2 Bell Ringer Instructions Each day you will have vocabulary words to copy when the bell rings to start class.Copy each word onto a list in your notebook. These should be on loose-leaf paper.LISTEN to the definitions of the words as I go over them in class each day.There will be a QUIZ on the words at the end of each list—Every 25 wordsYou will turn in your Bell Ringer words on the QUIZ day for a grade.
3 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-1 Accelerant--A substance, chemical, or compound that speeds the combustion processAccessory--One who assists in a subordinate capacity in the commission of an offense; one who aids and assistsAccomplice--A partner in a given crime; one who knowingly and voluntarily assists another in the commission of an unlawful actAccountability--The state of being culpable, answerable, liable, or responsible
4 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-2 Acquittal--A setting free, absolving, release, or discharge of a defendant from a formal accusationAdmissibility of evidence--The ruling by the trial judge as to whether evidence is admissible at trialAdmission--A voluntary acknowledgment made by a suspect to the existence of a fact or facts at issue in an investigation.Affidavit--A written statement of facts voluntarily made under oath.
5 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-3 Age of accountability--The minimal age at which one is legally considered to have the mental capacity to be held accountable for his or her actions or inactions in a criminal contextAge of consent--The minimal age at which a female may legally consent to sexual intercourse without placing her sexual partner in criminal jeopardy for charges of statutory rape or some like offense.Aiding and abetting--The affirmative assistance of facilitation in the commission of a crime through various forms of encouragement or support
6 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-4 Alibi--An excuse or explanation that the accused was elsewhere or otherwise could not have committed the alleged offenseAltercation--A heated dispute, often ending in an assault or a batteryAnnulment--Invalidation or cancellation of something; the make void or abrogateAppeal--A review of the decision by a lower court by a higher court
7 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-5 Appellant--The person who initiates and carries forward an appeal from a lower court to a higher courtApprehension--The physical seizure, taking, or arresting of a person for violation of a lawArbitrator--A neutral person chosen to settle disputes, outside of the formal justice systemArrest--The deprivation of one’s liberty through legal authority, usually for the purpose of formally charging him or her with a crime
8 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-6 Arson--The intentional and malicious burning or explosion of another’s building, vehicle, or property or the burning or explosion of one’s own for the purpose of insurance fraudAssault--A willful and lawful attempt to deliver a battery or a gesture that places another in the position to reasonably expect to receive a batteryAttorney-Client Privilege--A client’s privilege to disallow disclosure of any confidential communications between himself/herself and the attorney of record
9 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 1-7 Authenticating witness--One who testifies that a written document is what it purports and that it was generated by the party to whom it is attributedAutomated Fingerprint Identification System--a relatively recent computer-based fingerprint recording and classification technologyAutopsy--The physical examination and surgical dissection of a body in order to determine the cause of death
10 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-1 Bail--The surety or sureties, deposited with the court, procuring the release of a person under pretrial custody, for the purpose of ensuring the defendant’s appearance at trialBailiff--An officer of the court responsible for the custody of prisoners while in court, the security of the court, as well as the protection of its personnel, property, and processesBattery--The unlawful use of force upon another, that which follows an assault. Battery is a technical word for “injury.”
11 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-2 Bench Trial--A trial before a judge without a jury; a trial where a jury waiver has been grantedBenzidine Test--A preliminary chemical field test used on stains to detect the presence of bloodBeyond a reasonable doubt--That level of proof required for a conviction for the violation of a criminal statute
12 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-3 Bias--The influence, prejudice, inclination, or predisposition of opinion that does not leave the mind open to fully and fairly consider all facts in a legal controversyBill of Indictment--A legal document of accusation, often drafted by a prosecutor charging an individual with the commission of a crime (usually a felony).
13 Bell Ringer Vocab Words Bill of Rights--The first ten amendments to the United States ConstitutionBlackmail--Extorted payment made to prevent the disclosure of information that could bring about public disgrace
14 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-4 Bond--An obligation imposed by money or other assets, which is deposited with the clerk of the court by the defendant, to secure temporary release from custodyBooking--The administrative processing of an arrested personBounty--An award or premium offered and authorized by the government for the carrying out of a particular actBribe--Anything offered with the intention of inducing another to do something illegal, morally, or ethically wrong
15 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words 2-5 Brief--A written document prepared by an attorney representing a condensed statement of a larger document of facts and circumstancesBurden of proof--The legal duty or responsibility to affirmatively establish a fact at issueBurglary--The unlawful entry of the dwelling of a place of another with the intent of committing a crimeCadaver--A dead human body
16 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-6 Caliber--The size of a firearm projectile, bullet, or shell casing according to its diameterCapacity--A legal qualification, ability, competency, or disabilityCapital offense--Any offense punishable by death
17 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 2-7 Career criminal--A person with a history of criminal arrests and convictions for various offensesCease-and-desist order--A formal order issued by a court forbidding a person, persons, organization, or business to continue a specific act, actions, or course of conduct.Chain of command--An organizational hierarchy through which information and orders flow
18 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-1 Chain of custody--A formal accounting for the security of evidence to be used by the prosecution at trial to ensure the integrity of the evidenceChange of venue--The movement of a case from one judicial venue to another, often granted when one of the parties to the case demonstrates that an impartial trial cannot be had in the original districtCharacter evidence--Evidence concerning one’s reputation or moral standing in the community.
19 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-2 Charge--An allegation of a criminal act or acts against an individual, appearing in a formal complaint in misdemeanor cases or information or an indictment in a felony case.Child abuse--Acts or omissions endangering a child’s physical or emotional well-being.Child molester--One, often a pedophile, who in some capacity knowingly assaults a child sexually.Child neglect--The willing failure to adequately provide a minor child with the basic necessities of life, including but not limited to nutrition, clothing, housing, education, and adult supervision.
20 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-3 Chronic offender--One who continues to violate the law long-term.Circumstantial evidence--Evidence, often testimonial, establishing facts from which a jury may make inferences regarding other facts at hand.Citation--A written order executed by a police agency to appear before a judge at a specified date and time
21 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-4 Citizen’s arrest--A warrantless arrest executed by a private citizen for a violation of a serious breach of peace.Civil commitment--A civil detention or confinement of individuals who are disordered, alcoholically or chemically dependent, or insane.Civil death--The act of losing certain privileges such as the right to vote, litigate, hold public office, because of a felony conviction
22 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-5 Civil disobedience--A method of drawing attention to perceived injustice, condition, or law by purposely breaking another law.Civil law--That body of law dealing exclusively with private wrongs between individualsCivil liberties--Those liberties enumerated in the first ten amendments of the US Constitution that expressively states what the government can and cannot do to its people
23 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-6 Civil rights--Those privileges to which a citizen may lawfully request affirmative governmental assistance, such as the right to vote.Clemency--A form of final nonjudicial relief for alleged crimes, generally issued by a governor of a stateCoercion--Any compulsion or constraint, whether physical, psychological, direct or indirect, that compels one to act against their will
24 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 3-7 Competency--Those factors that make a witness legally qualified or disqualified to give testimony or evidence to be admitted or excluded from trialComplaint--A formal written accusation, made under oath and providing facts required to support a criminal chargeCondemn--To pass judgment or pronounce guilty
25 Bell Ringer Vocabulary List 3-8 Confession--A statement that is usually recorded in some fashion, being composed of a number of admissions concerning the commission of a crime or crimesConfiscation--The authorized seizure of property without compensationConflict of interest--A condition arising from decisions and actions by officials when they have a vested interest in the outcome of a controversy and cannot act in a neutral capacityQUIZ TOMORROW!
26 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-1 Constitutional right--A right or a protection granted to the citizens of a commonwealth in the law of the sovereignContinuance--The postponement of a court proceeding for causeContraband--Any property, material, object, or substance that is unlawful to possess, transport, or manufactureConvict--To find one guilty of a criminal offense
27 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-2 Conviction--The affirmative determination or judgment of a court arising from a jury verdict or the decision of a judge at a bench trialCopycat Syndrome--The committing of an act, often criminal, in imitation of what others have recently doneCoroner--An elected county-level criminal justice official charged with the duty of determining the cause of death where suspicious circumstances are present
28 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words list 4-3 Correctional institution--A facility dedicated to administering the sanctions pronounced by the criminal courts following guilty verdictsCounselor--A licensed member of the legal profession who renders legal advice on issues of the lawCount--A synonym for “charge” in criminal proceedingsCourt order--Any command or directive issued under the authority of a judicial officerOpen Note test on Friday over Victims/WitnessesIf you have handcuffs, please bring on Monday
29 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-4 Crime--Any act that a reasonable person would or should have known intuitively was a wrongCriminal contempt--The willful vilification of the court in the presence of the courtCriminal intent--An element inherent in all crimes that must be proven in order to achieve a criminal convictionCriminalist--A forensic scientist who is employed by a crime laboratory
30 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-5 Cross-examination--The reexamination of a witness by a party other than the original examinerCruel and unusual punishment--Punishment prohibited by the Eighth Amendment of the U.S. ConstitutionCurfew--A law, rule, or regulation establishing a time at which all persons of a specified age or class must be out of public placesCustody--The legal detention of a person or thing
31 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-6 Deadly weapon--Any weapon, instrument, tool, object, material, or substance used in a manner intended to cause death or great bodily harm to anotherDeath penalty--The imposition or sanction of death upon a criminal conviction for a small band of criminal offenses that meet special circumstancesDecedent--The deceased or a dead person
32 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 4-7 Defendant--One who is civilly sued or is criminally accusedDefense--The defendant and his or her attorney collectivelyDelinquent--A juvenile offenderQUIZ TOMORROW!
33 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-1 Demeanor--Conduct or outwardly observable behaviorDeportation--The banishment of a person to another nation state, often accompanied by confiscation of properties and the withdrawal of civil rights and libertiesDetain--To restrain, delay, or keep in custodyDetention--A noninvasive technical arrest where the decision to charge has not formally been made
34 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-2 Direct evidence--Evidence proving the existence of facts at issue deriving from the testimony of a first-hand witnessDirect examination--The first examination of a witness by the party who summoned him or herDiscretion--A legally recognized prerogative granted to public functionaries to make their own judgments and to act in an official capacity in situations that are ambiguous
35 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-3 Disorderly conduct--Any act against public morals, peace, and safetyDNA fingerprinting--A metaphor for the unique identification rendered through biological processes, where comparisons are made upon a probability estimateDocket--The formal register in which the proceedings of the significant acts done in a court of justice are recorded
36 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-4 Doe, John--A fictitious name given to a party in a legal action where his or her name is unknown or where he or she wishes to remain anonymousDomain--The sovereign authority of a state, allowing for public control, usage, or ownership of private propertyDomestic violence--An assault or battery upon a member of the household including a spouse, parent, child or other blood-related family member, or others living in the house
37 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-5 Double jeopardy--A prohibition found in common-law and the Fifth Amendment against a second prosecution for the same offenseDue process clause--Found in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments—individuals are guaranteed fundamental fairness in legal proceedings and the right to prevent government interferenceDuress--The unlawful influence inducing one to commit an act or crime otherwise not contemplated by the actor
38 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-6 Embezzlement--The unlawful appropriation and or conversion of money or other assets places in one’s care to his or her gainEminent domain--A legal document granting the state the right to seize private property for public interests with adequate compensation to the ownerEntrapment--The act of the government inducing one to violate a criminal statute for the express purpose of arresting him or her
39 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-7 Evidence--Something presented at trial with probative value, providing information to the court regarding matters in controversy, including documents, objects, substances, and testimonyExamination--An investigation, search, or interrogation of a subjectExclusionary rule--A court-generated rule holding that evidence obtained in violation of the U.S. Constitution becomes tainted and thus, is inadmissible at trial
40 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 5-8 Execution--The lawful putting to death of a person thus sentencedExecutive order--Any order or regulation issued by the president or administrative agency of government by the president’s authority to interpret or carry out a lawExemplar--A form on nontestimonial evidence taken from or produced by the defendantsQUIZ TOMORROW!
41 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-1 Exhibit--Any physical object offered in evidence at a trialExhumation--The digging up of a corpseExonerate--To free one from the verdict of guiltExtortion--the exacting of something of value from another through threats, violence, or the law
42 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-2 Extradition--The process of formally surrendering a person wanted on criminal charges by one nation to anotherEyewitness--One offering direct testimony concerning something that he or she has observed first-hand.Felony--A crime of greater gravity than a misdemeanorFinding--A decision on a question of fact by a jury, court, or other tribunal
43 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-3 Fine--A sanction imposed by the court on a convicted person, stipulating a specific sum of money to be paid to the courtFlight--The act of knowingly and voluntarily escaping or fleeing from justiceForgery--The unlawful act of imitating or counterfeiting documents or personal signatures for the purpose of deception with the intent to knowingly injure or defraud anotherFraud--The knowing and unlawful deception of another with the intent to cause him or her to unwillingly surrender property, rights, or money
44 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-4 Fugitive--One who knowingly and intentionally flees from justiceGag order--An order issued by the court to attorneys and witnesses that prevents them from discussing a trial with the media in attempt to assure the defendant a fair trialGrandfather clause--A policy exempting those already vested under a preexisting rule to continue to do what a new rule disallows
45 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-5 Grand jury--A group of citizens judicially impaneled for the purpose of determining whether there is sufficient cause to bind a criminal defendant over for trialGrievance--A formal complaint filed by the proper union representative with an organization regarding an issue covered under a collective bargaining agreementHate crimes--Acts of violence or intimidation intended to victimize, terrorize, or frighten unpopular groups or individuals as a result of the ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation
46 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-6 Hearing --A proceeding, generally before a trial, where facts, evidence, witnesses and arguments are reviewed or heard by a judge without a juryHearsay--Out-of-court statements offered with the intent of proving the truth of a matterHijacking--Taking control of any vehicle and/or the driver and passengers through the use of force or intimidation
47 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 6-7 Hit and run--The unlawful flight by the operator of a motor vehicle from the scene of an accident resulting in death, injury, or damage to the property of anotherHomicide--The killing of a human being by anotherHostage--One confined or offered as a pledge for the attainment of specified agreements or conditionsHouse arrest--The monitored restriction of a subject to his or her residence before a hearingQUIZ TOMORROW!
48 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-1 Hung jury--A jury that is so irreconcilably divided as to be unable to come to a decisionImmunity--Exemption, release, or freedom from legal obligations, duties, and requirementsImpoundment--The confiscation or seizure by police or law enforcement authorities of evidence or materials used in the commission of a crimeInadmissibility--The inability to gain admittance into evidence for trial, under recognized rules or evidence and procedure
49 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-2 Inalienable rights--Those rights that are not capable of surrender or transfer without the express consent of the person in possession of such rightsIncapacitation--The lack of legal, physical, moral, or mental capacityIncarceration--An imprisonment or confinement in a penal, correctional, or custodial facilityIncendiary--A type of device used to set a fire
50 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-3 Incriminate--To blame, accuse, or suggest culpability in crimeIndictment--A formal written accusation presented to the court by a grand jury, charging one or more persons with the violation of a statute after examination of factsInformant--One who provides information and is used as a sourceInjunction--A judicial order directed to a person, requiring that a person do or refrain from doing a particular act or thing
51 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-4 Insanity--A term indicating the necessary degree of mental illness or capacity to negate one’s legal culpability, responsibility, or capacityIntelligence--The acquisition of information relative to crimeIntent--The state of mind behind a criminal actInternal Affairs Division (IAD)--A unit within a police agency charged with investigating police wrongdoing
52 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-5 Interrogation--A forceful questioning or examination of a suspect in a criminal investigationIntrinsic evidence--The evidence garnered from a document needing no explanationInvoluntary manslaughter--An unlawful homicide committed unintentionallyJeopardy--Exposure danger in legal process, criminal conviction and punishmentJudgment--A judicial or other legal decision, decree, order, sanction, or sentence
53 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-6 Jurisdiction--The authority and power to apply specific types of law and the geographic area in which the legal authority and power is applicableJury--A group of citizens, selected according to law and sworn to hear evidence in a legal trial and to render a decision based upon that evidence
54 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 7-7 Justification--A term used to demonstrate sufficient reason why a defendant acted in the way he or she did in the cause for which he or she is to answer before the courtJuvenile--A person under a statutorily specified age who is potentially under the jurisdiction of a specialized courtQUIZ TOMORROW!
55 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-1 Kidnapping--The unlawful, intentional, and felonious taking of a human being by force against his or her willLarceny--A general term for various forms of theft, defined as the unlawful and intentional taking of another’s property, without his or her consent and with the intent to permanently depriveLatent fingerprint-A print that is present yet not visible to the naked eye
56 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-2 Lay witness--A non-expert who must testify to facts based on this or her ability to observe or recallLegal aid--A generic phrase used for a nationwide system providing legal services to those who cannot afford to hire private legal counselLineup--A police investigative technique wherein a suspect is placed in a line with others known not to have been involved in the crime
57 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-3 Litigation--A suit or judicial controversyMandate--A command, order, or directive issued buy a court demanding that the proper officer enforce a judgment, sentence, or decree.Mandatory sentence--A statutory provision requiring that a specified penalty be imposed for specific offenses upon convictionManslaughter--The unlawful killing of another without malice
58 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-4 Material witness--A witness whose testimony is so important to either the prosecution or defense that he or she may be required to post a bond to ensure appearance in courtMedical examiner--A licensed physician, usually a pathologist, holding an appointed position at the county level, who performs autopsies on the bodies of persons that meet violent or unexplained deaths
59 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-5 Mistrial--A trial terminated prior to its finish as a result of a lack of jurisdiction, improper drawing of jurors, or some other fundamental shortcomingModus operandi--A term that describes the habits, patterns, or operating methods of criminalsMorgue--A facility where dead bodies of unknown persons are held for identification purposes and eventual disposal
60 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-6 Motive--The causative factor or combination of factors moving the will and inducing the actionMurder--The unlawful and intentional killing of a human beingNegligence--Conduct falling short of what would be expected of a prudent, reasonable person under similar circumstancesObjection--A formal opposition, made in court and noted in the official record, to a statement or evidence presented
61 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-7 Offender--A term for one implicated in a criminal actOrdinance--A public law or statuteOrganized crime--An illegal pattern of activity conducted by a consortium of people and/or organizations, acting in concert, to carry out fraud, theft, extortion, or intimidationWelcome Back!!!!.....
62 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 8-8 Overrule--To supersede or to nullifyPardon--A remission of criminal actsParole--The discretionary and conditional release from prison, under the authority of a supervising boardThere will be an online quizstar Test over Vocab. The test will stay open from Friday – Tuesday. You must take it on your own time.
63 IMPORTANT If you did not turn in a project…YOU MUST TAKE A FINAL EXAM. To take the final, you MUST MUST MUST bring your laptop to class on Wednesday
64 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-1 Pathology--The science dealing with the causes, development, and effects of diseases or deathPerjury--The intentional false statement made by one under oathPetition--A formal written document delivered to the court, requesting judicial action in some matterPlaintiff--One who brings an action
65 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-2 www.ehhscj.com Plea--The answer of a defendant to a formal charge in open courtPlea bargaining--The process of negotiation between the state and the defendantPolygraph--An electro-mechanical instrument that measures and records numerous involuntary physiological responses to acts of deceptionPostmortem--After deathLaw Enf. 1&2 – Answer the Poll Questions on your webpage.LPSCS – Go to the webpage and complete Assignment 1.
66 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-3 Possession--The custody, detention, control, or occupancy of anything that is the subject of propertyPosthumous--Something occurring, arising, granted, or continuing after deathPrecedent--A decision by an appellant court serving as the ruling authority on an issue in questionProfiler--One who develops an idea of an unknown suspectGO TO THE CLASS WEBPAGE. RESPOND TO THE PROMPT QUESTION (assignment #2.) Your response will automatically be sent to me for grading.
67 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-4 Probable cause--The reasonable grounds to support a belief in a reasonable person of average intelligence that the accused is responsible for a crime in questionProbation--The conditional release of one convicted of a crime into the community during a period of supervision under an officer of the lawProsecution--The party who initiates and carries out a criminal or civil proceeding against a defendantYou will be taking a vocab quiz on quizstar thismorning.Last weeks grades are on the west whiteboard.
68 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-5 Protective custody--Custody provided for the purpose of ensuring the safety of a personPublic defender--A licensed attorney employed by a governmental entity, or one appointed by the court, to defend indigent defendants in criminal mattersRacial profiling--The selective enforcement of the criminal law by police and law enforcement officers, based on a profile regarding a specific criminal activity, heavily based upon racial or ethnic characteristicsIf you do not have a laptop or cell phone, please come before/after school to use computers in Mr. Burn’s room. You can not pass this class without daily access to a computer. You have an online assignment almost every day.
69 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-6 Ransom--The money, consideration, or demand paid for the return of a kidnapped personRape--Sexual intercourse with another without lawful consentRebuttal--A refutation of something assertedRecant--To withdraw prior testimony formally and publicly
70 Bell Ringer Vocabulary Words List 9-7 Relevance--The state or quality of being pertinent to the issue at handRemand--To return by court order for review or further considerationRetribution--Punishment for wrongs committed.
71 Vocab Bellringer Words Senior judge - A federal judge who, after attaining the requisite age and length of judicial experience, takes senior statusSentence - The punishment ordered by a court for a defendant convicted of a crime.Sentencing guidelines - A set of rules and principles established by the United States Sentencing Commission that trial judges use to determine the sentence for a convicted defendant.
72 Vocab Bellringer Words Standard of proof - Degree of proof required. In criminal cases, prosecutors must prove a defendant's guilt "beyond a reasonable doubt."Statute - A law passed by a legislature.Statute of limitations - The time within which a lawsuit must be filed or a criminal prosecution begun.
73 Vocab BellringerSubpoena - A command, issued under a court's authority, to a witness to appear and give testimony.Subpoena duces tecum - A command to a witness to appear and produce documents.
74 Vocab Bell ringer Words Supervised release - Term of supervision served after a person is released from prison.Summary judgment - A decision made on the basis of statements and evidence presented for the record without a trial.
75 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Temporary restraining order - Akin to a preliminary injunction, it is a judge's short-term order forbidding certain actions until a full hearing can be conducted. Often referred to as a TRO.Testimony - Evidence presented orally by witnesses during trials or before grand juries.Tort - A civil, not criminal, wrong. A negligent or intentional injury against a person or property.
76 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Transcript - A written, word-for-word record of what was said, either in a proceeding such as a trialU.S. attorney - A lawyer appointed by the President in each judicial district to prosecute and defend cases for the federal governmentU.S. trustee - An officer of the U.S. Department of Justice responsible for supervising the administration of bankruptcy cases, estates, and trusteesVOCAB TEST!!!!!....3/4 WednesdaySpring Break 2015 starts on Friday!!!
77 Vocab ReviewPlease pull up the updated vocab PPT on the class webpage.We will go over each word together. Be prepared to create a sentence when called upon.
78 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Uphold - The appellate court agrees with the lower court decision and allows it to standVenue - The geographic area in which a court has jurisdiction. A change of venue is a change or transfer of a case from one judicial district to another.Verdict - The decision of a trial jury or a judge that determines the guilt or innocence of a criminal defendant, or that determines the final outcome of a civil case.
79 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Voir dire - Jury selection process of questioning prospective jurors, to ascertain their qualifications and determine any basis for challenge.Warrant - Court authorization, most often for law enforcement officers, to conduct a search or make an arrest.Witness - A person called upon by either side in a lawsuit to give testimony before the court or jury.
80 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Writ - A written court order directing a person to take, or refrain from taking, a certain act.Writ of certiorari - An order issued by the U.S. Supreme Court directing the lower court to transmit records for a case which it will hear on appeal.
81 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AO) - The federal agency responsible for collecting court statistics, administering the federal courts' budget, and performing many other administrative and programmatic functions, under the direction and supervision of the Judicial Conference of the United States.
82 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Alternate juror - A juror selected in the same manner as a regular juror who hears all the evidence but does not help decide the case unless called on to replace a regular juror.Article III judge - A federal judge who is appointed for life, during "good behavior," under Article III of the Constitution. Article III judges are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
83 Vocab. Bell Ringer Words Case file - A complete collection of every document filed in court in a case.Case law - The law as established in previous court decisions. A synonym for legal precedent. Akin to common law, which springs from tradition and judicial decisions.Caseload - The number of cases handled by a judge or a court
84 Vocab. Bell Ringer Words Chambers - The offices of a judge and his or her staff.Court Clerk - The court officer who oversees administrative functions, especially managing the flow of cases through the court.Community service - A special condition the court imposes that requires an individual to work – without pay – for a civic or nonprofit organization.
85 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Concurrent sentence - Prison terms for two or more offenses to be served at the same time, rather than one after the other. Example: Two five-year sentences and one three-year sentence, if served concurrently, result in a maximum of five years behind bars.Consecutive sentence - Prison terms for two or more offenses to be served one after the other. Example: Two five-year sentences and one three-year sentence, if served consecutively, result in a maximum of 13 years behind bars.
86 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Contract - An agreement between two or more people that creates an obligation to do or not to do a particular thing.Conviction - A judgment of guilt against a criminal defendant.Counsel - Legal advice; a term also used to refer to the lawyers in a case.
87 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Declaratory judgment - A judge's statement about someone's rights. For example, a plaintiff may seek a declaratory judgment that a particular statute, as written, violates some constitutional right.De facto - Latin, meaning "in fact" or "actually." Something that exists in fact but not as a matter of law.
88 Vocab Bell Ringer Words De jure - Latin, meaning "in law." Something that exists by operation of law.De novo - Latin, meaning "anew." A trial de novo is a completely new trial. Appellate review de novo implies no deference to the trial judge's ruling.
89 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Docket - A log containing the complete history of each case in the form of brief chronological entries summarizing the court proceedings.En banc - French, meaning "on the bench." All judges of an appellate court sitting together to hear a case, as opposed to the routine disposition by panels of three judges. In the Ninth Circuit, an en banc panel consists of 11 randomly selected judges.
90 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Exclusionary rule - Doctrine that says evidence obtained in violation of a criminal defendant's constitutional or statutory rights is not admissible at trial.Exculpatory evidence - Evidence indicating that a defendant did not commit the crime.
91 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Federal public defender - An attorney employed by the federal courts on a full-time basis to provide legal defense to defendants who are unable to afford counsel.Federal question jurisdiction - Jurisdiction given to federal courts in cases involving the interpretation and application of the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress, and treaties.
92 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Habeas corpus - Latin, meaning "you have the body." A writ of habeas corpus generally is a judicial order forcing law enforcement authorities to produce a prisoner they are holding, and to justify the prisoner's continued confinement.Home confinement - A special condition the court imposes that requires an individual to remain at home.
93 Vocab Bell Ringer Words In camera -Latin, meaning in a judge's chambers. Often means outside the presence of a jury and the public. In private.Inculpatory evidence - Evidence indicating that a defendant did commit the crime.
94 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Jurisprudence - The study of law and the structure of the legal system.Jury instructions - A judge's directions to the jury before it begins deliberations regarding the factual questions it must answer and the legal rules that it must apply.
95 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Oral argument - An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.Per curiam - Latin, meaning "for the court." In appellate courts, often refers to an unsigned opinion.
96 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Petit jury (or trial jury)- A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented by both sides at trial and determine the facts in dispute. Federal criminal juries consist of 12 persons.Petty offense - A federal misdemeanor punishable by six months or less in prison.
97 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Pretrial conference - A meeting of the judge and lawyers to plan the trial, to discuss which matters should be presented to the jury, to review proposed evidence and witnesses, and to set a trial schedule. Typically, the judge and the parties also discuss the possibility of settlement of the case.Pro se - Representing oneself. Serving as one's own lawyer.
98 Vocab Bell Ringer Words Pro tem – TemporaryRemandn - Send back.Reverse - The act of a court setting aside the decision of a lower court. A reversal is often accompanied by a remand to the lower court for further proceedings