Presentation on theme: "Slopes and Areas Frequently we will want to know the slope of a curve at some point. Or an area under a curve. We calculate area under a curve as the sum."— Presentation transcript:
Slopes and Areas Frequently we will want to know the slope of a curve at some point. Or an area under a curve. We calculate area under a curve as the sum of areas of many rectangles under the curve. We calculate slope as the change in height of a curve during some small change in horizontal position: i.e. rise over run
Review: Axes When two things vary, it helps to draw a picture with two perpendicular axes to show what they do. Here are some examples: y x x t y varies with x x varies with t Here we say “ y is a function of x”. Here we say “x is a function of t”.
Positions We identify places with numbers on the axes The axes are number lines that are perpendicular to each other. Positive x to the right of the origin (x=0, y=0), positive y above the origin.
Straight Lines Sometimes we can write an equation for how one variable varies with the other. For example a straight line can be described as y = ax + b Here, y is a position on the line along the y-axis, x is a position on the line along the x- axis, a is the slope, and b is the place where the line hits the y-axis
Straight Line Slope y = ax + b The slope, a, is just the rise y divided by the run x. We can do this anywhere on the line. So the slope of the line here is y = -3 x 2 Remember: Rise over Run and up and right are positive Proceed in the positive x direction for some number of units, and count the number of units up or down the y changes
y- intercept y = ax + b is our equation for a line b is the place where the line hits the y-axis The intercept b is y = +3 when x = 0 for this line
We want an equation for this line y = ax + b is the general equation for a line So the equation of the line here is y = - 3 x Equation of our example line We plugged in the slope and y intercept
An example: a flow gauge on a small creek Suppose we plot as the vertical axis the flow rate in m 3 / hour and the horizontal axis as the time in hours Then the line tells us that a flash flood caused the creek to flow at 3 m 3 /hour initially, but flow decreased at a rate (slope) of - 3/2 m 3 per hour after that, so it stopped after two hours. BTW, the area under the line tells us the total volume of water the flowed past the gauge during the two hours. Area of a triangle = 1/2bh Area = 1/2 x 2hr x 3m 3 /hr = 3 m 3 This plot, flow vs. time, is a hydrograph. The area under the curve is the volume of runoff.
Trig. Perpendicular axes and lines are very handy. Recall we said we use them for vectors such as velocity. To break a vector r into components, we use trig. The rise is r. sin and the run is r cos This vector with size r and direction , has been broken down into components. Along the y-axis, the rise is y = +r sin Along the x-axis, the run is x = +r cos Demo: The sine is the ordinate (rise) divided by the hypotenuse sin = rise / r so the rise = r sin Similarly the run = r cos hypotenuse rise run Whenever possible we work with unit vectors so r = 1, simplifying calculations.
Okay, sines and cosines, but what’s a Tangent? A Tangent Line is a line that is going in the direction of a point proceeding along the curve. A Tangent at a point is the slope of the curve there. A tangent of an angle is the sine divided by the cosine. Positive slopes shown in green, zero slopes are black, negative are red.
Tangents to curves vector r Here the vector r shows the velocity of a particle moving along the blue line f(x) r At point P, the particle has speed the length of r and the direction shown makes an angle to the x-axis slope = f(x + h) –f(x) (x + h) – x This is rise over run as always Lets see that is r sin tan r cos P The slope is a tangent to the curve.
Slope at some point on a curve We can learn the same things from any curve if we have an equation for it. We say y = some function f of x, written y = f(x). Lets look at the small interval between x and x+h. y is different for these two values of x. The slope is rise over run as always slope = f(x + h) –f(x) (x + h) – x rise derivative dy/dx = f(x + h) –f(x) lim h=>0 h The exact slope at some point on the curve is found by making the distance between x and x+h small, by making h really small. We call it the derivative. This is inaccurate for a point on a curve, because the slope varies. run
A simple derivative for Polynomials The exact slope “derivative” of f(x) f’(x) = f(x + h) – f(x) = f(x + h) – f(x) lim h=>0 (x + h) – x lim h=>0 h is known for all of the types of functions we will use in Hydrology. For example, suppose y = x n where n is some constant and x is a variable Then y’(x) = dy/dx = nx n-1 dy/dx means “The small change in y with respect to a small change in x”
Some Examples for Polynomials (1) Suppose y = x 4. What is dy/dx? dy/dx = 4x 3 (2) Suppose y = x -2 What is dy/dx? dy/dx = -2x -3 We just saw for polynomials y = x n the dy/dx = nx n - 1
Differentials Those new symbols dy/dx mean the really accurate slope of the function y = f(x) at any point. We say they are algebraic, meaning dx and dy behave like any other variable you manipulated in high school algebra class. The small change in y at some point on the function (written dy) is a separate entity from dx. For example, if y = x n dy/dx = nx n-I also means dy = nx n-I dx
Variable names There is nothing special about the letters we use except to remind us of the axes in our coordinate system For example, if y = u n dy = nu n-I du is the same as the previous formula. y = u n u
Constants Alone The derivative of a constant is zero. If y = 17, dy/dx = 0 because constants don’t change, and the constant line has zero slope Y = y x For any dx, dy = 0
X alone Suppose y = x What is dy/dx? Y = x means y = x 1. Just follow the rule. Rule: if y = x n then dy/dx = nx n – 1 So if y = x, dy/dx = 1x 0 = 1 Anything to the power zero is one.
A Constant times a Polynomial Suppose y = 4 x 7 What is dy/dx? Rule: The derivative of a constant times a polynomial is just the constant times the derivative of the polynomial. So if y = 4 x 7, dy/dx = 4. ( 7x 6 )
Multiple Terms in a sum The derivative of a function with more than one term is the sum of the individual derivatives. If y = 3 + 2t + t 2 then dy/dt = t Notice 2t = 2t 1 For polynomials y = x n dy/dx = nx n - 1
The derivative of a product In words, the derivative of a product of two terms is the first term times the derivative of the second, plus the second term times the derivative of the first.
Exponents a m a n = a m+n a m /a n = a m-n (a m ) n = a mn (ab) m = a m b m (a/b) m = a m /b m a -n = 1/a n Suppose m and n are rational numbers You can remember all of these just by experimenting For example 2 2 = 2x2 and 2 4 = 2x2x2x2 so 2 2 x2 4 = 2x2x2x2x2x2 = 2 6 reminds you of rule 1 Rule 6, a -n = 1/a n, is especially useful
Logarithms Logarithms (Logs) are just exponents if b y = x then y = log b x log 10 (100) = 2 because 10 2 = 100 Natural logs (ln) use e = as a base For example ln(1) = log e (1) = 0 because e 0 = (2.718) 0 = 1 Anything to the zero power is one.
e e is a base, the base of the so-called natural logarithms just mentioned. e ~ It has a very interesting derivative (slope). Suppose u is some function Then d(e u ) = e u du “The derivative of e u is e u times the derivative of u” Example: If y = e 2x what is dy/dx? here u = 2x, so du = 2 Therefore dy/dx = e 2x. 2
Integrals The area under a function between two values of, for example, the horizontal axis is called the integral. It is a sum of a series of very tall and thin rectangles, and is indicated by a script S, like this:
Integrals To get accuracy with areas we use extremely thin rectangles, much thinner than this.
Example 1 If y=3x 5 Then dy/dx = 15x 4 Then y = 15x 4 dx = 3x 5 + a constant Integration is the inverse operation for differentiation We have to add the constant as a reminder because, if a constant was present in the original function, it’s derivative would be zero and we wouldn’t see it.
Example2: a trick Sometimes we must multiply by one to get a known integral form. For example, we know:
A useful method When a function changes from having a negative slope to a positive slope, or vs. versa, the derivative goes briefly through zero. We can find those places by calculating the derivative and setting it to zero.
Getting useful numbers Suppose y = x 2. (a) Find the minimum If y = x 2 then dy/dx = 2x 1 = 2x. Set this equal to zero 2x=0 so x=0 y = x 2 so if x = 0 then y = 0 Therefore the curve has zero slope at (0,0)
Getting useful numbers Suppose y = x 2. TODO: Find (a) the location of the minimum, and (b) the slope at x=3 (a)See previous page (b) dy/dx = 2x, so set x=3 then the slope is 2x = 2. 3 = 6
Getting useful numbers Here is a graph of y = x 2 Notice the slope is zero at (0,0), the minimum The slope at (x=3,y=9) is +6/1 = 6