Chemical Safety What’s the big deal? According to the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, between 1980 and 2002 there were 167 incidents nationally involving [reactive] chemicals that resulted in 108 fatalities (30% occurred at storage, handling and consumer sites).
Chemical Safety What’s the big deal? Monday, March 11, 2002, seemed to be a typical spring day at New Berlin West High School in New Berlin, Wisconsin, until something horribly unexpected occurred during a chemistry demonstration in the school auditorium. A chemistry teacher was igniting chloride and methyl alcohol mixtures to show the variety of chloride emissions when a sudden burst of flames shot into the audience of students. Immediately, four female students suffered extensive burns to the face, neck, hands, and arms. (Hetzner, 2002). A similar event occurred in November 1999 at Waverly High School in Delta Township, Michigan, when methanol ignited as the chemistry teacher heated it in a small container. This accident severely burned a student and required her to have skin grafts (Wronski & Durbin, 2001.
Chemical Safety What’s the big deal? Although headline-producing articles capture attention, most safety issues in the classroom, laboratory, and field are not publicized. For instance, in 2001 an Iowa middle school student inadvertently knocked over one of the graduated cylinders while taking volume measurements. No one was injured. Although incidents like this one do not make it into the headlines, such situations have the potential for more serious accidents to occur. Had the glassware shattered and struck an eye or contained a hazardous chemical, the likelihood of an injury would have increased. The same conditions that surround an incident without human injury also surround injury-causing accidents.
Chemical Safety What’s the big deal? Mishaps should not prevent science teachers from conducting "active science" with their students but, instead, make teachers, administrators, students, parents, and public officials more aware of the necessity for safety in science classes. Safe hands-on laboratory and field experiences are integral to student learning (National Research Council [NRC], 1996; National Science Teachers' Association's [NSTA] Task Force on Science Facilities and Equipment, 1993). Sixty percent of middle school and 40% of high school lab and field instruction should be spent conducting investigations (NSTA, 1993). Therefore, the extensive laboratory and field activities recommended for science literacy, and sometimes required by states, must be conducted safely.
Chemical Safety What’s the big deal? Teachers who have had proper safety training have fewer accidents (Ward & West, 1990). When a teacher is trained in safety, such practices are modeled and passed on to the students. Student safety training generally includes teachers describing safety precautions, devoting a class period to safety, or testing students on safety (Krajkovich, 1983; Ward & West, 1990).
The goal of laboratory safety is to keep exposures to hazardous materials or risks from physical hazards to a minimum while making every effort to be informed about the risks and hazards. Achieving a zero-risk environment in the laboratory is an impossible task, however, it is possible to approach an accident free workplace by setting a goal of zero incidents and excuses. Safe practice by laboratory workers requires continuing attention, training, and education. Chemical Safety What’s the big deal?
In recent years the laboratory has become a safer place through advances in laboratory equipment, trends toward minimizing chemical laboratory operations (to reduce costs associated with disposal), computer teaching programs replacing experiments that pose hazards, pollution control techniques, waste minimization, recycling, and the development of nontoxic synthetic alternatives. However, diligence toward recognizing and reducing risks are still the responsibility of each person who works in the laboratory and laboratory management. Chemical Safety What’s the big deal?
In this course, you will learn about the requirements teachers must meet to ensure a safe laboratory environment for their employees, about the Chemical Hygiene Plan and its requirements, general laboratory safety practices, facility and operation safety rules, chemical hazard identification, and other general safety topics that relate to laboratories. Chemical Safety What’s the big deal?
Liability and the Science Teacher It is important that science teachers understand their legal obligation as the responsible person in the laboratory classroom. This is not to motivate through fear of law suits, rather it is to inform and prepare the science teacher for the possible consequences of a lab accident. It is a common misconception that we live in a litigious society. The reality is that there are actually very few negligence lawsuits in the U.S. Most of those deal with automobiles and property.* Negligent action can be destructive to the to the school district’s ability to grow and offer valuable programs. *U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics Report on Civil Action in the 75 Largest Counties in the U.S.
Tort Law is the Law of Liability. Tort is French for wrong. The purpose of tort law if to repair an alleged wrong doing of one person that causes harm to another person. It seeks to provide an appropriate remedy for the wrong doing. When we hear about a law suit it is actually tort litigation that we are mostly discussing. Tort Law Liability and the Science Teacher
Negligence - when someone has suffered as a result of one’s failure to live up to a required duty. All four elements of negligence must be proven in order to successfully prosecute a negligence suit. The 4 elements of negligence are: the defendant owed a duty to the plaintiff the defendant breached that duty the plaintiff suffered a recognizable injury the defendant’s breach caused the injury. Liability and the Science Teacher
The defendant owed a duty to the plaintiff. In other words, the person performing a given action (the defendant) owed a direct responsibility to another (the plaintiff) to perform that action correctly. This is the most complicated element of negligence but generally science teachers hold three distinct duties toward their students and/or parents. We will discuss them later. Liability and the Science Teacher
DUTY The requirement to act in accordance with a legally mandated standard of care. Generally that of a "reasonable person". In tort law, there is a duty of reasonable care imposed on all human activity and the breach of this duty may result in a finding of liability on the part of the actor under negligence law. Liability and the Science Teacher
The Teacher’s Legal Responsibility to Use Due Care The legal requirements of any science teacher are predicated upon three components of the teacher’s duty to their students and use of due care. These are: The Duty of Instruct The Duty to Supervise The Duty to Properly Maintain Equipment and Surroundings We will explain each of these…
The Duty to Instruct FORESEEABILITY – The teacher must instruct students in problems that can be reasonably foreseen. Students should understand the dangers and consequences of their actions in the lab. STANDARD OF CARE – The teacher must understanding and conform to standards established by the profession. See the SOC for NSTASee the SOC for NSTA FORESEEABILITY – The teacher must instruct students in problems that can be reasonably foreseen. Students should understand the dangers and consequences of their actions in the lab. STANDARD OF CARE – The teacher must understanding and conform to standards established by the profession. See the SOC for NSTASee the SOC for NSTA
The Duty to Supervise DEGREE OF SUPERVISION is commensurate with potential danger. The teacher should have a clear understanding of the span of control and how it is limited during certain potentially hazardous processes.
The Duty to Maintain Equipment and Surroundings The teacher must understand the need for and the process for proper maintenance of science equipment, chemical storage, signage, labeling, and general lab design limitations.
Negligence (cont): the defendant breached that duty. This is simple enough, the teacher failed to meet the standard of care. the plaintiff suffered a recognizable injury It must be an actual – physical or financial loss. the defendant’s breach caused the injury. The breach must be directly related to the injury. Liability and the Science Teacher
Teacher Responsibilities Familiarizing yourself with the Osceola District Schools Chemical Hygiene Plan. Becoming and remaining aware of laboratory hazards Following Standard Operating Procedures for handling chemicals and teaching science. Reviewing experiments and lessons with lead teachers or program managers… In addition to the science teacher’s obvious responsibilities associated with learning management, there are responsibilities unique to the science and chemistry laboratory. These responsibilities include:
Teacher Responsibilities Properly using equipment in the lab including PPE, fume hoods, etc.) Labeling, storing & disposing of chemicals properly. Managing chemical inventories Acting as a role model for your students and peers through safe practices and attitude. In addition to the science teacher’s obvious responsibilities associated with learning management, there are responsibilities unique to the science and chemistry laboratory. These responsibilities include:
Case Studies Case #1 : An accident caused by improper heating A student was heating a test tube containing a mixture of chemical liquids. Instead of heating the mixture gently, he heated it strongly without shaking. After heating, he immediately put the test tube under the nose of a girl student standing next to him for her to smell the gas evolved. Both students were not wearing safety spectacles. The hot mixture of chemical liquids suddenly squirted out of the test tube onto the left eye and face of the girl student, who screamed consequently for help. The teacher immediately took the injured student to the preparation room and washed her left eye and face with distilled water continuously until the ambulance personnel summoned by the school arrived. The injured student was taken to the hospital and given medical treatment. Fortunately, the student's injuries were not permanent, but she had suffered a great deal of pain and had to take sick leave for a week.
Case Study #1 What might the teacher have done to prevent this accident? 1. Laboratory Teachers should ensure that students wear safety goggles when doing experiments. 2. Students should be made aware of and supervised to ensure they are following relevant experimental procedures closely when doing experiments (e.g. when only gentle heating is required do not apply strong heating). 3. Teachers should ensure that students are aware of the relevant experimental techniques before doing experiments.
Case Study #2 Case #2 : Ethanol on fire A group of students tried to test the flammability of ethanol by burning it in a watch glass. When the ethanol was about to burn off, one of the students attempted to add more ethanol from a test-tube. In doing so, the ethanol in the test-tube got ignited and the burning ethanol spurted out. The student on the opposite side of the bench had his face and upper arm burned and his hair charred. What might the teacher have done to prevent this accident?
Case Study #2 Ethanol on fire 1. Students must be made aware that flammable liquids should never be added to a container with burning fuel.flammable 2. Students should be warned beforehand of the possible hazards when handling flammable chemicals. Note: Fire in the laboratory is a serious issue. The teacher must be prepared to extinguish the fire if it threatens life. An understanding of the use of fire blankets is essential.
Case Study #3 Case #3 : A fire caused by calcium carbide A laboratory instructor working in the Chemistry laboratory noticed that white fumes and flame emerged from a locked wooden cupboard containing hazardous chemicals. He instinctively tried to put out the fire by using a container of water. After he had poured the water onto the cupboard, more white fumes and flame came out from the cupboard. He then informed the principal and subsequently the fire department was summoned for help. The firemen quickly put out the fire on arrival. The laboratory attendant felt ill after inhaling the fumes and was sent to the hospital. It was later found that the chemical causing the accident was calcium carbide.hazardous chemicals What might the teacher have done to prevent this accident?
Case Study #3 Case #3 : A fire caused by calcium carbide 1. Teachers should conduct regular checks to ensure that the hazardous chemicals are properly stored under appropriate conditions. Guidelines on the storage of hazardous chemicals are provided in the Chemical Hygiene Plan and discussed later in Module 4. 2. Teachers must be aware and warn laboratory users that water should not be used for the purpose of putting out fires caused by water reactive chemicals. 3. Teachers must monitor inventories to avoid the presence of excessive chemicals, especially excessive hazardous chemicals.
ASE (1996) Safeguards in the School Laboratory (10th ed..), Hatfield: ASE. Borrows, P. (1992) ‘Safety in secondary schools’, in Hull, R. (ed.), ASE Secondary Science Teachers’ Handbook, Hemel Hempstead: Simon & Shuster. (This highlights the common accidents in labs most of which involve chemicals in the eye or mouth or on the body; and describes five ‘main danger areas’ such as burns from alcohol fires and alkali metal explosions.) More recently Borrows has written: ‘Safety in science education’, in Ratcliffe, M. (ed.) (1998). DfEE (1996) Safety in Science Education, London: HMSO. Everett, K. and Jenkins, E. (1991) A Safety Handbook for Science Teachers, London: John Murray. The MSDS Hyperglossary at http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ref/index.html References
29 CFR 1910.1450 – OSHA’s Laboratory Standard also known as Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1910, Subpart Z, Section 1450 Action Level – a concentration designated in 29 CFR part 1910 for a specific substance, calculated as an eight hour-time weighted average (TWA), which initiates certain required activities such as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance. Action levels are generally set at one half the PEL but the action level may vary from standard to standard. Acute toxicity – is the ability of a chemical to cause a harmful effect such as damage to a target organ or death after a single exposure or an exposure of short duration. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) – a non-profit organization consisting of a community of professionals advancing worker health and safety through education and the development and dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge. The ACGIH develops and publishes recommended occupational exposure limits each year called TLVs for hundreds of chemicals, physical agents and biological exposure indices. American National Standard Institute (ANSI) – a non-profit organization that administers and coordinates the US voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system. Biological Materials – Biological or biohazardous materials include all infectious organisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, etc.) that can cause disease in humans or cause significant environmental or agricultural impact. Carcinogen - A substance capable of causing cancer. Carcinogens are chronically toxic substances; that is, they cause damage after repeated or long-duration exposure, and their effects may become evident only after a long latency period. Glossary Back to Module
CAS # - Chemical Abstracts Number – a unique number assigned to a chemical by the Chemical Abstracts Service. CFR – Code of Federal Regulations – contains the listings of all US Federal regulations. The CFR, compiled by the Office of the Federal Register, is divided into 50 titles, which cover broad areas subject to Federal regulation. Chemical Hygiene Officer – an employee designated by the employer who is qualified by training or experience to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan. Note that these duties can be in addition to the other job functions the employee performs in the laboratory. Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) – a plan that addresses specific hazards in the laboratory and is required by OSHA’s Laboratory Standard Corrosive – a substance which causes damage to skin, eyes or other parts of the body on contact. Concentrated acids are examples of corrosive substances. Embryotoxin – a substance which retards the growth or affects the development of an unborn child up to and including deformities and death. Mercury compounds, certain heavy metals, aflatoxin, formamide, and radiation are known embryotoxins. Explosive – means a chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature. Face velocity – the average velocity of air drawn through the face of a chemical fume hood and generally calculated as the total volumetric exhaust flow rate for the hood divided by the area of the open face, less an adjustment for hood air leakage. Glossary Back to Module
Irritant – a chemical which may cause reversible inflammation upon contact. Laboratory -Any facility where the "laboratory use of potentially hazardous chemicals" occurs. It is a room where relatively small quantities of potentially hazardous chemicals are used during scientific experimentation. Flammable – means a chemical that falls into one of the following categories: aerosol flammable is an aerosol that when tested by the method in 16 CFR 1500.45, yields a flame protection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening, or a flashback (a flame extending back to the valve) at any degree of valve opening gas flammable is a gas that at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13% by volume or less or a gas that at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a range of flammable mixtures with air wider than 12% by volume, regardless of the lower limit. liquid flammable means any liquid having a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100°C or higher, the total of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture. solid flammable means a solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive as defined in 1910.109(a), that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard. A chemical will be considered a flammable solid if, when tested by the method described in 16 CFR 1500.44, it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than one-tenth of an inch per second along its major axis. Glossary Back to Module
FM 200 – a Halon replacement extinguishing agent which is a chemical blend (heptafluoropropane), stored as a liquid within the agent cylinder similar to that of Halon-type cylinders. It will not corrode sensitive electronic equipment, and contains no particulates or oily residues. In fact, it leaves very little residue and is a quite popular extinguishing agent in use today for the protection of computer rooms. Fume Hood - a laboratory device, enclosed on five sides with a moveable sash or fixed partial enclosure on the remaining side; constructed and maintained to draw air from the laboratory and to prevent or minimize the escape of air contaminants into the laboratory; and allows chemical manipulations to be conducted in the enclosure without insertion of any portion of the employee’s body other than hands and arms. Hazardous chemical – the OSHA definition is a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term "health hazard" includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic systems, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes. Hazard Communication Standard – 29 CFR 1910.1200 - was first enacted on November 25, 1983, by the OSHA. It was later modified with minor changes and technical amendments to take effect March 11, 1994. The purpose of the standard is to ensure that chemical hazards in the workplace are identified and evaluated, and that information concerning these hazards is communicated through MSDSs and labels. This standard is also known as the Right-to-Know Law. Glossary Back to Module
HEPA - high efficiency particulate air filter – is a filter that is manufactured, tested and certified to meet applicable construction and efficiency standards for high-efficiency filters. The filters are manufactured from an ultra-fine glass-fiber medium designed to capture microscopic particles that can easily pass through most other filters by a combination of diffusion, interception, and inertial impaction. Health Hazard - means a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. Inergen - It is an inert gas used for fire extinguishment. It is a mixture of three naturally occurring atmospheric gases: 52% nitrogen, 40% argon, and 8% CO 2. The Inergen gas curtails and extinguishes fire by lowering the oxygen content beneath the level that supports combustion. But it should be noted that due to the CO 2 present in Inergen, the brain continues to receive the same amount of oxygen in an Inergen atmosphere as it would in a normal atmosphere, for reasonable periods of time. Laboratory Scale - Working with substances in which the containers used for reactions, transfers, and other handling of substances are designed to be easily and safely manipulated by one person. Laboratory Standard – a standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) issued by OSHA addressing occupational exposures to hazardous chemicals in the laboratory. All laboratories must comply with this standard. Glossary Back to Module
Laboratory use of Potentially Hazardous Chemicals - the handling or use of such chemicals in which all of the following conditions are met: 1) Use of laboratory scale. 2) Multiple chemical procedures or chemicals used. 3) Protective laboratory practices and equipment are available and in common use to minimize the potential for student/teacher exposure to hazardous chemicals. LC50 or lethal concentration 50 – this is a measure of toxicity which corresponds to the concentration in air that kills 50% of the test population. Note that most estimates of human toxicity are based on animal studies, which may or may not relate to human toxicity. LD50 or lethal dose 50 – this is a measure of toxicity which corresponds to the dose required to kill 50% of the test population. Note that most estimates of human toxicity are based on animal studies, which may or may not relate to human toxicity. The LD50 is usually measured in milligrams of the material per kilogram of body weight of the test animal. To estimate a lethal dose for a human based on animal tests, the LD50 must be multiplied by the weight of an average person. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) – is a well-established document for disseminating health and safety information about chemical products to employees, customers, emergency responders, and the public. Information contained in the MSDS includes potential health, safety, and environmental hazards, safe handling practices, and applicable regulatory information. Glossary Back to Module
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) private non-profit organization, is the leading authoritative source of technical background, data, and consumer advice on fire protection, problems and prevention Organic peroxide - an organic compound that contains the bivalent -OO- structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an organic radical. Peroxides can be very dangerous materials and may be shock and thermal sensitive. They are also strong oxidizers. OSHA – Occupational Safety & Health Administration http://www.osha.gov is part of the US Department of Labor. Its mission is to save lives, prevent injuries and protect the health of America's workers. Particularly hazardous substance – is defined by OSHA in the Laboratory Standard and includes “select carcinogens” (strongly indicative of causing cancer in humans), reproductive toxins, and substances which have a high degree of acute toxicity. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) - which represents the maximum amount or concentration of a substance that a worker may be exposed to under OSHA regulations. There are ceiling values (at no time should this value be exceeded) and 8-hour time weighted averages (an average value of exposure over the course of an 8 hour work shift) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – is all clothing and other work accessories designed to create a barrier against workplace hazards. Examples include safety goggles, respirators, lab coats, etc. Glossary Back to Module
Pyrophoric – a pyrophoric material is one that ignites spontaneously in air and is derived from the Greek word meaning “fire-bearing”. Many of these materials will also react vigorously with water or high humidity and ignite upon contact. Physical Hazard – A hazard exhibited by certain chemicals due to their physical properties. These chemicals fall into the following classes: combustible liquids, compressed gases, explosives, flammable liquids or solids, organic peroxide, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, and unstable (reactive) or water reactive materials. Reproductive toxins – per OSHA any chemical that affects the reproductive chemicals which affect the reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage/mutations and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis). Select carcinogens – per OSHA any substance that meets one of the following criteria: regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen listed under the category, “known to be carcinogens” in the Annual Report on Carcinogens published in the latest edition by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) listed under Group 1 (“carcinogenic to humans”) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC) listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under the category, “reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens” by NTP and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of the following criteria: after inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a significant portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10 mg/m3, after repeated skin application of less than 300 mg/kg of body weight per week, or after oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Glossary Back to Module
Sensitizer – a chemical which may lead to the development of allergic reactions after repeated exposure. Short term exposure limit (STEL) - which is the concentration employees can be exposed to continuously for a short period of time without suffering from irritation, chronic or irreversible tissue damage, or narcosis of sufficient degree to increase the likelihood of accidental injury, impair self-rescue or materially reduce work efficiency. Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) – is a document that describes the operations, analyses, or actions that are commonly accepted methods or the laboratory prescribed procedures for performing certain routine or repetitive tasks. Target Organ - indicate which bodily organs are most likely to be affected by exposure to a substance. Certain chemicals may bio-concentrate in the liver while other target the brain. Threshold Limit Values (TLV) – are airborne concentrations devised by the ACGIH that represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be exposed day after day with no adverse effect. TLVs are advisory exposure guidelines, not legal standards, that are based on evidence from industrial experience, animal studies, or human studies when they exist. There are three different types of TLV's: Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA), Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and Ceiling (TLV-C). Tort Law – is the law of liability and negligence. It involves that plaintiff who allegedly has been wronged and the defendant who is claimed to have perpetrated the injustice. Tort law deals with issues of property and personal injury law. Mass tort is the process of suing a major defendant on behalf of a large number of plaintiffs. Law suits involving drugs such as Vioxx are examples. Glossary Back to Module
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) – is a procedure (Method 1311) performed on a sample within the laboratory to determine whether or not a waste is considered hazardous. A sample is extracted with a buffered acid and the resulting extraction fluid or leachate approximates the fluid that would leach from the sample if it were in a landfill. Toxicity Characteristic (TC) – regulatory limits established for 39 compounds. If a waste analyzed via the TCLP procedure detects any of these compounds above the regulatory limits then the waste is said to exhibit the toxicity characteristic. Water Reactive - these substances are dangerous when wet because they undergo a chemical reaction with water. This reaction may release a gas that is either flammable or presents a toxic health hazard. In addition, the heat generated when water contacts such materials is often enough for the item to spontaneously combust or explode. Glossary Back to Module
Quiz One 1. Teachers who have had proper safety training have: a. More time to work on personal projects b. Fewer accidents c. A greater respect for NFPA standards d. An acquired tendency to break the rules Back to Start Next Question
Quiz One 2. Rather than preventing teachers from conducting active science with the students, accidents should: a. Ensure compliance to NIOSH standards. b. Force teachers to join the NSTA. c. Be considered one of the risk to teaching. d. Increase awareness in the need for safety. Back to Start Next Question
Quiz One 3. The law of liability and negligence is called: a. Tort Law b. Codified Law c. The law of wrong doing d. Plaintiff rights law. Back to Start Next Question
Quiz One 4. Which of the following is one of the elements required to prove negligence? a. The defendant owed a duty to the plaintiff b. The defendant breached their duty. c. The plaintiff suffered a recognizable injury. d. A and b are correct. e. All of the above. Back to Start Next Question
Quiz One 5. Which of the following is one of the duties owed by teachers to their students? a. The duty to instruct. b. The duty to supervise. c. The duty to maintain the newest equipment. d. A and b are correct. e. All of the above. Back to Start Next Question
Quiz One 6. Which of the following is one of the responsibilities of Osceola District School Teachers? a. Familiarization with the Chemical Hygiene Plan. b. Awareness of laboratory hazards. c. Following standard operating procedures. d. A and b are correct. e. All of the above. Back to Start Next Question
Quiz One 7. Achieving a zero-risk environment in the laboratory is: a. An impossible task. b. A realistic and meaningful target goal for schools. c. A practical solution to laboratory accidents. d. The only way to prevent being sued. Back to Start Next Question
Quiz One 8. The most complicated element of negligence is: a. The defendant owed a duty to the plaintiff b. The defendant breached their duty. c. The plaintiff suffered a recognizable injury. d. A and b are correct. e. All of the above. Back to Start Next Question
Quiz One 9. Duty is the requirement to act in accordance with: a. A legally mandated standard of care. b. The procedures provided by the NSTA. c. The requirements of the NFPA. d. Any nationally recognized standards writing organization. Back to Start Next Question
Quiz One 10. The expectation that teachers instruct students in problems that can be reasonably be expected is called. a. Tort prevention b. Standard of care c. Foreseeability d. Duty to Protect Back to Start Finish