2 The Big Picture The Calvin cycle Occurs in the stroma Cyclic: ‘final’ product is the ‘initial’ reactantDetails determined by Melvin Calvin, He received the Nobel Prize in 1961.Can be divided into three phasesCarbon fixationReduction ReactionsRibulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration
4 Phase 1: Carbon Fixation The Calvin cycle is also known as C3 photosynthesis.Most plants are C3 plants.Reaction catalyzed by the enzyme:RIBULOSE BISPHOSPHATE CARBOXYLASE/OXYGENASE(RUBISCO)enzyme works very slowlytypical plant enzymes process 1000 molecules/s.rubisco: 3 molecules/s.rubisco makes up about ½ all protein in a typical leaf MOST ABUNDANT PROTEIN ON EARTH!3CO ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) (5C) 3 unstable 6C intermediates3 6C splits into 6 ____ molecules: PGAINITIAL REACTANT(S) __________________FINAL PRODUCT(S):____________________ATP USED: ________________________NADPH USED: ______________________
5 Phase 2: Reduction Reactions Each of the 6 3C PGA molecules is phosphorylated by an ATP to form ___ molecules of 1,3-BPG.Each 1,3-BPG reduced to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, G3P.6 NADPH 6 NADP+ + 6 Pi1 molecule of G3P exits the cycle as a final product.INITIAL REACTANT(S) __________________FINAL PRODUCT(S):____________________ATP USED: ____________________________NADPH USED: ________________________
6 Phase 3: RuBP Regeneration 5 G3P (___C) 3 RuBP (__ C)Series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.RuBP becomes a ‘reactant’ of the process.INITIAL REACTANT(S) __________________FINAL PRODUCT(S):____________________ATP USED: ____________________________NADPH USED: ________________________
7 Why is the Calvin cycle x 3? 3 CO2 used at first.Three CO2 molecules must be fixed before one 3C molecule of G3P can be removed.Why?: need to maintain pool of intermediate molecules to sustain the cycle.6 ‘turns’ of cycle fix enough to produce the equivalent of 1 glucose.
8 Overall Reaction: For the NETsynthesis of ONE G3P molecule ___ ATP ___ NADPHare used.These molecules come from:______________________.G3P will become:_______________Which will be used in:_______________________
9 The Importance of G3P (1) When is that made, again? Recall that 6 G3P are formed during the reduction reactions of the Calvin cycle (Phase 2)One of the 6 G3P molecules is used to make glucose, starch, or sucrose... used in ____________________.G3P can be stored (as one of the former molecules) or act as a reactant in the Calvin cycle.
10 QuestionsHow many ‘turns’ of the Calvin cycle does it take to produce ONE G3P molecule?How many carbons does one G3P molecule contain?How many carbons does one glucose molecule contain?How many G3P molecules are needed to produce one glucose molecule?How many turns of the Calvin cycle are required to produce one glucose?
11 The Importance of G3P (II) Higher plants generally fix more CO2 into sugars than they require for immediate energy needs.When conditions are optimal, and photosynthesis produces more glucose molecules than needed glucose is polymerized into amylose and amylopectin starch granules within chloroplasts.Which environmental conditions will cause ‘plants’ to store this starch? _______________________________________ ______________________________________Which environmental conditions will cause ‘plants’ to use G3P immediately? ___________________________________________________________.
13 Plants.... Possess many nonphotosynthetic tissues RootsSome stemsSome flowersThese tissues need energy to meet their needs.So how do they function?Plants have a ‘circulatory system’ just like we do.Xylem vessels move water and nutrients from the root to the stoma (via __________________)Phloem moves glucose (made by the ________) around the plant.