2The Earliest Americans Climate changes allowed people to migrate to the AmericasPaleo-Indians crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to present-day Alaska during the last ice age between 38,000 and 10,000 BCE.Land bridge – Land that connects two regionsThis movement of peoples from one region to another is called migration.Paleo-Indians and their descendants moved into present-day Canada, the United States, Mexico, and South America.
6Climate and GeographyEarly peoples in the Americas were hunter-gatherers, who hunted animals and gathered wild plants.The warming climate created new geographical environments: climates, landscapes that surround living things.Different environments influenced the development of Native American societies and people formed diverse cultures, societies and civilizations
7If you were to move to another area in the country, where would you move and why?
8Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican and South American Societies Before the arrival of Europeans, many Native American societies built great civilizations throughout North and South America.These societies had many achievements in Math, writing, astronomy, architecture and farming.They were able to adapt and modify their environments that could support hundreds of thousands of people
9Mesoamerican Societies Olmec BCE and 500BCEEarliest Mesoamerican civilizationLocated in the river valleys near the Gulf of MexicoSmall civilization that had organization, religion, early hieroglyphic writings and a calendarThey cultivated crops (maize) using the slash and burn methodThey traded with other civilizations - their artwork and ideas have been found throughout the area
10MayansFlourished from the Yucatan in southern Mexico through much of Central AmericaSlash and burn - Mayan farmers cleared dense rain forests and built raised fields that caught and held rainwater.Mayans grew beans, maize, squash, fruit trees, cotton and flowers.Religion - polytheistic: priests performed sacrifices and ceremonies for good harvests and success in war
11Mayans Advances in Learning Carvings which showed daily life Hieroglyphic writing form (written on bark)Developed a 365 day calendar and 260 day ritual calendarMath - concept of zeroAstronomyBuilt Pyramids
12AztecsAztecs: 1200 CE CETenochtitlan was capital of the empire (present day Mexico City)City was built on an island in the middle of the Lake Texcoco
13AztecsAs population grew, Aztecs found new ways to create more farmlandChinampas – Artificial (man-Made) floating gardensGrew corn, beans and squashCreated canals for transportation and causeways to link the island capital to the mainland
14Aztecs Waged war to expand the empire and take prisoners for sacrifice Polytheistic - honored the gods of the sun and war.Used human sacrifice by ripping out their hearts to please the gods and ensure that the sun would riseMost victims were prisoners of war
15Inca Inca Empire: 1200 CE - 1535 CE South American Civilization in the Andes Mountains of PeruInca - “Children of the Sun”Cuzco – capital of the Empire
16IncaBuilt 12,000 Miles of roads, tunnels and footbridges – helped with communication, military conquest and linked the empireTerrace Farming - farmed on mountains; grew corn and hundreds of different types of potatoesQuipu - knotted and beaded strings used to keep records.
18Native American Indians Shared religious beliefsReligion linked to nature – Form of AnimismSpiritual forces were everywhere – in sun, moon, rain, wind, plants and animalsReligious leaders were called ShamansShared beliefs about propertyIndividual ownership applied only to the crops one grew.Land was for the use of everyone in the village.Believed they should preserve the land for future generations
21InuitInuit people lived in the Arctic region that is present-day Alaska and CanadaFished and hunted large mammals such as whales, seals and walrusesUsed these animals for food, fuel and clothingBuilt homes made of ice, called Igloos
22Great PlainsNomadic people that migrated seasonally to hunt buffalo from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi RiverThere were over three dozen or more Tribes including the Cheyenne, Crow, Iowa, Pawnee, Sioux and ApacheUsed buffalo skins for shields, clothing, and coverings for teepees, portable cone-shaped sheltersMatrilineal societies that traced ancestry through their mothers, not their fathers
23Eastern Woodlands People Stretched from the Mississippi - Ohio Valley area eastward to the Atlantic Ocean.Southeastern groups, such as the Cherokee and Creek, lived in farming villages.The Algonquian and Iroquois were the main groups in the Northeast.Lived in wooden dwellings large enough for extended familiesVillages were located near good fishing, hunting and gathering sectionsSome used slash and burn agriculture techniques
24Iroquois and Algonquians People that lived to the north and east of the IroquoisAllied themselves with the French to control the fur tradeHaudenosaunee – Term that means “People of the Long house”League of Iroquois – Confederation or alliance that consisted of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida and Mohawk people.The League kept peace among tribes, unified warfare against outsiders and were successful in dealing with the English and French colonistsThe League of nations has been called Americas first form of representative government
26North & Northwest Culture Areas ArcticInuit people in present-day Alaska and CanadaAleut people in AlaskaFished and hunted large mammalsSubarcticDorgrib and Montagnais peoplesHunters followed migrating deer.People lived in temporary shelters made of animal skins.Pacific NorthwestCarved images of totems, ancestor or animal spirits, on tall, wooden polesHeld feasts called potlatchesThrived on abundant game animals, fish, and wild plants
27West and Southwest Southwest California Many food sources, such as acorns, fish, and deerPeople lived in isolated family groups of 50 to 300.More than 100 different languages were spoken.Groups included the Pomo, Hupa, and Yurok peoples.SouthwestAnasazi - Native Americans from modern day Arizona and New MexicoGrew maize, beans, and squashDeveloped irrigation methodsLived in pueblos, aboveground houses made of heavy clay called adoboBuilt kivas, underground ceremonial chambers, for religious ceremoniesBegan to abandon villages around AD 1300
28Compare and Contrast two Native American Indian Groups (Choices: Inuit, Eastern Woodlands, Southwest, Pacific Northwest, Great Plains, California, Arctic, Subarctic)
30West African Kingdoms West African kingdoms Trans-Saharan Trade - All three kingdoms (Ghana, Mali and Songhai) maintained vast trading networks across the Sahara Desert and into the Middle East and North Africa. Salt – used as a preserver of food and also important to prevent dehydrationPlenty of salt in the Sahara and Mediterranean regions, but very little in the savannaSalt was worth its weight in gold
33Mansa Musa and Timbuktu Mansa Musa - ruledHajj to Mecca - Brought Islamic culture to Mali achieved international fame when he went on a lavish pilgrimage to Mecca, bringing over 12,000 slaves and giving away so much gold that the price of gold fell in the world market.Impact of Islam - brought back an architects to build mosques and scholars to teach TimbuktuSharia - Based his system of justice on Islamic lawTimbuktu - center of learning where Islamic scholars traveled around the Muslim world to study and teach at the University of Timbuktu.
34Impact of tradeAs these networks grew and became more prosperous, they expanded to Mediterranean and Europe. Cultural diffusion – Islamic culture was brought from Northern Africa to West Africa and influenced its government, economy and society.Negative effect – The start of the slave trade. Europeans raided the West African Coasts when they needed a cheap labor source for their New World colonies
35Evaluate the Impact that the gold for salt trade had on West Africa Positive ImpactNegative Impact1)2)3)1)2)3)
37European SocietyMiddle Ages – for the last 900 years (500 CE – 1400 CE), European society struggled as it was plagued by warfare, illiteracy, famine and plague.Turning Point - However, certain events change the course of European fortune. An increase in trade and a renewed interest in education improved European society.Renaissance – Around the year 1400 CE, there was a renewed interest in learning led to an outburst of creativity and education.Artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo captured the mind of people’s interest in art and writers like Shakespeare and Machiavelli produced classic literature
39Revival of European Trade Impact of the Crusades - European interest in goods from the east (Asia) was stimulated by returning Crusaders who brought back many things.Revival of Trade – Ships that used to carry soldiers to the Middle East, now carried trade goods. Asian Goods - The resurgence of trade after the Crusades resulted in a demand for Asian goods such as spices, sugar and fabricsSpices – such as cinnamon and pepper were very valuable during the Middle Ages. They were used to preserve and flavor foods. These spices came from India, SE Asia and the Middle East.Italian city states – Merchants from Venice, Florence and Genoa dominated this trade. Goods would arrive in Italian City-States, before following newly established trade routes to the rest of Europe.
40Revival of European Trade Cutting out the “Middle Man” – The fastest trade routes to Asia were established across the Mediterranean and through the Middle East. Ottoman Empire controlled the Eastern Mediterranean TradeEuropeans were forced to seek alternative trade routes
41ExplorationAlternative water routes to Asia eventually led to the discovery of the Americas by the Europeans.Portugal - In the early 1400s, Portuguese explorers sailed along the west coast of Africa in search of an all water route to Asia. Bartholomeu Dias - In 1488 rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa. Vasco Da Gama - In 1498 established an all water route to India.
42Why is this resource valued? Explorers searched the world to find faster and shorter routes to gain spices. Spices such as pepper and cinnamon were worth their weight in gold. What resources are valuable today?Valuable resourceWhy is this resource valued?1)2)
43Exploration Exploration and Overseas Expansion Impact and use of technologyGutenberg’s printing press - able to spread ideas and discoveries quicklyGunpowder - used in guns and cannons to defeat civilizations who lacked this technology
44How are the internet and the Printing Press similar How are the internet and the Printing Press similar? How are they different?
45Exploration Sailing Technology Cartography - new and improved maps to aid in explorationLateen Sail – Triangular shaped sailed used to sail into and against the wind. Used multiple masts for speed and stabilityGrid system based on the coordinates of latitude and longitudeNavigational Devices:Compass - determined geographical directionAstrolabe - determined your latitude by the angle of the sun
46What tools or technology do people use today to help them get from one area to another?
47Exploration Columbus’ Voyage In 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to fund the expedition of Christopher Columbus who wanted to sail west to reach the east (India).Landing in the Bahamas, Columbus felt he had discovered a new route to India and called the inhabitants of the island Indians.Line of Demarcation - imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic Ocean by the pope - all land to the West belonged to Spain, all land to the east belonged to Portugal
48Columbian ExchangeThe Columbian Exchange - The vast trading system that resulted from Columbus’ voyages to the new world; the exchange of goods, ideas, people, animals, plants, and disease from the Old World to the New World and vice versa.
49Some cultures are associated with certain types of foods Some cultures are associated with certain types of foods. For example it is hard to think of Italian food without tomato sauce or French Vanilla Ice Cream. What “Old World” foods that were brought to the New World can you not imagine living without? Please draw 3 examples
50European Imperialism Colony - ruled directly by “mother country” Sphere of influence - region of a country in which an imperialist power held exclusive investment or trading rights.
51European Imperialism Mercantilism (economic imperialism) Mother countries imported raw materials from their colonies and sold expensive, manufactured goods to the colonies. This was a favorable balance of trade for the European countries)Spain and Portugal controlled Latin America and the islands in the CaribbeanEngland, France and the Dutch have colonies in North America.
52Spanish Colonization Spanish Colonization and the Encomienda System Treaty of Tordesilla – Moves the Line of Demarcation west to Give Portugal Brazil in the New WorldThe Encomienda system - The Spanish treated the natives like slaves, forcing them to work the mines and on the farmsThe Spanish colonies had their own hierarchy:Peninsulares - highest class-officials sent from Spain to rule colonies; took jobs in the government and the churchCreoles - American born descendants of Spanish settlers; they were not guaranteed any high ranking jobsMestizos - A mix of European and Indian descent; they held jobs as shop owners, artisans and farmersMulattos - European and African mix (Mostly in Brazil)African Slaves and Native Americans - worked as slaves for colonists on their farms and were forced to become Christian.
54SlaverySlavery, the practice of one person owning another was an ancient practice that went back thousands of yearsWhen the Spanish and Portuguese founded colonies in the Americas in the 1400 and 1500s, they brought this practice with them.By 1600, slavery firmly established in the Americas as Sugar Plantations were being cultivated in Caribbean IslandsWhile a small portion of enslaved Africans went to the southern colonies of North America, most of the slave trade was in South America and the Caribbean.
55Disease and Treatment of Native Americans and the African Slave Trade The population of the Americas decreased rapidly due to these new diseases and the harsh treatment by the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors.To replace dying Native American workers, the Europeans looked used African slaves as a new source of laborEurope looked to use African slaves for several reasons.Racism – Europeans thought of themselves as superior to other racesImmunity - Africans had built up immunity to old world diseases and were familiar with certain farming techniquesNew Lands - Africans did not have friends or family to help them escape in the Americas$$ - Enslaved Africans were a cheap, permanent labor. Their children would also be held in bondageFarming - African had knowledge of farming techniques used in the Old World
56Triangular Slave Trade Triangular Slave Trade – Europe sent manufactured goods to Africa in exchange for slaves. The slaves were sent to the Americas to produce raw materials. The raw materials were sent to Europe to make finished or manufactured goods.
57Middle PassageAfrican Diaspora - It is estimated that as many as million Africans were enslaved and sent to the AmericasThe Middle Passage - The voyage from Africa to the Americas. Called the Middle Passage because it was the middle leg of the Triangular Trade.Men, women and children who were captured, bought or traded into slavery were chained and carried onto slave ships.Several hundred men were crammed into small spaces. It was so crammed that people couldn’t even stand up.Disease and malnutrition were common.Millions died to the poor treatment. It is estimated that percent died in the voyage