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Product and Service Design

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Presentation on theme: "Product and Service Design"— Presentation transcript:

1 Product and Service Design
Chapter 5 Product and Service Design

2 Product Design Specifies materials Determines dimensions & tolerances
Defines appearance Sets performance standards

3 Service Design Specifies what the customer is to experience
physical items sensual benefits psychological benefits

4 An Effective Design Process
Matches product/service characteristics with customer needs Meets customer requirements in simplest, most cost-effective manner Reduces time to market Minimizes revisions

5 Breaking Down Barriers

6 Stages In The Design Process
Idea Generation Product Concept Feasibility Study Performance Specifications Preliminary Design Prototype Final Design Final Design Specifications Process Planning Manufacturing Specifications

7 Design & Manufacturing
The Design Process Product feasible? Idea generation Feasibility study Yes Preliminary design No Final design Process planning Prototype Manufacturing Design & Manufacturing Specifications

8 Idea Generation Suppliers, distributors, salespersons
Trade journals and other published material Warranty claims, customer complaints, failures Customer surveys, focus groups, interviews Field testing, trial users Research and development

9 More Idea Generators Perceptual Maps Benchmarking Reverse engineering
visual comparison of customer perceptions Benchmarking comparing product/service against best-in-class Reverse engineering dismantling competitor’s product to improve your own product

10 Perceptual Map Of Breakfast Cereals
Good taste Cocoa Puffs High nutrition Low nutrition Cheerios Rice Krispies Wheaties Shredded Wheat Bad taste

11 Feasibility Study Market Analysis Economic Analysis
Technical / Strategic Analysis

12 Preliminary Design Create form & functional design Build prototype
Test prototype Revise prototype Retest

13 Form Design (How The Product Looks)

14 Functional Design (How The Product Performs)
Reliability probability product performs intended function for specified length of time Maintainability ease and/or cost or maintaining/repairing product

15 Computing Reliability
Components in series 0.90 0.90 0.90 x 0.90 = 0.81 Components in parallel .90 .95 1 - (1-0.90)(1-0.95) = 0.995

16 Final Design & Process Planning
Produce detailed drawings & specifications Create workable instructions for manufacture Select tooling & equipment Prepare job descriptions Determine operation & assembly order Program automated machines

17 Distribution Of Design Changes
Company 2 Company 1 Number of Design Changes 90% of Total changes complete 21 12 3 Production begins 3 Months

18 Improving The Design Process
1. Design teams 2. Concurrent design 3. Design for manufacture & assembly 4. Design for environment 5. Measure design quality 6. Utilize quality function deployment 7. Design for robustness

19 Design Teams Marketing, manufacturing, engineering
Suppliers, dealers, customers Lawyers, accountants, insurance companies

20 Concurrent Design Customers Design Marketing Engineering Suppliers

21 Concurrent Design Also, simultaneous or concurrent engineering
Simultaneous decision making by design teams Integrates product design & process planning Details of design more decentralized Encourages price-minus not cost-plus pricing Needs careful scheduling - tasks done in parallel

22 General Performance Specifications
Instructions to supplier: “Design a set of brakes that can stop a 2200 pound car from 60 miles per hour in 200 feet ten times in succession without fading. The brakes should fit into a space 6” x 8” x 10” at the end of each axle and be delivered to the assembly plant for $40 a set.” Supplier submits design specifications and prepares a prototype for testing.

23 Role Of Design Engineer
No longer totally responsible for product design Responsible for more than what was traditionally considered “design” Merging of design engineer and manufacturing engineer

24 Design For Manufacture
Design a product for easy & economical production Consider manufacturability early in the design phase Identify easy-to-manufacture product-design characteristics Use easy to fabricate & assemble components Integrate product design with process planning

25 DFM Guidelines 1. Minimize the number of parts
2. Develop a modular design 3. Design parts for multi-use 4. Avoid separate fasteners 5. Eliminate adjustments 6. Design for top-down assembly

26 7. Design for minimum handling
8. Avoid tools 9. Minimize subassemblies 10. Use standard parts when possible 11. Simplify operations 12. Design for efficient and adequate testing 13. Use repeatable & understood processes 14. Analyze failures 15. Rigorously assess value

27 Design Simplification
(a) The original design (b) Revised design (c) Final design Assembly using common fasteners One-piece base & elimination of fasteners Design for push-and-snap assembly

28 More Design Improvements
Standardization uses commonly available parts reduces costs & inventory Modular design combines standardized building blocks/modules into unique products

29 Design For Assembly (DFA)
Procedure for reducing number of parts Evaluate methods for assembly Determine assembly sequence

30 Analyzing Failures Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
a systematic approach for analyzing causes & effects of failures prioritizes failures attempts to eliminate causes Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) study interrelationship between failures

31 Failure Mode & Effects Analysis

32 Fault Tree For Potato Chips
And Or

33 Value Analysis (Engineering)
Ratio of value / cost Assessment of value : 1. Can we do without it? 2. Does it do more than is required? 3. Does it cost more than it is worth? 4. Can something else do a better job 5. Can it be made by less costly method, tools, material? 6. Can it be made cheaper, better or faster by someone else?

34 Design For Environment
Design from recycled material Use materials which can be recycled Design for ease of repair Minimize packaging Minimize material & energy used during manufacture, consumption & disposal

35 Measures Of Design Quality
1. Number of component parts and product options 2. Percentage of standard parts 3. Use of existing manufacturing resources 4. Cost of first production run 5. First six months cost of engineering changes 6. First year cost of field service repair 7. Total product cost 8. Total product sales 9. Sustainable development

36 Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
Translates the “voice of the customer” into technical design requirements Displays requirements in matrix diagrams First matrix called “house of quality” Series of connected houses

37 6. Technical assessment and
House Of Quality 5. Tradeoff matrix 3. Product characteristics Importance 1. Customer requirements 4. Relationship matrix 2. Competitive assessment 6. Technical assessment and target values

38 House Of Quality For Steam Iron

39 Series Of QFD Houses

40 Classical Models of QFD
Matrix What How House of Quality Voice of Customer Tech. Performance Measures Subsystem Design Matrix Piece/Part Characteristics Piece/Part Design Matrix Process Parameters Process Design Matrix Production Operations

41 Management & Planning Tools for QFD
Affinity Diagram (Idea grouping) Tree Diagram (Hierarchical structure) Matrix Diagram (=9, = 3, =1) Priotization Matrix (Weighted)

42 Customer Needs Customer Needs Importance to the Customer
Absolute Importance Relative Importance Ordinal Importance (ranking)

43 The Planning Matrix Current satisfaction performance
Competitive satisfaction performance Goal Improvement ratio = Goal / Current S. P. Sales point (1= no change, 1.2 = medium, 1.5 = strong) Raw weight = Importance x Imp. Ratio x S.P. Normalized raw weight = R.W. /  R.W.

44 Substitute Quality Characteristics (Technical Response)
Performance Measurements Product Functions

45 Impacts, Relationships, & Priorities
Amount of Impact  Strongly linked = 9,  Moderately linked = 3  Possibly linked = 1 Priorities of SQC ( Impacts) Negative Impacts

46 Technical Correlations
 : Strong positive impact  : Moderate positive impact Blank: No impact  : Moderate negative impact  : Strong negative impact  Direction of impact

47 Technical Benchmarks Benchmarking performance measures
Benchmarking functionality Competitive Benchmarks Own Performance Targets

48 Benefits Of QFD Promotes better understanding of customer demands
Promotes better understanding of design interactions Involves manufacturing in the design process Breaks down barriers between functions and departments

49 Focuses the design effort
Fosters teamwork Improves documentation of the design and development process Provides a database for future designs Increases customer satisfaction Reduces the number of engineering changes Brings new designs to the market faster Reduces the cost of design and manufacture

50 Design For Robustness Product can fail due to poor design quality
Products subjected to many conditions Robust design studies controllable factors - under designer’s control uncontrollable factors - from user or environment Designs products for consistent performance

51 Consistency Is Important
Consistent errors are easier to correct than random errors Parts within tolerances may yield assemblies which aren’t Consumers prefer product characteristics near their ideal values

52 Technology In Design CAD - Computer Aided Design
assists in creating and modifying designs CAE - Computer Aided Engineering tests & analyzes designs on computer screen CAD/CAM - Design & Manufacturing automatically converts CAD data into processing instructions for computer controlled equipment

53 Benefits Of CAD Produces better designs faster
Builds database of designs and creates documentation to support them Shortens time to market Reduces time to manufacture Enlarges design possibilities Enhances communication and promotes innovation in design teams

54 Characteristics Of Services
1. Intangible 2. Variable output 3. High customer contact 4. Perishable 5. Service inseparable from delivery 6. Decentralized 7. Consumed more often 8. Easily emulated

55 Service Design Performance Specifications Design Specifications
Delivery Specifications

56 A Well-designed Service System Is
Consistent with firm’s strategic focus User friendly Robust Easy to sustain Effectively linked between front & back office Cost effective Visible to customer



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