2Steps to Designing an Experiment – List all 7 steps Sec 1-2 22.214.171.124.5.6.7.State the Problem or QuestionAnalyze ResultsForm a HypothesisDraw a ConclusionSet Up a Controlled ExperimentPublish Results –NOT considered one of the primary steps!Record Results
3Observation & Inference (This is an activity we will complete in class Statement Observation InferenceObject A is round and orange.XObject A is a basketball.Object C is round and black and white.Object C is larger than Object B.Object B is smooth.Object B is a ping-pong ball.Each object is used in a different sport.
4Shells and SnowflakesHow can we distinguish between living and nonliving things, such as a radiolarian (left) and a snowflake (right)?A radiolarian is a tiny living thing that is covered with a glasslike shell and lives in the ocean. A snowflake is a crystal made of frozen water.
5Chapter One ~ The Science of Biology Sec 1-3 Studying LifeA. Characteristics of Living Things126.96.36.199.Made Up of CellsAble to ReproduceBased on a Genetic CodeGrows and Develops
6Characteristics of Living Things 188.8.131.52.Uses Materials and EnergyResponds to the EnvironmentMaintains Internal BalanceEvolves ` Changes over time
7Levels of Organization ~ List from Largest to Smallest pg. 21 184.108.40.206.BiosphereThe part of Earththat contains allecosystemsBiosphereEcosystemCommunity andits nonlivingsurroundingsHawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, airCommunityPopulations thatlive together in adefined areaHawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grassPopulationGroup oforganisms of onetype that live inthe same areaBison herd
8Levels of Organization continued Section 1-220.127.116.11.OrganismIndividual livingthingBisonTissues, organs,and organ systemsGroups ofCellsNervous tissueBrainNervous systemSmallest functionalunit of lifeCellsNerve cellGroups of atoms;smallest unit ofmost chemicalcompoundsMoleculesWaterDNA
91. Light Microscopes 2. Electron Microscopes C. Microscopes Sec 1-4 ~ Write the definition & function of the following microscopes:1. Light Microscopes2. Electron MicroscopesFunction ~ Produces magnified images by focusing visible light rays.Description ~ The compound light microscope allows light to pass through the specimen and uses two lenses to form an image.Function ~ Produces magnified images by focusing beams of electrons.Description ~ The best electron microscopes can produce images almost 1000 times more detailed than light microscopes.
10D. Laboratory Techniques ~ Describe in detail these techniques. 1. Cell Cultures2. Cell FractionationIn order to obtain enough material to study: biologists place a single cell into a dish containing nutrient solution.The cell grows into a group of cells called a culture and this can be used for testing.Biologists use this technique to study a small part of a cell.First the cells are broken into pieces by a special blender.the broken bits are added to a liquid and placed in centrifuge to spin the cell parts which makes them separate.Then the scientist can remove the specific parts.
11Tools and Procedures Sec 1-4 A. A Common Measurement System ~ 1. Most scientists _____________________________________________.2. The _________ is scaled on _____.use the metric systemwhen collecting data & performing experiments.10Metric system
121 liter = 1000 milliliters 0 degrees C = freezing Tools and Procedures Sec 1-4 B. A Common Measurement System ~ List the common unit of length, mass, volume & temperatureCommon MetricUnits TableLengthMass1 meter = 100 centimeters1 meter = 1000 millimeters1000 meters = 1 kilometer1 kilogram = 1000 grams1 gram = 1000 milligrams1000 kilograms = 1 metric tonVolumeTemperature1 liter = 1000 milliliters0 degrees C = freezing100 degrees C = boiling
15Scientists at Work Sec 1-2 For many years, observations seemed to indicate that some living things could just _________ __________:Recipe for Bees1. Kill a bull during the first thaw of winter2. Build a shed3. Place the dead bull on branches & herbs inside the shed4. Wait for summer. The decaying body of the bull will produce bees.Maggots on meat, Mice on grain, Beetles from dung, etc.suddenly appear
16“How do new living things come into being?” This brought about the question: ________________________________________________________________Scholars of the day gave a name to the idea that life could arise from nonliving matter ~ _______________________“How do new living things come into being?”Spontaneous Generation
17Italian Francesco Redi 1668 pg.8 flies produced maggots. An _________ physician proposed a different hypothesis for the appearance of maggots.Redi observed _________ appeared on meat a few days after ___ were present.Redi proposed that the flies laid _____ too small for people to see.Redi’s hypothesis stated that ___________________________Next he had to test his hypothesis…maggotsflieseggsflies produced maggots.
18Figure 1-8 Redi’s Experiment on Spontaneous Generation Section 1-2Redi had to set up a controlled experiment.OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat.HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots.PROCEDUREUncovered jarsCovered jarsControlled Variables:jars, type of meat,location, temperature,TimeSame in both TrialsSeveraldays passManipulated Variables:gauze covering thatkeeps flies away fromMeat The ChangeResponding Variable:whether maggotsappearMaggots appearNo maggots appearCONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur.
19Redi published his findings and conclusions in a book for other scientists. In the mid 1700’s, another scientist came along and disputed Redi’s findings using Anton van _________________ “lenses”. Pg.11Needham (English) saw a tiny world of“____________” in rainwater, pond water, dust & gravy. Pg. 11Leuwenhook’sanimacules
20conditions gravy teaming with life Needham claimed that spontaneous generation could occur under the right ______________.Needham sealed a bottle of ______ and heated it, claiming to have killed the little animals, but a few days later, the gravy was___________________. He inferred the animals could have only come from the gravy, thus disproving Redi’s claim.conditionsgravyteaming with life
21Spallanzani’s Test of Redi’s Findings pg. 11 Lazzaro __________ (an Italian) read about Redi’s and Needham’s work. Spallanzani thought Needham had NOT heated the gravy long enough and then decided to____________________________.SpallanzaniimproveNeedham’s experiment
22Figure 1-10 Spallanzani’s Experiment Section 1-2One jar was sealed immediately and one jar was left open.Gravy is boiled.Flask isopen.Gravy is teemingwith microorganisms.Concluded that the microorganisms were from the air.Flask issealed.Gravy is free ofmicroorganisms.Gravy is boiled.
23Pasteur’s Work pg. 12 “life force” In the 1800’s, some scientists said that air contained the ___________ needed to produce life and therefore Spallazani’s experiment wasn’t fair.______________(French), in 1864, found a way to settle the dispute.Pasteur designed a _________________ that allowed air, but no microorganisms. After a year, he accidentally broke the neck and the flask, and the microorganisms appeared.“life force”Louis Pasteurflask with a long neck
24Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1-2Broth is boiled.Broth is free ofmicroorganismsfor a year.Curved neckis removed.Broth isteeming with microorganisms.
25Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1-2Broth is boiled.Broth is free ofmicroorganismsfor a year.Curved neckis removed.Broth isteeming with microorganisms.
26Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1-2Broth is boiled.Broth is free ofmicroorganismsfor a year.Curved neckis removed.Broth isteeming with microorganisms.
27Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment Section 1-2Broth is boiled.Broth is free ofmicroorganismsfor a year.Curved neckis removed.Broth isteeming with microorganisms.
28problem solvers living organisms wine silk Pasteur proved that all living things must come from _______________ …which was a major change in the way scientists view living things.During his lifetime, Pasteur saved the _______ industry, the _____ industry, and began to uncover the nature of infectious diseases in humans.Pasteur was one of the most remarkable _________________ of all time.living organismswinesilkproblem solvers
29How a Theory Develops pg. 14 Theory applies to a ___________________ that unifies a broad range of observations.Sometimes more than one theory is needed to explain a particular circumstance.A useful theory may become the _________ view among the majority of scientists, but no theory is considered absolute truth.Scientists analyze, review, and critique theories while adding new evidence along the way. Sometimes scientist resist a new way of looking at nature, but over time new evidence determines which ideas survive and which are replaced.well-tested explanationdominant