Historical Analysis: Who do you think had the strongest Navy at the start of WW1 – Think geography!
M ilitarism: a nation’s policy of building up their military An arms race developed among European countries Germany and Great Britain competed for control of the seas
A lliances: created to keep peace & ”balance of power” So neither side has an advantage Alliances can cause small conflicts to escalate Two alliances created in Europe: Triple Alliance and Triple Entente
I mperialism: stronger country takes control of a weaker country Europe competes to control Africa and its resources Europe set up spheres of influence in China No one trusts each other and everyone wants more land!!!
N ationalism: deep devotion (or pride) in one’s country/nation All countries thought they were the best or most powerful Balkan Peninsula=“Powder Keg of Europe” European interest & ethnic rivalries
Immediate cause of WWI: Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to A-H throne) was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia by the Black Hand (Serbian Nationalist group) – Wanted a Slavic country Chain-reaction effect: one nation declared war on another, which caused another country to declare war, and so on
Central Powers 1.Germany 2.Austria-Hungary 3.Ottoman Empire Allies 1.Great Britain 2.France 3.Russia 4.Italy (switched sides) 5.Unites States (1917)
Germany did not want to fight a two-front war with France and Russia Schlieffen Plan: attack and defeat France in west, then rush east to fight Russia – Russia lacked a railroad system First Battle of the Marne*** – Allied victory by attacking Germans north of Paris – Built 1 st trenches