing no explanation Involuntary manslaughter--An unlawful homicide committed unintentionally Jeopardy--Exposure danger in legal process, criminal conviction and punishment Judgment--A judicial or other legal decision, decree, order, sanction, or sentence

53 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-6
Jurisdiction--The authority and power to apply specific types of law and the geographic area in which the legal authority and power is applicable Jury--A group of citizens, selected according to law and sworn to hear evidence in a legal trial and to render a decision based upon that evidence

54 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-7
Justification--A term used to demonstrate sufficient reason why a defendant acted in the way he or she did in the cause for which he or she is to answer before the court Juvenile--A person under a statutorily specified age who is potentially under the jurisdiction of a specialized court QUIZ TOMORROW!

55 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-1
Kidnapping--The unlawful, intentional, and felonious taking of a human being by force against his or her will Larceny--A general term for various forms of theft, defined as the unlawful and intentional taking of another’s property, without his or her consent and with the intent to permanently deprive Latent fingerprint-A print that is present yet not visible to the naked eye

56 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-2
Lay witness--A non-expert who must testify to facts based on this or her ability to observe or recall Legal aid--A generic phrase used for a nationwide system providing legal services to those who cannot afford to hire private legal counsel Lineup--A police investigative technique wherein a suspect is placed in a line with others known not to have been involved in the crime

57 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-3
Litigation--A suit or judicial controversy Mandate--A command, order, or directive issued buy a court demanding that the proper officer enforce a judgment, sentence, or decree. Mandatory sentence--A statutory provision requiring that a specified penalty be imposed for specific offenses upon conviction Manslaughter--The unlawful killing of another without malice

58 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-4
Material witness--A witness whose testimony is so important to either the prosecution or defense that he or she may be required to post a bond to ensure appearance in court Medical examiner--A licensed physician, usually a pathologist, holding an appointed position at the county level, who performs autopsies on the bodies of persons that meet violent or unexplained deaths

59 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-5
Mistrial--A trial terminated prior to its finish as a result of a lack of jurisdiction, improper drawing of jurors, or some other fundamental shortcoming Modus operandi--A term that describes the habits, patterns, or operating methods of criminals Morgue--A facility where dead bodies of unknown persons are held for identification purposes and eventual disposal

60 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-6
Motive--The causative factor or combination of factors moving the will and inducing the action Murder--The unlawful and intentional killing of a human being Negligence--Conduct falling short of what would be expected of a prudent, reasonable person under similar circumstances Objection--A formal opposition, made in court and noted in the official record, to a statement or evidence presented

61 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-7
Offender--A term for one implicated in a criminal act Ordinance--A public law or statute Organized crime--An illegal pattern of activity conducted by a consortium of people and/or organizations, acting in concert, to carry out fraud, theft, extortion, or intimidation Welcome Back!!!!.....

62 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-8
Overrule--To supersede or to nullify Pardon--A remission of criminal acts Parole--The discretionary and conditional release from prison, under the authority of a supervising board There will be an online quizstar Test over Vocab. The test will stay open from Friday – Tuesday. You must take it on your own time.

63 IMPORTANT If you did not turn in a project…YOU MUST TAKE A FINAL EXAM.
To take the final, you MUST MUST MUST bring your laptop to class on Wednesday

64 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-1
Pathology--The science dealing with the causes, development, and effects of diseases or death Perjury--The intentional false statement made by one under oath Petition--A formal written document delivered to the court, requesting judicial action in some matter Plaintiff--One who brings an action

65 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-2
Plea--The answer of a defendant to a formal charge in open court Plea bargaining--The process of negotiation between the state and the defendant Polygraph--An electro-mechanical instrument that measures and records numerous involuntary physiological responses to acts of deception Postmortem--After death Law Enf. 1&2 – Answer the Poll Questions on your webpage. LPSCS – Go to the webpage and complete Assignment 1.

66 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-3
Possession--The custody, detention, control, or occupancy of anything that is the subject of property Posthumous--Something occurring, arising, granted, or continuing after death Precedent--A decision by an appellant court serving as the ruling authority on an issue in question Profiler--One who develops an idea of an unknown suspect GO TO THE CLASS WEBPAGE. RESPOND TO THE PROMPT QUESTION (assignment #2.) Your response will automatically be sent to me for grading.

67 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-4
Probable cause--The reasonable grounds to support a belief in a reasonable person of average intelligence that the accused is responsible for a crime in question Probation--The conditional release of one convicted of a crime into the community during a period of supervision under an officer of the law Prosecution--The party who initiates and carries out a criminal or civil proceeding against a defendant You will be taking a vocab quiz on quizstar thismorning. Last weeks grades are on the west whiteboard.

68 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-5
Protective custody--Custody provided for the purpose of ensuring the safety of a person Public defender--A licensed attorney employed by a governmental entity, or one appointed by the court, to defend indigent defendants in criminal matters Racial profiling--The selective enforcement of the criminal law by police and law enforcement officers, based on a profile regarding a specific criminal activity, heavily based upon racial or ethnic characteristics If you do not have a laptop or cell phone, please come before/after school to use computers in Mr. Burn’s room. You can not pass this class without daily access to a computer. You have an online assignment almost every day.

69 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-6
Ransom--The money, consideration, or demand paid for the return of a kidnapped person Rape--Sexual intercourse with another without lawful consent Rebuttal--A refutation of something asserted Recant--To withdraw prior testimony formally and publicly

70 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-7
Relevance--The state or quality of being pertinent to the issue at hand Remand--To return by court order for review or further consideration Retribution--Punishment for wrongs committed.

71 Vocab Bellringer Words
Senior judge - A federal judge who, after attaining the requisite age and length of judicial experience, takes senior status Sentence - The punishment ordered by a court for a defendant convicted of a crime. Sentencing guidelines - A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant.

72 Vocab Bellringer Words
Standard of proof - Degree of proof required. In criminal cases, prosecutors must prove a defendant's guilt "beyond a reasonable doubt." Statute - A law passed by a legislature. Statute of limitations - The time within which a lawsuit must be filed or a criminal prosecution begun.

73 Vocab Bellringer Subpoena - A command, issued under a court's authority, to a witness to appear and give testimony. Subpoena duces tecum - A command to a witness to appear and produce documents.

74 Vocab Bell ringer Words
Supervised release - Term of supervision served after a person is released from prison. Summary judgment - A decision made on the basis of statements and evidence presented for the record without a trial.

75 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Temporary restraining order - Akin to a preliminary injunction, it is a judge's short-term order forbidding certain actions until a full hearing can be conducted. Often referred to as a TRO. Testimony - Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries. Tort - A civil, not criminal, wrong. A negligent or intentional injury against a person or property.

76 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Transcript - A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trial U.S. attorney - A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal government U.S. trustee - An officer of the U.S. Department of Justice responsible for supervising the administration of bankruptcy cases, estates, and trustees VOCAB TEST!!!!!....3/4 Wednesday Spring Break 2015 starts on Friday!!!

77 Vocab Review Please pull up the updated vocab PPT on the class webpage. We will go over each word together. Be prepared to create a sentence when called upon.

78 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Uphold - The appellate court agrees with the lower court decision and allows it to stand Venue - The geographic area in which a court has jurisdiction. A change of venue is a change or transfer of a case from one judicial district to another. Verdict - The decision of a trial jury or a judge that determines the guilt or innocence of a criminal defendant, or that determines the final outcome of a civil case.

79 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Voir dire - Jury selection process of questioning prospective jurors, to ascertain their qualifications and determine any basis for challenge. Warrant - Court authorization, most often for law enforcement officers, to conduct a search or make an arrest. Witness - A person called upon by either side in a lawsuit to give testimony before the court or jury.

80 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Writ - A written court order directing a person to take, or refrain from taking, a certain act. Writ of certiorari - An order issued by the U.S. Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case which it will hear on appeal.

81 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AO) - The federal agency responsible for collecting court statistics, administering the federal courts' budget, and performing many other administrative and programmatic functions, under the direction and supervision of the Judicial Conference of the United States.

82 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Alternate juror - A juror selected in the same manner as a regular juror who hears all the evidence but does not help decide the case unless called on to replace a regular juror. Article III judge - A federal judge who is appointed for life, during "good behavior," under Article III of the Constitution. Article III judges are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate.

83 Vocab. Bell Ringer Words
Case file - A complete collection of every document filed in court in a case. Case law - The law as established in previous court decisions. A synonym for legal precedent. Akin to common law, which springs from tradition and judicial decisions. Caseload - The number of cases handled by a judge or a court

84 Vocab. Bell Ringer Words
Chambers - The offices of a judge and his or her staff. Court Clerk - The court officer who oversees administrative functions, especially managing the flow of cases through the court. Community service - A special condition the court imposes that requires an individual to work – without pay – for a civic or nonprofit organization.

85 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Concurrent sentence - Prison terms for two or more offenses to be served at the same time, rather than one after the other. Example: Two five-year sentences and one three-year sentence, if served concurrently, result in a maximum of five years behind bars. Consecutive sentence - Prison terms for two or more offenses to be served one after the other. Example: Two five-year sentences and one three-year sentence, if served consecutively, result in a maximum of 13 years behind bars.

86 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Contract - An agreement between two or more people that creates an obligation to do or not to do a particular thing. Conviction - A judgment of guilt against a criminal defendant. Counsel - Legal advice; a term also used to refer to the lawyers in a case.

87 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Declaratory judgment - A judge's statement about someone's rights. For example, a plaintiff may seek a declaratory judgment that a particular statute, as written, violates some constitutional right. De facto - Latin, meaning "in fact" or "actually." Something that exists in fact but not as a matter of law.

88 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
De jure - Latin, meaning "in law." Something that exists by operation of law. De novo - Latin, meaning "anew." A trial de novo is a completely new trial. Appellate review de novo implies no deference to the trial judge's ruling.

89 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Docket - A log containing the complete history of each case in the form of brief chronological entries summarizing the court proceedings. En banc - French, meaning "on the bench." All judges of an appellate court sitting together to hear a case, as opposed to the routine disposition by panels of three judges. In the Ninth Circuit, an en banc panel consists of 11 randomly selected judges.

90 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Exclusionary rule - Doctrine that says evidence obtained in violation of a criminal defendant's constitutional or statutory rights is not admissible at trial. Exculpatory evidence - Evidence indicating that a defendant did not commit the crime.

91 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Federal public defender - An attorney employed by the federal courts on a full-time basis to provide legal defense to defendants who are unable to afford counsel. Federal question jurisdiction - Jurisdiction given to federal courts in cases involving the interpretation and application of the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress, and treaties.

92 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Habeas corpus - Latin, meaning "you have the body." A writ of habeas corpus generally is a judicial order forcing law enforcement authorities to produce a prisoner they are holding, and to justify the prisoner's continued confinement. Home confinement - A special condition the court imposes that requires an individual to remain at home.

93 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
In camera -Latin, meaning in a judge's chambers. Often means outside the presence of a jury and the public. In private. Inculpatory evidence - Evidence indicating that a defendant did commit the crime.

94 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Jurisprudence - The study of law and the structure of the legal system. Jury instructions - A judge's directions to the jury before it begins deliberations regarding the factual questions it must answer and the legal rules that it must apply.

95 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Oral argument - An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions. Per curiam - Latin, meaning "for the court." In appellate courts, often refers to an unsigned opinion.

96 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Petit jury (or trial jury)- A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons. Petty offense - A federal misdemeanor punishable by six months or less in prison.

97 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Pretrial conference - A meeting of the judge and lawyers to plan the trial, to discuss which matters should be presented to the jury, to review proposed evidence and witnesses, and to set a trial schedule. Typically, the judge and the parties also discuss the possibility of settlement of the case. Pro se - Representing oneself. Serving as one's own lawyer.

98 Vocab Bell Ringer Words
Pro tem – Temporary Remandn - Send back. Reverse - The act of a court setting aside the decision of a lower court. A reversal is often accompanied by a remand to the lower court for further proceedings

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