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Chapter One Notes.

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1 Chapter One Notes

2 Steps to Designing an Experiment – List all 7 steps Sec 1-2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. State the Problem or Question Analyze Results Form a Hypothesis Draw a Conclusion Set Up a Controlled Experiment Publish Results – NOT considered one of the primary steps! Record Results

3 Observation & Inference (This is an activity we will complete in class
Statement Observation Inference Object A is round and orange. X Object A is a basketball. Object C is round and black and white. Object C is larger than Object B. Object B is smooth. Object B is a ping-pong ball. Each object is used in a different sport.

4 Shells and Snowflakes How can we distinguish between living and nonliving things, such as a radiolarian (left) and a snowflake (right)? A radiolarian is a tiny living thing that is covered with a glasslike shell and lives in the ocean. A snowflake is a crystal made of frozen water.

5 Chapter One ~ The Science of Biology Sec 1-3
Studying Life A. Characteristics of Living Things 1. 2. 3. 4. Made Up of Cells Able to Reproduce Based on a Genetic Code Grows and Develops

6 Characteristics of Living Things
5. 6. 7. 8. Uses Materials and Energy Responds to the Environment Maintains Internal Balance Evolves ` Changes over time

7 Levels of Organization ~ List from Largest to Smallest pg. 21
1. 2. 3. 4. Biosphere The part of Earth that contains all ecosystems Biosphere Ecosystem Community and its nonliving surroundings Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, air Community Populations that live together in a defined area Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass Population Group of organisms of one type that live in the same area Bison herd

8 Levels of Organization continued
Section 1-3 5. 6. 7. 8. Organism Individual living thing Bison Tissues, organs, and organ systems Groups of Cells Nervous tissue Brain Nervous system Smallest functional unit of life Cells Nerve cell Groups of atoms; smallest unit of most chemical compounds Molecules Water DNA

9 1. Light Microscopes 2. Electron Microscopes
C. Microscopes Sec 1-4 ~ Write the definition & function of the following microscopes: 1. Light Microscopes 2. Electron Microscopes Function ~ Produces magnified images by focusing visible light rays. Description ~ The compound light microscope allows light to pass through the specimen and uses two lenses to form an image. Function ~ Produces magnified images by focusing beams of electrons. Description ~ The best electron microscopes can produce images almost 1000 times more detailed than light microscopes.

10 D. Laboratory Techniques ~ Describe in detail these techniques.
1. Cell Cultures 2. Cell Fractionation In order to obtain enough material to study: biologists place a single cell into a dish containing nutrient solution. The cell grows into a group of cells called a culture and this can be used for testing. Biologists use this technique to study a small part of a cell. First the cells are broken into pieces by a special blender. the broken bits are added to a liquid and placed in centrifuge to spin the cell parts which makes them separate. Then the scientist can remove the specific parts.

11 Tools and Procedures Sec 1-4 A. A Common Measurement System ~
1. Most scientists _______________ ______________________________. 2. The _________ is scaled on _____. use the metric system when collecting data & performing experiments. 10 Metric system

12 1 liter = 1000 milliliters 0 degrees C = freezing
Tools and Procedures Sec 1-4 B. A Common Measurement System ~ List the common unit of length, mass, volume & temperature Common Metric Units Table Length Mass 1 meter = 100 centimeters 1 meter = 1000 millimeters 1000 meters = 1 kilometer 1 kilogram = 1000 grams 1 gram = 1000 milligrams 1000 kilograms = 1 metric ton Volume Temperature 1 liter = 1000 milliliters 0 degrees C = freezing 100 degrees C = boiling

13 Video pt.1 Video pt. 2


15 Scientists at Work Sec 1-2
For many years, observations seemed to indicate that some living things could just _________ __________: Recipe for Bees 1. Kill a bull during the first thaw of winter 2. Build a shed 3. Place the dead bull on branches & herbs inside the shed 4. Wait for summer. The decaying body of the bull will produce bees. Maggots on meat, Mice on grain, Beetles from dung, etc. suddenly appear

16 “How do new living things come into being?”
This brought about the question: ________________________________________________________________ Scholars of the day gave a name to the idea that life could arise from nonliving matter ~ _______________________ “How do new living things come into being?” Spontaneous Generation

17 Italian Francesco Redi 1668 pg.8 flies produced maggots.
An _________ physician proposed a different hypothesis for the appearance of maggots. Redi observed _________ appeared on meat a few days after ___ were present. Redi proposed that the flies laid _____ too small for people to see. Redi’s hypothesis stated that ___________________________ Next he had to test his hypothesis… maggots flies eggs flies produced maggots.

18 Figure 1-8 Redi’s Experiment on Spontaneous Generation
Section 1-2 Redi had to set up a controlled experiment. OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat. HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots. PROCEDURE Uncovered jars Covered jars Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, location, temperature, Time Same in both Trials Several days pass Manipulated Variables: gauze covering that keeps flies away from Meat The Change Responding Variable: whether maggots appear Maggots appear No maggots appear CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur.

19 Redi published his findings and conclusions in a book for other scientists.
In the mid 1700’s, another scientist came along and disputed Redi’s findings using Anton van _________________ “lenses”. Pg.11 Needham (English) saw a tiny world of “____________” in rainwater, pond water, dust & gravy. Pg. 11 Leuwenhook’s animacules

20 conditions gravy teaming with life
Needham claimed that spontaneous generation could occur under the right ______________. Needham sealed a bottle of ______ and heated it, claiming to have killed the little animals, but a few days later, the gravy was___________________. He inferred the animals could have only come from the gravy, thus disproving Redi’s claim. conditions gravy teaming with life

21 Spallanzani’s Test of Redi’s Findings pg. 11
Lazzaro __________ (an Italian) read about Redi’s and Needham’s work. Spallanzani thought Needham had NOT heated the gravy long enough and then decided to________ ____________________. Spallanzani improve Needham’s experiment

22 Figure 1-10 Spallanzani’s Experiment
Section 1-2 One jar was sealed immediately and one jar was left open. Gravy is boiled. Flask is open. Gravy is teeming with microorganisms. Concluded that the microorganisms were from the air. Flask is sealed. Gravy is free of microorganisms. Gravy is boiled.

23 Pasteur’s Work pg. 12 “life force”
In the 1800’s, some scientists said that air contained the ___________ needed to produce life and therefore Spallazani’s experiment wasn’t fair. ______________(French), in 1864, found a way to settle the dispute. Pasteur designed a _________________ that allowed air, but no microorganisms. After a year, he accidentally broke the neck and the flask, and the microorganisms appeared. “life force” Louis Pasteur flask with a long neck

24 Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment
Section 1-2 Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms.

25 Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment
Section 1-2 Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms.

26 Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment
Section 1-2 Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms.

27 Figure 1-11 Pasteur’s Experiment
Section 1-2 Broth is boiled. Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms.

28 problem solvers living organisms wine silk
Pasteur proved that all living things must come from _______________ …which was a major change in the way scientists view living things. During his lifetime, Pasteur saved the _______ industry, the _____ industry, and began to uncover the nature of infectious diseases in humans. Pasteur was one of the most remarkable _________________ of all time. living organisms wine silk problem solvers

29 How a Theory Develops pg. 14
Theory applies to a ___________________ that unifies a broad range of observations. Sometimes more than one theory is needed to explain a particular circumstance. A useful theory may become the _________ view among the majority of scientists, but no theory is considered absolute truth. Scientists analyze, review, and critique theories while adding new evidence along the way. Sometimes scientist resist a new way of looking at nature, but over time new evidence determines which ideas survive and which are replaced. well-tested explanation dominant

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