Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 5 Product and Service Design Product Design Specifies materials Specifies materials Determines dimensions & tolerances Determines dimensions.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Product and Service Design Product Design Specifies materials Specifies materials Determines dimensions & tolerances Determines dimensions."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Chapter 5 Product and Service Design

3 Product Design Specifies materials Specifies materials Determines dimensions & tolerances Determines dimensions & tolerances Defines appearance Defines appearance Sets performance standards Sets performance standards

4 Service Design Specifies what the customer is to experience –physical items –sensual benefits –psychological benefits

5 An Effective Design Process Matches product/service characteristics with customer needs Matches product/service characteristics with customer needs Meets customer requirements in simplest, most cost-effective manner Meets customer requirements in simplest, most cost-effective manner Reduces time to market Reduces time to market Minimizes revisions Minimizes revisions

6 Breaking Down Barriers

7 Stages In The Design Process Idea Generation Idea Generation –Product Concept Feasibility Study Feasibility Study –Performance Specifications Preliminary Design Preliminary Design –Prototype Final Design Final Design –Final Design Specifications Process Planning Process Planning –Manufacturing Specifications

8 No Idea generation Final design Preliminary design Feasibility study Process planning Product feasible? Yes Prototype Manufacturing Design & Manufacturing Specifications The Design Process

9 Idea Generation S uppliers, distributors, salespersons S uppliers, distributors, salespersons Trade journals and other published material Trade journals and other published material Warranty claims, customer complaints, failures Warranty claims, customer complaints, failures Customer surveys, focus groups, interviews Customer surveys, focus groups, interviews Field testing, trial users Field testing, trial users Research and development Research and development

10 More Idea Generators Perceptual Maps Perceptual Maps –visual comparison of customer perceptions Benchmarking Benchmarking –comparing product/service against best-in- class Reverse engineering Reverse engineering –dismantling competitor’s product to improve your own product

11 Perceptual Map Of Breakfast Cereals Good taste Bad taste High nutrition Low nutrition Cocoa Puffs Rice Krispies Wheaties Cheerios Shredded Wheat

12 Feasibility Study Market Analysis Market Analysis Economic Analysis Economic Analysis Technical / Strategic Analysis Technical / Strategic Analysis

13 Preliminary Design Create form & functional design Create form & functional design Build prototype Build prototype Test prototype Test prototype Revise prototype Revise prototype Retest Retest

14 Form Design (How The Product Looks)

15 Functional Design (How The Product Performs) Reliability Reliability –probability product performs intended function for specified length of time Maintainability Maintainability –ease and/or cost or maintaining/repairing product

16 Computing Reliability 0.90.95.90 0.90 x 0.90 = 0.81 1 - (1-0.90)(1-0.95) = 0.995 Components in series Components in parallel

17 Final Design & Process Planning Produce detailed drawings & specifications Produce detailed drawings & specifications Create workable instructions for manufacture Create workable instructions for manufacture Select tooling & equipment Select tooling & equipment Prepare job descriptions Prepare job descriptions Determine operation & assembly order Determine operation & assembly order Program automated machines Program automated machines

18 Distribution Of Design Changes 211233 Production begins Months Number of Design Changes Company 2 90% of Total changes complete Company 1

19 Improving The Design Process 1. Design teams 2. Concurrent design 3. Design for manufacture & assembly 4. Design for environment 5. Measure design quality 6. Utilize quality function deployment 7. Design for robustness

20 Design Teams Marketing, manufacturing, engineering Marketing, manufacturing, engineering Suppliers, dealers, customers Suppliers, dealers, customers Lawyers, accountants, insurance companies Lawyers, accountants, insurance companies

21 Concurrent Design Customers Marketing Design Engineering SuppliersProduction

22 Concurrent Design Also, simultaneous or concurrent engineering Also, simultaneous or concurrent engineering Simultaneous decision making by design teams Simultaneous decision making by design teams Integrates product design & process planning Integrates product design & process planning Details of design more decentralized Details of design more decentralized Encourages price-minus not cost-plus pricing Encourages price-minus not cost-plus pricing Needs careful scheduling - tasks done in parallel Needs careful scheduling - tasks done in parallel

23 General Performance Specifications Instructions to supplier: Instructions to supplier: – “Design a set of brakes that can stop a 2200 pound car from 60 miles per hour in 200 feet ten times in succession without fading. The brakes should fit into a space 6” x 8” x 10” at the end of each axle and be delivered to the assembly plant for $40 a set.” Supplier submits design specifications and prepares a prototype for testing. Supplier submits design specifications and prepares a prototype for testing.

24 Role Of Design Engineer No longer totally responsible for product design No longer totally responsible for product design Responsible for more than what was traditionally considered “design” Responsible for more than what was traditionally considered “design” Merging of design engineer and manufacturing engineer Merging of design engineer and manufacturing engineer

25 Design For Manufacture Design a product for easy & economical production Design a product for easy & economical production Consider manufacturability early in the design phase Consider manufacturability early in the design phase Identify easy-to-manufacture product-design characteristics Identify easy-to-manufacture product-design characteristics Use easy to fabricate & assemble components Use easy to fabricate & assemble components Integrate product design with process planning Integrate product design with process planning

26 DFM Guidelines 1. Minimize the number of parts 2. Develop a modular design 3. Design parts for multi-use 4. Avoid separate fasteners 5. Eliminate adjustments 6. Design for top-down assembly

27 7. Design for minimum handling 8. Avoid tools 9. Minimize subassemblies 10. Use standard parts when possible 11. Simplify operations 12. Design for efficient and adequate testing 13. Use repeatable & understood processes 14. Analyze failures 15. Rigorously assess value

28 Design Simplification (a) The original design(b) Revised design(c) Final design Design for push-and-snap assembly One-piece base & elimination of fasteners Assembly using common fasteners

29 More Design Improvements Standardization Standardization –uses commonly available parts –reduces costs & inventory Modular design Modular design –combines standardized building blocks/modules into unique products

30 Design For Assembly (DFA) Procedure for reducing number of parts Procedure for reducing number of parts Evaluate methods for assembly Evaluate methods for assembly Determine assembly sequence Determine assembly sequence

31 Analyzing Failures Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) –a systematic approach for analyzing causes & effects of failures –prioritizes failures –attempts to eliminate causes Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) –study interrelationship between failures

32 Failure Mode & Effects Analysis

33 Fault Tree For Potato Chips And Or

34 Value Analysis (Engineering) Ratio of value / cost Ratio of value / cost Assessment of value : Assessment of value : –1. Can we do without it? –2. Does it do more than is required? –3. Does it cost more than it is worth? –4. Can something else do a better job –5. Can it be made by less costly method, tools, material? –6. Can it be made cheaper, better or faster by someone else?

35 Design For Environment Design from recycled material Design from recycled material Use materials which can be recycled Use materials which can be recycled Design for ease of repair Design for ease of repair Minimize packaging Minimize packaging Minimize material & energy used during manufacture, consumption & disposal Minimize material & energy used during manufacture, consumption & disposal

36 Measures Of Design Quality 1. Number of component parts and product options 2. Percentage of standard parts 3. Use of existing manufacturing resources 4. Cost of first production run 5. First six months cost of engineering changes 6. First year cost of field service repair 7. Total product cost 8. Total product sales 9. Sustainable development

37 Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Translates the “voice of the customer” into technical design requirements Translates the “voice of the customer” into technical design requirements Displays requirements in matrix diagrams Displays requirements in matrix diagrams First matrix called “house of quality” First matrix called “house of quality” Series of connected houses Series of connected houses

38 House Of Quality 6. Technical assessment and target values 1. Customer requirements 4. Relationship matrix 3. Product characteristics Importance 2. Competitive assessment 5. Tradeoff matrix

39 House Of Quality For Steam Iron

40 Series Of QFD Houses

41 Classical Models of QFD MatrixWhatHow House of Quality Voice of Customer Tech. Performance Measures Subsystem Design Matrix Tech. Performance Measures Piece/Part Characteristics Piece/Part Design Matrix Piece/Part Characteristics Process Parameters Process Design Matrix Process Parameters Production Operations

42 Management & Planning Tools for QFD Affinity Diagram (Idea grouping) Affinity Diagram (Idea grouping) Tree Diagram (Hierarchical structure) Tree Diagram (Hierarchical structure) Matrix Diagram (  =9,  = 3,  =1) Matrix Diagram (  =9,  = 3,  =1) Priotization Matrix (Weighted) Priotization Matrix (Weighted)

43 Customer Needs Customer Needs Customer Needs Importance to the Customer Importance to the Customer –Absolute Importance –Relative Importance –Ordinal Importance (ranking)

44 The Planning Matrix Current satisfaction performance Current satisfaction performance Competitive satisfaction performance Competitive satisfaction performance Goal Goal Improvement ratio = Goal / Current S. P. Improvement ratio = Goal / Current S. P. Sales point (1= no change, 1.2 = medium, 1.5 = strong) Sales point (1= no change, 1.2 = medium, 1.5 = strong) Raw weight = Importance x Imp. Ratio x S.P. Raw weight = Importance x Imp. Ratio x S.P. Normalized raw weight = R.W. /  R.W. Normalized raw weight = R.W. /  R.W.

45 Substitute Quality Characteristics (Technical Response) Performance Measurements Performance Measurements Product Functions Product Functions

46 Impacts, Relationships, & Priorities Amount of Impact Amount of Impact –  Strongly linked = 9, –  Moderately linked = 3 –  Possibly linked = 1 Priorities of SQC (  Impacts) Priorities of SQC (  Impacts) Negative Impacts Negative Impacts

47 Technical Correlations : Strong positive impact : Strong positive impact : Moderate positive impact : Moderate positive impact Blank:No impact Blank:No impact  : Moderate negative impact  : Moderate negative impact  : Strong negative impact  : Strong negative impact  Direction of impact  Direction of impact

48 Technical Benchmarks Benchmarking performance measures Benchmarking performance measures Benchmarking functionality Benchmarking functionality –Competitive Benchmarks –Own Performance –Targets

49 Benefits Of QFD Promotes better understanding of customer demands Promotes better understanding of customer demands Promotes better understanding of design interactions Promotes better understanding of design interactions Involves manufacturing in the design process Involves manufacturing in the design process Breaks down barriers between functions and departments Breaks down barriers between functions and departments

50 Focuses the design effort Focuses the design effort Fosters teamwork Fosters teamwork Improves documentation of the design and development process Improves documentation of the design and development process Provides a database for future designs Provides a database for future designs Increases customer satisfaction Increases customer satisfaction Reduces the number of engineering changes Reduces the number of engineering changes Brings new designs to the market faster Brings new designs to the market faster Reduces the cost of design and manufacture Reduces the cost of design and manufacture

51 Design For Robustness Product can fail due to poor design quality Product can fail due to poor design quality Products subjected to many conditions Products subjected to many conditions Robust design studies Robust design studies –controllable factors - under designer’s control –uncontrollable factors - from user or environment Designs products for consistent performance Designs products for consistent performance

52 Consistency Is Important Consistent errors are easier to correct than random errors Consistent errors are easier to correct than random errors Parts within tolerances may yield assemblies which aren’t Parts within tolerances may yield assemblies which aren’t Consumers prefer product characteristics near their ideal values Consumers prefer product characteristics near their ideal values

53 Technology In Design CAD - Computer Aided Design CAD - Computer Aided Design –assists in creating and modifying designs CAE - Computer Aided Engineering CAE - Computer Aided Engineering –tests & analyzes designs on computer screen CAD/CAM - Design & Manufacturing CAD/CAM - Design & Manufacturing –automatically converts CAD data into processing instructions for computer controlled equipment

54 Benefits Of CAD Produces better designs faster Produces better designs faster Builds database of designs and creates documentation to support them Builds database of designs and creates documentation to support them Shortens time to market Shortens time to market Reduces time to manufacture Reduces time to manufacture Enlarges design possibilities Enlarges design possibilities Enhances communication and promotes innovation in design teams Enhances communication and promotes innovation in design teams

55 Characteristics Of Services 1. Intangible 2. Variable output 3. High customer contact 4. Perishable 5. Service inseparable from delivery 6. Decentralized 7. Consumed more often 8. Easily emulated

56 Service Design Performance Specifications Design Specifications Delivery Specifications

57 A Well-designed Service System Is Consistent with firm’s strategic focus Consistent with firm’s strategic focus User friendly User friendly Robust Robust Easy to sustain Easy to sustain Effectively linked between front & back office Effectively linked between front & back office Cost effective Cost effective Visible to customer Visible to customer

58

59


Download ppt "Chapter 5 Product and Service Design Product Design Specifies materials Specifies materials Determines dimensions & tolerances Determines dimensions."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google