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CHAPTER 5: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions 5.1 Inverse Functions 5.2 Exponential Functions and Graphs 5.3 Logarithmic Functions and Graphs 5.4 Properties of Logarithmic Functions 5.5 Solving Exponential and Logarithmic Equations 5.6 Applications and Models: Growth and Decay; and Compound Interest MAT 171 Precalculus Algebra D r. Claude Moore Cape Fear Community College

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5.1 Inverse Functions · Determine whether a function is one-to-one, and if it is, find a formula for its inverse. · Simplify expressions of the type and

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Inverses When we go from an output of a function back to its input or inputs, we get an inverse relation. When that relation is a function, we have an inverse function. Interchanging the first and second coordinates of each ordered pair in a relation produces the inverse relation. Consider the relation h given as follows: h = {(-8, 5), (4, -2), (-7, 1), (3.8, 6.2)}. The inverse of the relation h is given as follows: {(5, -8), (-2, 4), (1, -7), (6.2, 3.8)}. Inverse Relation Interchanging the first and second coordinates of each ordered pair in a relation produces the inverse relation.

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Example Consider the relation g given by g = {(2, 4), (–1, 3), (-2, 0)}. Graph the relation in blue. Find the inverse and graph it in red. Solution: The relation g is shown in blue. The inverse of the relation is {(4, 2), (3, –1), (0, -2)} and is shown in red. The pairs in the inverse are reflections of the pairs in g across the line y = x.

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Inverse Relation If a relation is defined by an equation, interchanging the variables produces an equation of the inverse relation. This graphing program will show the graph f(x) and trace its reflection about a straight line.

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E xample Find an equation for the inverse of the relation: y = x 2 - 2x. Solution: We interchange x and y and obtain an equation of the inverse: x = y 2 - 2y. Graphs of a relation and its inverse are always reflections of each other across the line y = x.

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Graphs of a Relation and Its Inverse If a relation is given by an equation, then the solutions of the inverse can be found from those of the original equation by interchanging the first and second coordinates of each ordered pair. Thus the graphs of a relation and its inverse are always reflections of each other across the line y = x.

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One-to-One Functions A function f is one-to-one if different inputs have different outputs – that is, if a ≠ b, then f (a) ≠ f (b). Or a function f is one-to-one if when the outputs are the same, the inputs are the same – that is, if f (a) = f (b), then a = b.

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Inverses of Functions If the inverse of a function f is also a function, it is named f -1 and read “f-inverse.” The –1 in f -1 is not an exponent. f -1 does not mean the reciprocal of f and f -1 (x) can not be equal to

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O ne-to-One Functions and Inverses ·If a function f is one-to-one, then its inverse f -1 is a function. ·The domain of a one-to-one function f is the range of the inverse f -1. ·The range of a one-to-one function f is the domain of the inverse f -1. ·A function that is increasing over its domain or is decreasing over its domain is a one-to-one function.

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Horizontal-Line Test If it is possible for a horizontal line to intersect the graph of a function more than once, then the function is not one-to-one and its inverse is not a function. inverse is not a function not a one-to-one function

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Example From the graph shown, determine whether each function is one-to-one and thus has an inverse that is a function. No horizontal line intersects more than once: is one-to-one; inverse is a function. Horizontal lines intersect more than once: not one-to-one; inverse is not a function.

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Example From the graph shown, determine whether each function is one-to-one and thus has an inverse that is a function. No horizontal line intersects more than once: is one-to-one; inverse is a function Horizontal lines intersect more than once: not one-to-one; inverse is not a function

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Obtaining a Formula for an Inverse If a function f is one-to-one, a formula for its inverse can generally be found as follows: 1. Replace f (x) with y. 2. Interchange x and y. 3. Solve for y. 4. Replace y with f -1 (x). IMPORTANT

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Example Determine whether the function f (x) = 2x - 3 is one-to-one, and if it is, find a formula for f -1(x). Solution: The graph is that of a line and passes the horizontal- line test. Thus it is one-to-one and its inverse is a function. 1. Replace f (x) with y: y = 2x Interchange x and y: x = 2y Solve for y: x + 2 = 3y 4. Replace y with f -1 (x):

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Example Graph using the same set of axes. Then compare the two graphs.

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Example (continued) Solution: The solutions of the inverse function can be found from those of the original function by interchanging the first and second coordinates of each ordered pair.

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Example (continued) The graph f -1 is a reflection of the graph f across the line y = x.

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Inverse Functions and Composition If a function f is one-to-one, then f -1 is the unique function such that each of the following holds: for each x in the domain of f, and for each x in the domain of f -1.

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Example Given that f (x) = 5x + 8, use composition of functions to show that Solution:

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Restricting a Domain When the inverse of a function is not a function, the domain of the function can be restricted to allow the inverse to be a function. In such cases, it is convenient to consider “part” of the function by restricting the domain of f (x). Suppose we try to find a formula for the inverse of f (x) = x 2. This is not the equation of a function because an input of 4 would yield two outputs, - 2 and 2.

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Restricting a Domain However, if we restrict the domain of f (x) = x 2 to nonnegative numbers, then its inverse is a function.

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389/4. Find the inverse of the relation: {(-1, 3), (2, 5), (-3, 5), (2, 0)}

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389/8. Find an equation of the inverse relation of y = 3x 2 - 5x + 9.

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389/14. Graph the equation by substituting and plotting points. Then reflect the graph across the line y = x to obtain the graph of its inverse. x = -y + 4

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389/20. Given the function f, prove that f is one-to-one using the definition of a one-to-one function on p f(x) = ∛ x

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389/24. Given the function g, prove that g is not one-to-one using the definition of a one-to-one function on p g(x) = 1 / x 6

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390/__. Using the horizontal-line test, determine whether the function is one-to- one.

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390/40. Graph the function and determine whether the function is one-to-one using the horizontal-line test.

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390/42. Graph the function and determine whether the function is one-to-one using the horizontal-line test.

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390/52. Graph the function and its inverse using a graphing calculator. Use an inverse drawing feature, if available. Find the domain and the range of f and of f -1. f(x) = 3 - x 2, x ≥ 0

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390/68. For the function: f(x) = 4x 2 + 3, x ≥ 0 a) Determine whether it is one-to-one. b) If the function is one-to-one, find a formula for the inverse.

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391/80. The graph represents a one-to-one function f. Sketch the graph of the inverse function f -1 on the same set of axes.

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391/88. For the function f, use composition of functions to show that f -1 is as given.

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391/94. Find the inverse of the given one-to-one function f. Give the domain and the range of f and of f -1, and then graph both f and of f -1 on the same set of axes. f(x) = ∛ (x) - 1

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392/101. Reaction Distance. Suppose you are driving a car when a deer suddenly darts across the road in front of you. During the time it takes you to step on the brake, the car travels a distance D, in feet, where D is a function of the speed r, in miles per hour, that the car is traveling when you see the deer. That reaction distance D is a linear function given by

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