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**8.3 Inverse Linear Transformations**

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**Definition one-to-one**

A linear transformation T:V→W is said to be one-to-one if T maps distinct vectors in V into distinct vectors in W .

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**Example 1 A One-to-One Linear Transformation**

Recall from Theorem that if A is an n×n matrix and TA :Rn→Rn is multiplication by A , then TA is one-to-one if and only if A is an invertible matrix.

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**Example 2 A One-to-One Linear Transformation**

Let T: Pn → Pn+1 be the linear transformation T (p) = T(p(x)) = xp(x) Discussed in Example 8 of Section 8.1. If p = p(x) = c0 + c1 x +…+ cn xn and q = q(x) = d0 + d1 x +…+ dn xn are distinct polynomials, then they differ in at least one coefficient. Thus, T(p) = c0 x + c1 x2 +…+ cn xn+1 and T(q) = d0 x + d1 x2 +…+ dn xn+1 Also differ in at least one coefficient. Thus, since it maps distinct polynomials p and q into distinct polynomials T (p) and T (q).

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**Example 3 A Transformation That Is Not One-to-One**

Let D: C1(-∞,∞) → F (-∞,∞) be the differentiation transformation discussed in Example 11 of Section 8.1. This linear transformation is not one-to-one because it maps functions that differ by a constant into the same function. For example, D(x2) = D(xn +1) = 2x

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**Equivalent Statements**

Theorem 8.3.1 If T:V→W is a linear transformation, then the following are equivalent. T is one-to-one The kernel of T contains only zero vector; that is , ker(T) = {0} Nullity (T) = 0

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**Theorem 8.3.2 If V is a finite-dimensional vector space and**

T:V ->V is a linear operator then the following are equivalent. (a)T is one to one (b) ker(T) = {0} (c)nullity(T) = 0 (d)The range of T is V;that is ,R(T) =V

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**Example 5 Let T A:R 4 -> R 4 be multiplication by A=**

Determine whether T A is one to one.

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**Example 5(Cont.) Solution: det(A)=0,since the first two rows of A**

are proportional and consequently A I is not invertible.Thus, T A is not one to one.

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**Inverse Linear Transformations**

If T :V -> W is a linear transformation, denoted by R (T ),is the subspace of W consisting of all images under T of vector in V. If T is one to one,then each vector w in R(T ) is the image of a unique vector v in V.

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**Inverse Linear Transformations**

This uniqueness allows us to define a new function,call the inverse of T. denoted by T –1.which maps w back into v(Fig 8.3.1).

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**Inverse Linear Transformations**

T –1:R (T ) -> V is a linear transformation. Moreover,it follows from the defined of T –1 that T –1(T (v)) = T –1(w) = v (2a) T –1(T (w)) = T –1(v) = w (2b) so that T and T –1,when applied in succession in either the effect of one another.

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**Example 7 Let T :R 3 ->R 3 be the linear operator**

defined by the formula T (x1,x2,x3)=(3x1+x2,-2x1-4x2+3x3,5x1+4 x2-2x3) Solution: [T ]= ,then[T ]-1=

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**Example 7(Cont.) T –1 =[T –1] = =**

Expressing this result in horizontal notation yields T –1(X1,X2,X3)=(4X1-2X2-3X3,-11X1+6X2+9X3,-12X1+7X2+10X3)

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Theorem 8.3.3 If T1:U->V and T2:V->W are one to one linear transformation then: (a)T2 0 T1 is one to one (b) (T2 0 T1)-1 = T1-1 0 T2-1

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