3Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer: 1.1 Management—What It Is, What Its Benefits Are What are the rewards of being an exceptional manager—of being a star in my workplace?1.2 Six Challenges to Being a Star Manager What are six challenges I could look forward to as a manager?1.3 What Managers Do—The Four Principle Functions What would I actually do—that is, what would be my four principle functions as a manager?
4Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer… Continued: 1.4 Pyramid Power—Levels & Areas of Management What are the levels and areas of management I need to know to move up, down, and sideways?1.5 Roles Managers Must Play Successfully To be an exceptional manager, what roles must I play successfully?1.6 The Skills Star Managers Need To be a terrific manager, what skills should I cultivate?
5One-Minute Guide to Success Four Rules of SuccessRule 1: Attend every class. No cutting allowedRule 2: Don’t postpone studying, then cram the night before a testRule 3: Read or review lectures and readings more than onceRule 4: Learn how to use this bookUsing the Book EffectivelyRead the first page of the chapter to get an overviewRead “Forecast: What’s Ahead in This Chapter”Read “The Big Picture”Read the section itself—try to answer the Major QuestionsUse the Key Terms and Summary at the end to see how well you understand the conceptsUse the Book’s “Click-Along” Feature
6Staying Ahead in Your Career Take charge of your career and avoid misconceptionsDevelop new capacitiesAnticipate & adapt to, even embrace changeKeep learningDevelop your people & communication skills
7Management DefinedManagement: 1.) the pursuit of organizational goals efficiently and effectively by 2) integrating the work of people through 3) planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the organization’s resourcesEfficiency: use resources—wisely and cost-effectivelyEffectiveness: to achieve results, to make the right decisions and successfully carry them out so that they achieve the organization’s goals
8The Multiplier EffectMultiplier Effect: Your influence as manager on the organization is multiplied far beyond the results that can be achieved by just one person acting alone
9Executive PayPanel 1.1Average yearly income for CEOs and Presidents of small and midsize firms by regionMid-Atlantic StatesMidwestWestSouthSoutheastNortheast$246,000$264,000$288,000$304,000$318,000$324,000
10Managing for Competitive Advantage Competitive Advantage: the ability of an organization to produce goods or services more effectively than competitors do, thereby outperforming themThis means an organization must stay ahead in four areas:Being responsive to customersIn innovatingIn qualityIn efficiency
11Challenges to Being a Star Manager Challenge #1 Managing for Competitive AdvantageBeing Responsive to CustomersInnovation: Finding ways to deliver new or better goods or servicesQualityEfficiency
12Challenges to Being a Star Manager Challenge # 2 Managing for DiversityChallenge # 3 Managing for GlobalizationChallenge #4 Managing for Information TechnologyChallenge # 5 Managing for Ethical Standards
13Challenges to Being a Star Manager Challenge # 6 Managing for Your Own Happiness & Life GoalsMany students in business schools report that they would rather be entrepreneurs, consultants, or venture capitalists than managers.
14The Management Process Panel 1.2PlanningYou set goals and decide how to achieve themOrganizingYou arrange tasks, people, & other resources to accomplish the workLeadingYou motivate, direct & otherwise influence people to work hard to achieve the organization’s goalsControllingYou monitor performance, compare it with goals and take corrective action as needed
15The Levels and Areas of Management Panel 1.3Levels of ManagementTop ManagersMiddle ManagersFirst-Line ManagersNonmanagerial personnelR&D Marketing Finance Production Human resourcesFunctional Areas
16Top ManagersMake long-term decisions about the overall direction of the organizationEstablish the objectives, policies and strategies for it
17Middle Managers Implement policies of top managers above them Supervise and coordinate the activities of the first-line managers below them
18First-Line Managers Make short-term operating decisions Direct the daily tasks of nonmanagerial personnel
19Functional Managers vs. General Managers Functional Manager: is responsible for just one organizational activityGeneral Manager: is responsible for several organizational activities
20Mintzberg’s Useful Findings A manager relies more on verbal than on written communicationA manager works long hours at an intense paceA manager’s work is characterized by fragmentation, brevity & variety
21Managerial Roles 1. Interpersonal Roles Leadership Role Your leadership is expressed in your decisions about training, motivating and disciplining peopleFigurehead Role you perform symbolic tasks that represent the organizationLiaison Role you act like a politician, forming outside alliances that will help you achieve your organization’s goals
22Managerial Roles 2. Informational Roles Disseminator Role managers need to constantly disseminate important information to employees via and meetingsMonitor Role you should be constantly alert for useful informationSpokesperson Role to act as diplomat and put the best face on the activities of your work unit or organization to people outside it
23Managerial Roles 3. Decisional Roles Disturbance Handler Role unforeseen problems require you to be a disturbance handler, fixing problemsEntrepreneur Role to initiate and encourage change and innovationResource Allocator Role you’ll never have enough time, money and so on, so you’ll have to set priorities about the use of resourcesNegotiator Role working with others outside and inside the organization to accomplish your goals
24Technical Skills—the Ability to Perform a Specific Job Technical Skills: consist of job-specific knowledge needed to perform in a specialized field
25Conceptual Skills—the Ability to Think Analytically Conceptual Skills consist of the ability to think analytically, to visualize an organization as a whole and understand how the parts work together
26Human Skills—the Ability to Interact Well with People Human Skills consist of the ability to work well in cooperation with other people to get things done
28Management in ActionWhat unique managerial skills were needed during the crisis?To what extent were Mr. Michaud, Mr. Senchak, Mr. Stocker, and middle managers at Blue Cross and Blue Shield efficient and effective? Was either of these criteria—efficiency or effectiveness—more important than the other?Using Panel 1.2 as a guide, describe which of the four functions of management were displayed in the caseWhich of the three types of managerial roles did Mr. O’Neal, Mr. Duffy, and middle managers at Blue Cross and Blue Shield display?
29Ethical DilemmaWhat would you do to prevent this situation from happening again at Waddell & Reed?Aggressively pursue the clients of a fired broker, but not use false statements in letters or phone conversations.Send clients a letter informing them that the broker no longer worked in the firm, and ask them if they would like to be reassigned to another broker.Let the fired employee retain his or her clients.Invent other options. (Discuss).
32Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer: 2.1 Evolving Viewpoints: How we got to Today’s Management Outlook What’s the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday’s and today’s?2.2 The Classical Viewpoints: Scientific & Administrative Management If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoints teach me?2.3 The Behavioral Viewpoints: Early Behaviorism, Human Relations, & Behavioral Science To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoints?2.4 The Quantitative Viewpoints: Management Science & Operations Research If the manager’s job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help?
33Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer Continued: 2.5 The Systems Viewpoint How can an exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint?2.6 The Contingency Viewpoint In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations?2.7 The Quality-Management Viewpoint Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success2.8 The Learning Organization Organizations must learn or perish. How do I build a learning organization?
34The Manager’s Toolbox: Mindfulness Over Mindlessness: Being a Learner in a Learning Organization Entrapment in old categories: there is no “right way” of doing things--you should act as though the information is true only for certain uses or under certain circumstancesAutomatic behavior: in automatic behavior we take in and use limited signals from the world around us without letting other signals penetrate as well—in contrast mindfulness is being open to new information—it requires you to engage more fully in what you are doingActing from a single perspective: a single perspective that gives you an automatic reaction reduces your options—trying out different perspectives gives you more choices in how to respondDeveloping mindfulness means consciously adapting, being open to novelty, alert to distinctions, sensitive to different contexts, aware of multiple perspectives, & being oriented in the present
35Is Management an Art or a Science? Management can be approached deliberately, rationally, systematically. That’s what the scientific method is, a logical process, embodying four steps:You observe events and gather factsYou pose a possible solution or explanation based on those factsYou make a prediction of future eventsYou test the prediction under systematic conditions
36Two Overarching Perspectives About Management & Four Practical Reasons for Studying Them Historical: includes three viewpoints—classical, behavioral, & quantitativeContemporary: also includes three viewpoints—systems, contingency & quality-management
37Two Overarching Perspectives About Management & Four Practical Reasons for Studying Them Guide to action knowing management principles helps you develop a set of principles that will guide your actionsSource of new ideas being aware of various perspectives can also provide new ideas when you encounter new situationsClues to meaning of your managers’ decisions it can help you understand the focus of your organization, where the top managers are “coming from”Clues to meaning of outside events finally, it may allow you to understand events outside the organization that could affect it or you
38Historical Management Perspective: Classical Viewpoint The Classical Viewpoint: emphasized finding ways to manage work more efficiently—two branches: Scientific and Administrative
39Panel 2.1: The Historical Perspective Classical ViewpointEmphasis on ways to manage work more efficientlyScientific ManagementEmphasized scientific study of work methods to improve productivity of individual workersProponents: Frederick W. Taylor Frank & Lillian GilbrethAdministrative ManagementConcerned with managing the entire organizationProponents: Henry Taylor Max WeberBehavioral science approachRelies on scientific research for developments theory to provide practical manager toolsBehavioral ViewpointEmphasis on importance of understanding human behavior & motivating & encouraging employees toward achievementEarly BehavioristsProponents: Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follet, Elton MayoHuman Relations MovementProposed better human relations could increase worker productivity Proponents: Abraham MaslowDouglas McGregorQuantitative ViewpointApplies quantitative techniques to managementOperations ManagementFocuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization’s products or services more effectivelyManagement ScienceFocuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making
40Scientific Management Scientific Management: emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workersTwo of its chief proponents were Frederick W. Taylor, & Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
41Frederick Taylor & the Four Principles of Scientific Management Evaluate a task by scientifically studying each part of the taskCarefully select workers with the right abilities for the taskGive workers the training and incentives to do the task with the proper work methodsUse scientific principles to plan the work methods and ease the way for workers to do their jobs
42Administrative Management Administrative Management: concerned with managing the total organizationAmong the pioneering theorists were Henry Fayol & Max Weber
43Henry Fayol and the Functions of Management Henry Fayol was the first to systematize management management behavior– he was the first to identify the major functions of management: planning, organizing, leading, controlling, as well as coordinatingPlanningYou set goals and decide how to achieve themOrganizingYou arrange tasks, people, & other resources to accomplish the workLeadingYou motivate, direct & otherwise influence people to work hard to achieve the organization’s goalsControllingYou monitor performance, compare it with goals and take corrective action as needed
44Max Weber & the Rationality of Bureaucracy To Weber, a bureaucracy was a rational, efficient ideal organization based on principles of logic—he felt good organizations should have five bureaucratic features:A well-defined hierarchy of authorityFormal rules and proceduresA clear division of laborImpersonalityCareers based on merit
45The Problem with the Classical Viewpoint The classical viewpoint tends to be too mechanistic: it tends to view humans as cogs within a machine, not taking into account the importance of human needs
46Historical Management Perspective: The Behavioral Viewpoint Behavioral Viewpoint: emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and motivating employees toward achievement—developed over three phases: early behaviorism, the human relations movement, & behavioral science
47The Early Behaviorists: Munsterberg, Follett, and Mayo Hugo Munsterberg & The First Application of Psychology to IndustryStudy jobs and determine which people are best suited to specific jobsIdentify the psychological conditions under which employees did their best workDevise management strategies to influence employees to follow the management’s interestsMunsterberg felt science could contribute to industry in three ways:
48The Early Behaviorists: Munsterberg, Follett, and Mayo Mary Parker Follett & Power Sharing Among Employees & ManagersOrganizations should be operated as “communities” with managers and subordinates working together in harmonyConflicts should be resolved by having the managers and workers talk over differences and find solutions that would satisfy both parties: integrationThe work process should be under the control of workers with relevant knowledge rather than of managers who should act as facilitatorsFollett thought organizations should become more democratic, with managers and employees working cooperatively
49The Early Behaviorists: Munsterberg, Follett, and Mayo Elton Mayo & the Supposed Hawthorne EffectIn later experiments, variables such as wage levels, rest periods and length of the work day were variedWorker performance seemed to increase over time leading Mayo and his colleagues to hypothesize the Hawthorne EffectThat employees worked harder if they received added attention, if they thought managers cared about their welfare and that supervisors paid attention to themThey succeeded in drawing attention to the “social man” and how managers using good human relations could improve worker productivityElton Mayo and his colleagues conducted studies at Western Electric’s Hawthorne Plant and began with an investigation to see if different lighting affected workers’ productivity
50The Human Relations Movement: Pioneered by Maslow & McGregor Human Relations Movement: proposed that better human relations could increase worker productivityWhat motivates you? Food, Security, Love? Recognition, Self-fulfillment?Probably all of these, though some more than othersMaslow proposed that the needs are physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization (discussed in detail in chapter 12)Abraham Maslow & the Hierarchy of NeedsOne of the earliest to study motivation, Maslow proposed his “hierarchy of human needs” in 1943.
51The Human Relations Movement: Douglas McGregor & Theory X versus Theory Y Pessimistic negative view towards workersWorkers are irresponsibleWorkers are resistant to changeWorkers lack ambition, hate to workWorkers would rather be led than leadOptimistic positive view of workers: human relations proponents’ viewWorkers are capable of accepting responsibilityWorkers are capable of self-directionWorkers are capable of self-controlWorkers are capable of being imaginative and creative
52The Behavioral Science Approach Behavioral Science relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers
53Historical Management Perspective: The Quantitative Viewpoints Quantitative Management the application of management of quantitative techniques, such as statistics, and computer simulations—two branches are management science and operations management
54The Quantitative Viewpoints: Management Science Management Science focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making
55The Quantitative Viewpoints: Operations Management Operations Management focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization’s products or services more effectively
56The Contemporary Perspective: The Systems Viewpoint The Systems Viewpoint regards the organization as a system of interrelated partsBy adopting this perspective you can look at your organization in two waysA collection of subsystems—parts making up the whole systemA part of the larger environment
57Panel 2.2: The contemporary perspective: Three Viewpoints The System ViewpointRegards the organization as a system of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purposeThe Contingency ViewpointEmphasizes that a manager’s approach should vary according to—I.e. be contingent on—the individual and environmental situationThe Quality Management ViewpointsThree approachesQuality ControlStrategy for minimizing errors by managing each state of productionProponent: Walter StewartQuality AssuranceFocuses on the performance of workers urging employees to strive for “zero defects”Total Quality ManagementComprehensive approach dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfactionProponents: W. Edward DemingJoseph M. Juran
58The Four Parts of a System OutputsThe products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produced by the organizationInputsThe people, money, information, equipment, and materials required to produce and organization’s goods or servicesTransformational ProcessesThe organization’s capabilities in management and technology that are applied to converting inputs to outputsFeedbackInformation about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affect the inputs
59Panel 2.3: The Four Parts of a System Transformational ProcessThe organization’s capabilities in management and technology that are applied to converting inputs to outputsExample: Designer’s management skills (planning, organizing, leading, controlling) gold and silver smithing tools and expertise, website for marketingInputThe people, money, information, equipment and materials required to produce and organization’s goods or servicesExample: For a jewelry designer- designer money, artistic talent, gold and silver tools, marketing expertiseOutputThe products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produced by the organizationExample: Gold and silver rings, bracelets, etc.FeedbackInformation about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affect the inputsExample: Web customers like Africa style designs, dislike imitation Old English designs
60Open and Closed Systems Open System continually interacts with its environmentClosed System has little interaction with its environment; it receives very little feedback from the outside
61The Contemporary Perspective: The Contingency Viewpoint The Contingency Viewpoint emphasizes that a manager’s approach should vary according to—that is, be contingent on—the individual and the environmental situation
62The Contemporary Perspective: The Quality Management Viewpoint The Quality Management Viewpoint includes quality control, quality assurance, and total quality management
63Quality Control & Quality Assurance Quality refers to the total ability of a product to meet customer needsQuality Assurance focused on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for “zero defects”Quality Control is defined as the strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production
64Total Quality Management: Creating an Organization Dedicated to Continuous Improvement Total Quality Management is a comprehensive approach—led by top managers and supported throughout the organization—dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training and customer satisfactionFour Components of TQM:Make Continuous Improvement a PriorityGet Every Employee InvolvedListen to and Learn from Customers and EmployeesUse Accurate Standards to Identify and Eliminate Problems
65The Learning Organization: Handling Knowledge & Modifying Behavior A Learning Organization is an organization that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledgeNote the three partsCreating and Acquiring KnowledgeTransferring KnowledgeModifying Behavior
66How to Build a Learning Organization: Three Roles Managers Play You Can Build a Commitment to Learning you as a manager need to invest in learning, publicly promote it, creating rewards and symbols of it, and similar activities to instill in employees a commitment to learningYou Can Work to Generate Ideas with Impact you need to generate ideas with impact--that is, add value for customers, employees, and shareholders—by increasing employee competence through training, experimenting with new ideas and other leadership activitiesYou Can Work to Generalize Ideas with Impact reduce the barriers to learning among employees within your organization—you can create a psychologically safe and comforting environment that increases sharing of successes, failures and best practices
68Management in ActionIs Boeing making changes more reflective of managerial art or managerial science? Explain.What advice would Frederick Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth probably offer managers at Boeing?How might Boeing managers reduce resistance to change by using behavioral viewpoints and the human relations movement?To what extent is Boeing using management science to reduce costs and increase productivity? Explain.Are the changes made at Boeing consistent with recommendations derived from qualitative viewpoints? Provide evidence to support your opinions.
69Ethical DilemmaWhat would you do if you were a member of the National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration?Leave the laws as they are.Create regulations requiring that certified professionals test all recycled airbags for safety.Do not allow secondhand air bags to be reused.Invent other options. (Discuss).
72Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer: 3.1 The Community of Stakeholders Inside the Organization Stockholders are only one group of stakeholders. Who are the stakeholders important to me inside the organization?3.2 The Community of Stakeholders Outside the Organization Who are stakeholders important to me outside the organization?3.3 The Ethical Responsibilities Required of You as a Manager What does the successful manager need to know about ethics and values?3.4 The Social Responsibilities Required of You as a Manager is being socially responsible really necessary?
73Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer Continued: 3.5 The New Diversified Workforce What trends in workplace diversity should managers be aware of?3.6 The Entrepreneurial Spirit Do I have what it takes to be an entrepreneur?
74The Manager’s Toolbox: Conscientious Managers Who Can Deal with Change A is for Accountability: you need to take responsibility and be accountable for you and your team’s performance—the days are gone when you can say “it’s not my job”B is for Balance: there is always pressure to do more, learn more, create more, and it can make you feel like you need to take your work home with you—but it is important to maintain balance in your life.C is for Control: you can distinguish between urgent tasks and important tasks: Things with deadlines are all urgent, but may not be important—important tasks add value and are closely tied to long-term organizational success
75Internal & External Stakeholders Stakeholders people whose interests are affected by an organization’s activitiesManagers operate in two organizational environments made up of various stakeholders:Internal StakeholdersExternal Stakeholders
76Panel 3.1: The Organization’s Environment The General Environment Economic ForcesInternational ForcesTechnological ForcesPolitical-legal ForcesSocio-cultural ForcesDemographic ForcesInternal StakeholdersEmployeesOwnersBoard of DirectorsThe Task EnvironmentCustomersMediaInterest GroupsGovernmentsLendersUnionsAlliesDistributorsSuppliersCompetitorsExternal Stakeholders
77Internal Stakeholders Internal Stakeholders consist of employees, owners, and the board of directors, if any
78Internal Stakeholders EmployeesIn many of today’s forward looking organizations, employees are considered the “talent”—the most important resourceOwnersOwners of an organization consist of all those who can claim it as their legal propertyBoard of DirectorsIts members are elected by stockholders to see that the company is being run according to their best interests—in nonprofit organizations, called board of trustees, or board of regents
79The Community of Stakeholders Outside the Organization External Stakeholders people or groups in the organization’s external environment that are affected by itThe environment consists of:The Task EnvironmentThe General Environment
80The Task EnvironmentThe Task Environment consists of 11 groups that present you with daily tasks to handle:CustomersCompetitorsSuppliersDistributorsStrategic alliesEmployee organizationsLocal communitiesFinancial institutionsGovernment regulatorsSpecial-interest groupsMass media
81The Task EnvironmentCustomers those who pay to use an organization’s goods or servicesCompetitors people or organizations that compete for customers or resourcesDistributor is a person or an organization that helps another organization sell its goods and services to customersStrategic Allies describe the relationship of two organizations who join forces to achieve advantages neither can perform as well aloneEmployee Organizations unions and associations—as a rule of thumb unions represent hourly workers, associations tend to represent salaried workers
82The Task EnvironmentLocal Communities schools and municipal governments rely on the organization for their tax base—families and merchants depend on the organization for its payroll for their livelihoodFinancial Institutions entrepreneurs may rely on credit cards, established companies need loans and rely on lenders such as commercial banks, investment banks, and insurance companiesGovernment Regulators regulatory agencies that establish ground rules under which organizations can operateSpecial Interest Groups groups whose members try to influence specific issuesMass Media no manager can afford to ignore the power of the mass media—most organizations have a public-relations person or department to communicate effectively with the press
83The General Environment The General Environment or macro environment includes six forces:EconomicTechnologicalSocioculturalDemographicPolitical-legalInternational
84The General Environment Economic Forces consist of general economic conditions and trends—unemployment, inflation, interest rates, economic growth—that may affect an organization’s balanceTechnological Forces new developments for transforming resources into goods or servicesSociocultural Forces influences and trends originating in a country, society, or culture’s human relationships and values that may affect and organizationDemographic Forces influences on an organization arising from changes in characteristics of a population—age, gender or ethnic originPolitical-legal Forces changes in the way politics shape laws and shape the opportunities for and threats to an organizationInternational Forces changes in the economic, political, legal, and technological global system that may affect an organization
85The Ethical Responsibilities Required of You as a Manager Ethical Dilemma a situation in which you have to decide whether to pursue a course of action that may benefit you or your organization but is unethical or even illegalEthics the standards of right and wrong that influence behaviorEthical Behavior is behavior accepted as “right” as opposed to “wrong” according to those standards
86Four Approaches to Deciding Ethical Dilemmas The Utilitarian Approach guided by what will result in the greatest good for the greatest number of peopleThe Individual Approach guided by what will result in the individual’s best long-term interests, which ultimately, are everyone’s interestsThe Moral Rights Approach guided by respect for the fundamental rights of human beingsThe Justice Approach guided by respect for impartial standards of fairness and equity
87How Organizations Can Promote Ethics Support by Top Managers of a Strong Ethical ClimateEthics Codes & Training Programs: Code of Ethics consists of a formal written set of ethical standards guiding and organization’s actionsRewarding Ethical Behavior: Protecting Whistleblowers Whistleblower is an employee who reports organizational misconduct to the public
88The Social Responsibilities Required of You as a Manager Social Responsibility is a manager’s duty to take actions that will benefit the interests of society as well as of the organizationAn example of social responsibility isPhilanthropy donating money to worthwhile recipients
89Four Managerial Approaches to Social Responsibility The Obstructionist Manager Obstructionist Approach managers put economic gain first and resist social responsibility as being outside the organization’s self-interestThe Defensive Manager Defensive Approach managers make the minimum commitment to social responsibility—obeying the law but doing nothing moreThe Accommodative Manager Accommodative Approach managers do more than the law requires, if asked, and demonstrate moderate social responsibilityThe Proactive Manager Proactive Approach managers actively lead the way in being socially responsible for all stakeholders, using the organization’s resources to identify and respond to social problems
90How to Think About Diversity: Which Differences Are Important? Diversity represents all the ways people are unlike and alike—the differences and similarities in age, gender, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, capabilities and socioeconomic backgroundInternal Dimensions of Diversity are human differences that exert a powerful, sustained effect throughout every stage of our livesExternal Dimensions of Diversity include an element of choice; they consist of the personal characteristics that people acquire, discard, or modify throughout their livesInternal dimensions External DimensionsGender Personal habits Ethnicity Educational background Race Religion Physical abilities Income Age Marital status Sexual orientation Geographic location Work experience Recreational habits Appearance
91Trends in Workforce Diversity Age: More Older People in the Workforce
92Trends in Workforce Diversity Gender: More Women WorkingObstacles to women’s progress: so-calledGlass Ceiling the metaphor for an invisible barrier preventing women and minorities from being promoted to top executive jobs
93Trends in Workforce Diversity Race & Ethnicity: More People of Color in the Workforce
94Trends in Workforce Diversity Sexual Orientation: More Gays and Lesbians Become More Visible
95Trends in Workforce Diversity People with Differing Physical & Mental AbilitiesAmericans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against the disabled
96Trends in Workforce Diversity Educational Levels: Mismatches Between Education and Workforce NeedsCollege Graduates may be in jobs for which they are overqualified underemployed working at jobs that require less education than they haveHigh School Dropouts and others may not have the literacy skills needed for many jobs
97Barriers to DiversityStereotypes & Prejudices Ethnocentrism belief that one’s native country, culture, language, abilities, or behavior is superior to those of another cultureFear of Reverse DiscriminationResistance to Diversity Program PrioritiesUnsupportive Social AtmosphereLack of Support for Family DemandsLack of Support for Career-Building Steps
98Entrepreneurship Defined: Taking Risks in Pursuit of Opportunity Entrepreneurship is the process of taking risks to try to create a new enterpriseEntrepreneur someone who sees a new opportunity for a product and launches a business to try to realize itIntrapreneur someone who works inside an existing organization who sees opportunity for a product or service and mobilizes the organization’s resources to try to realize it
99Key Terms Accommodative approach Americans with Disabilities Act Code of ethicsCompetitorsCustomersDefensive approachDemographic forcesdistributordiversityEconomic forcesethnocentrismentrepreneurEntrepreneurshipEthical behaviorEthical DilemmaEthicsExternal dimensions of diversityGeneral environmentGlass ceilingGovernmental regulatorsIndividual approachInternal dimensions of diversityInternal locus of controlInternal stakeholdersInternational forcesIntrapreneurJustice approachMoral rights approachObstructionist approachOwnersPhilanthropyPolitical-legal forcesProactive approachSociocultural forcesSocial responsibilitySpecial-interest groupsStakeholdersStrategic alliesSupplierTask environmentTechnological forcesUnderemployedUtilitarian approachValue systemValuesWhistleblower
100Management in ActionHow do stakeholders vary between a publicly held firm and an employee-owned company?Do employees have different ethical responsibilities?To what extent do managers have different roles in an employee-earned firm?Given the trends in workforce diversity discussed in this chapter, to what extent will future employees want to be affiliated with an employee-owned company? Discuss your rationale.Would you like to work in an employee-owned company? Why or why not?
101Ethical Dilemma What would you do if you were Christine Pelton? Redesign your position in protest over school board’s lack of support.Do what the school board ordered.Ignore the school board’s order and give the failing grade.Invent other options. (Explain).
104Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer: 4.1 Globalization—The Collapse of Time & Distance: What three important developments of globalization will probably affect me?4.2 You & International Management Why learn about international management, and what characterizes the successful international manager?4.3 Why & How Companies Expand Internationally: Why do companies expand internationally, and how do they do it?
105Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer Continued: 4.4 Economics & Political-Legal Differences: How may foreign countries differ in their economic, political, and legal characteristics?4.5 The World of Free Trade—Regional Economic Cooperation: What are barriers to free trade, and what organizations and trading bloc promote trade?4.6 The Importance of Understanding Cultural Differences: What are the principal areas of cultural differences?
106The Manager’s Toolbox: Being a Star Road Warrior Two Lessons Business Travelers Have LearnedFrequent travel may be needed because personal encounters are essential to teamwork: phones, , and videoconferencing aren’t entirely feasible—teamwork requires personal encountersFrequent travel requires frequent adjustments:
107Globalization: The Collapse of Time & Distance Globalization trend of the world economy toward becoming a more interdependent systemThe rise of the “global village” and electronic commerceThe world’s becoming one market instead of many national onesThe rise of both megafirms and Internet-enabled minifirms worldwide
108The Rise of the “Global Village” & Electronic Commerce Global Village refers to the “shrinking” of time and space as air travel and the electronic media have made it easier for people of the globe to communicate with one anothere-commerce or electronic commerce—the buying and selling of products and services through computer networks
109One Big World Market: The Global Economy Global Economy refers to the increasing tendency of economies of the world to interact with one another as one market instead of many national marketsNegative EffectsCan have some insecurityEconomic crises in some countries can soon affect other countriesEx. the “Asian Crisis” p. 108Positive EffectsU.S. exports, international trade, and U.S. workers are connectedGrowth of jobs and income in other countries will mean growth of jobs and income for the U.S.
110Cross-Border Business: The Rise of Both Megamergers & Minifirms Worldwide The trend in the 1990’s was that oil, telecommunications, financial services, and pharmaceuticals weren’t suited to being mid-sizedSo they would cross-border: merge with other big companiesMinifirmsThe Internet and the World Wide Web allow almost anyone to be global with two important results:Small Companies Get Started More EasilySmall Companies Can Maneuver Faster
111Why Learn About International Management? Multinational Corporation or multinational enterprise, is a business firm with operations in several countriesMultinational Organization is a nonprofit organization with operations in several countries
112Why Learn About International Management? You May Deal with Foreign Customers or PartnersYou May Deal with Foreign SuppliersYou May Work for a Foreign Firm in the United StatesYou May Work for an American Firm Outside the United States
113The Successful International Manager: Geocentric, not Ethnocentric or Polycentric Geocentric Managers accept that there are differences and similarities between home and foreign personnel and practices that they should use whatever techniques are most effectiveThe Lesson is Clear: if you become an Expatriate Manager living or working in a foreign country—it is imperative you try to lean all you can about the local culture so you can deal effectively and avoid being beaten by your competitorsEthnocentric Managers believe that their native country, culture, language, and behavior is superior to all othersPolycentric Managers take the view that native managers in the foreign offices best understand native personnel and practices, and so the home office should leave them alone
114Why Companies Expand Internationally Availability of SuppliesNew MarketsLower Labor Costs: maquiladoras manufacturing plants allowed to operate in Mexico with special privileges in return for employing Mexican citizensAccess to Finance CapitalAvoidance of Tariffs & Import Quotas
116How Companies Expand Internationally Global Outsourcing Global Outsourcing using suppliers outside the United States to provide labor, goods or servicesImporting, Exporting, & CountertradingImporting a company buys goods outside the country and resells them domesticallyExporting a company produces goods domestically and sells them outside the country
117How Companies Expand Internationally Licensing & Franchising- Licensing a company allows a foreign company to pay it a fee to make or distribute the first company’s product or service- Franchising is a form of licensing in which a company allows a foreign company to pay it a fee and a share of the profits in return for using the first company’s brand name and a package of materials and services
118How Companies Expand Internationally Joint Ventures Joint Venture also known as a strategic alliance with a foreign company to share the risks and rewards for starting a new enterprise together in a foreign countryWholly-Owned SubsidiariesWholly Owned Subsidiary is a foreign subsidiary that is totally owned and controlled by an organizationGreenfield Venture is a foreign subsidiary that the owning organization has built from scratch
119Economic Differences: Adjusting to Other Countries’ Economies Principal Economic Systems:Free Market Economy the production of goods and services are controlled by private enterprise and the interaction of forces of supply and demand, rather than by the governmentCommand Economy or central-planning economy the government owns most businesses and regulates the amounts, types, and prices of goods and servicesMixed Economy most of the important industries are owned by the government, but others are controlled by private enterprise- Privatization state-owned businesses were sold off to private enterprise
120Developed versus Less Developed Countries Developed Countries are those with a high level of economic development and generally high average level of income among their citizensLess Developed Countries also known as developing countries consist of nations with low economic development and low average incomes
121Infrastructure & Resources Infrastructure consists of the physical facilities that form the basis for its level of economic developmentExchange Rate is the rate at which one country’s currency can be exchanged for another country’s currency
122Political-Legal Differences: Adjusting to Other Countries’ Governments & Laws Governmental Systems: Democratic VS. TotalitarianTotalitarian ruled by a dictator, a single political party, or a special-membership groupDemocratic rely on free elections and representative assemblies
123Political-Legal Differences: Adjusting to Other Countries’ Governments & Laws Political RiskPolitical Risk the risk that political changes will cause loss of a company’s assets or impair its foreign operationsExpropriation is a government’s seizure of a foreign companies assetsInstability:Even developed countries can be victimized by political instabilityRiotsCivil disordersRevolutions or changes in government
124Political-Legal Differences: Adjusting to Other Countries’ Government & Laws Laws & RegulationsForeign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977: which makes it illegal for employees of the U.S. companies to bribe political decision makers in foreign nations
125The World of Free Trade: Regional Economic Cooperation Free Trade the movement of goods and services among nations without political or economic obstruction
126Barriers to International Trade Trade Protection the use of government regulations to limit the import of good and services—there are three devices by which countries try to exert protectionism:Tariff is a trade barrier in the form of a customs duty, or tax, levied mainly on importsImport Quotas are trade barriers in the form of a limit on the numbers of product that can be imported- Dumping the practice of a foreign company’s exporting products abroad at a lower price than the price in the home market—or even below the costs of production—in order to drive down the price of a domestic productEmbargo is a complete ban on the import or export of certain products
127Organizations Promoting International Trade The World Trade Organization (WTO) is designed to monitor and enforce trade agreementsThe World Bank is to provide low-interest loans to developing nations for improving transportation, education, health and telecommunicationsThe International Monetary Fund (IMF) is designed to assist in smoothing the flow of money between nations
128Major Trading BlocsTrading Bloc also known as an economic community, is a group of nations within a geographical region that have agreed to remove trade barriers with each otherNAFTA—North American Free Trade Agreement is a trading bloc consisting of of the United States, Canada, and MexicoEU—European Union consists of 15 trading partners in EuropeASEAN—Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a trading bloc consisting of nine countries in AsiaMercosur is the largest trade bloc in Latin America and has four members: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay
129The Importance of National Culture Culture shared set of beliefs, values, knowledge, and patterns of behavior common to a group of people
130What are Different Cultural Perceptions of Language? More than 3,000 different languages are spoken throughout the world- in trying to communicate across cultures, you have three options:Speak your own languageUse a translatorLearn the local language
131What are Different Cultural Perceptions of Nonverbal Communication? Nonverbal Communication consists of messages sent outside the written or spoken word—five ways which nonverbal communication can be expressed:Interpersonal spaceEye contactFacial expressionsBody movements and gesturesTouch
132Panel 4.2 Different NormsVariations in meaning of different types of nonverbal communication around the worldChina Hugging or taking someone’s arm is considered inappropriate-winking or beckoning with one’s index finger is considered rudeMalaysia Touching someone casually on the top of the head (even a child’s) is considered impolite—it’s best to use your right hand to eat and touch people and thingsSouth Korea Men bow slightly and shake hands-sometimes with two hands—women refrain from shaking hands it is considered polite to cover your mouth while laughingIndonesia Handshaking and head noddings are customary greetingsThe Philippines Handshaking and a pat on the back are common greetingsThailand Public displays of temper or affection are frowned on—it is considered impolite to point at anything using your foot or to show the soles of your feetJapan Business cards are exchanged before bowing or handshaking—a weak handshake is common—lengthy or frequent eye contact is considered impolite
133What are Different Cultural Perceptions of Time Orientation? Time orientation is different in many cultures—there are two types of time:Monochronic Time is a preference for doing one thing at a timePolychronic Time is a preference for doing more than one thing at a time
134What are Different Cultural Perceptions of Religion? Different religions have different work related values5.9 millionConfucianism18 millionJudaism309 millionBuddhism719 millionHinduism950 millionIslam1.7 billionChristianityCurrent Followers of the Major World ReligionsFor example, the primary work-related values of various religionsCatholics- considerationProtestant- employer effectivenessBuddhists- social responsibilityMuslims-continuityIn those religions studied, there was virtually no agreement among religions as to the most important work-related value
135Key Terms Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) command economycountertradingculturedemocratic governmentsdeveloped countriesdumpinge-commerceembargoethnocentric managersEuropean Union (EU)exchange rateexpatriate managerexportingForeign Corrupt Practices Actfranchisingfree-market economyfree tradegeocentric managersglobal economyglobal outsourcingglobal villageglobalizationgreenfield ventureimport quotaimportinginfrastructureInternational Monetary Fund (IMF)joint ventureless-developed countrieslicensingmaquiladoresMercosurmixed economymonochronic timemost favored nationmultinational corporationmultination organizationnonverbal communicationNorth American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)outsourcingpolitical riskpolycentric managerspolychronic timeprivatizationtarifftrade protectionismtrading blocwholly-owned subsidiaryWorld BankWorld Trade Organization (WTO)
136Management in Action Why did Daimler-Benz merge with Chrysler? What were the key sources of conflict that kept employees at Chrysler and Daimler-Benz from cooperating with each other?To what extent are cultural differences between the United States and Germany contributing to problems associated with the merger? Explain.How is Dieter Zetsche trying to overcome source of conflict between Daimler-Chrysler’s U.S. employees and their German counterparts?Why is it so difficult to successfully create a megamerger between two international firms?
137Ethical DilemmaWhat would you do if you were a voting member of an EU national government?Allow Mr. Monti the expanded power he desires.Not allow Mr. Monto any additional power and authority.Reduce the amount of power and authority possessed by Mr. Monti’s investigators.Invent other options.
140Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer: 5.1 Planning and Uncertainty: How do I tend to deal with uncertainty, and how can planning help?5.2 Fundamentals of Planning: What are mission and vision statements, three types of planning and goals, and SMART goals?5.3 The Planning/Control Cycle: How does the planning/control cycle help keep a manager’s plans headed in the right direction?
141Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer Continued: 5.4 Promoting Goal Setting—Management by Objectives What is MBO, and how can it be implemented successfully to achieve results?5.5 Project Planning: What is project planning, why is it important, and what is the project life cycle?5.6 A Project-Planning Tool—Break-even Analysis: How can break-even analysis help a manager turn a profit?
142How Do Exceptional Managers Make Their Own Luck? Some steps to improve your luck:Make a list and consider your motivesCultivate optimism and confidenceAsk for help
143Planning & Uncertainty Planning previously defined as setting goals and deciding how to achieve them—another definition: Planning is coping with uncertainty by formulating future courses of action to achieve specified results
144Benefits of Planning Planning Helps You Check on Your Progress Planning Helps You Coordinate ActivitiesPlanning Helps You Think AheadAbove All, Planning Helps You Cope with Uncertainty
145Three Types of Uncertainty State Uncertainty when the environment is considered unpredictableResponse Uncertainty when the consequences of a decision are uncertainEffect Uncertainty when the effects of environmental changes are unpredictable
146Responding to Uncertainty Defenders are expert at producing and selling narrowly defined products and servicesAnalyzers let the organizations take the risks of product development and marketing and then imitate what seems to work bestProspectors focus on developing new markets or services and in seeking out new markets rather than waiting for things to happenReactors make adjustments only when finally forced to by environmental pressures
147Making PlansPanel 5.1Tactical Planning Done by middle managers for the next 6-24 monthsGoalsAction plansOperat-ional Planning Done by first-line managers for the next 1-52 weeksGoalsAction plansMission Statement “What is our reason for being?”Vision Statement “What do we want to become?”Strategic Planning Done by top managers for the next 1-5 yearsGoalsAction plans
148Amazon.com Mission Statement Mission StatementsAmazon.com Mission Statement“use the Internet to offer products that educate, inform, and inspire. We decided to build an online store that would be customer friendly and easy to navigate and would offer the broadest possible selection.”Mission Statement expresses the purpose of the organization
149Amazon.com Vision Statement Vision StatementsVision is a long-term goal describing “what” an organization wants to become—it is a clear sense of the future and the actions needed to get thereVision Statement expresses what the organization should become, where it wants to go strategicallyAmazon.com Vision Statement“Our vision is to build a place to find and discover anything our customers might want to buy…[including] car parts and spark plugs”
150Types of PlanningStrategic Planning top managers determine what the organization’s long-term goals should be for the next 1-10 years with the resources they expect to have available
151Types of PlanningTactical Planning middle managers determine what contributions their departments or similar work units can make with their given resources during the next 6 months to 2 years
152Types of PlanningOperational Planning first-line managers determine how to accomplish specific tasks with available resources within the next 1-week to 1-year period
153Goals & Action PlansAs with planning, goals are of the same three types, also like planning, goals are arranged in a hierarchy known as:Means-end chain because in the chain of management (operational, tactical, strategic) the accomplishment of low-level goals are the means leading to the accomplishment of high-level goals or ends
154Types of GoalsStrategic Goals are set by and for top management and focus on objectives for the organization as a wholeTactical Goals are set by and for middle managers and focus on the actions needed to achieve strategic goalsOperational Goals are set by and for first-line managers and are concerned with short-tem matters associated with realizing tactical goals
155S M A R T Setting SMART Goals pecific easurable ttainable esults-OrientedTarget Dates
156Relationship between goal difficulty and performance Panel 5.2BLow Moderate Challenging ImpossibleHighMediumLowPerformanceACGoal DifficultyA Performance of committed individuals with adequate abilityB Performance of committed individuals who are working at capacityC Performance of individuals who lack commitment to high goals
157The planning/control cycle Panel 5.3Carry out the planThe Two Planning StepsMake the PlanControl the direction in by comparing the results with the planControl the direction in two ways:By correcting deviations in the plan being carried out (return to Step 2) orBy improving future plans (go to Step 1 to start overThe Two Control Steps
158Management By Objectives Is a four-step process in whichManagers and employees jointly set objectives for the employeeManagers develop action plansManagers and employees periodically review the employee’s performanceThe manager makes a performance appraisal and rewards the employee according to the results
159The Four-Step Process for Motivating Employees Jointly Set ObjectivesDevelop Action PlanPeriodically Review PerformanceGive Performance Appraisal & Rewards, If Any
160Three Types of Objectives Used in MBO Panel 5.4Improvement Objective“Increase sport-utility sales by 10%”Personal Development Objective“Attend five days of leadership training”Maintenance Objective“Continue to meet the increased sales goals specified last quarter”
161MBO RequirementsFor MBO to be successful, three things have to happen:The Commitment of Top Management is EssentialIt Must Be Applied Organization-wideObjectives Must “Cascade”—MBO works by cascading objectives down through the organization; that is, objectives are structured in a unified hierarchy, becoming more specific at lower levels of the organization
162Project PlanningTask or work assignments—the simplest plan, this is something you might do using a “to-do” listProgram single-use plan encompassing a range of projects or difficultiesProject a single-use plan of less scope and complexity than a program
164Four Stages of the Project Life Cycle Stage 1 Definition you look at the big picture—you state the problem, look at the assumptions and risks, identify the projects goals and objectives, and determine the budget and scheduleStage 2 Planning you consider the details needed to make the big picture happen—identify the facilities and equipment needed, people and their duties, and schedule and coordination efforts if neededStage 3 Execution the actual work stage--you define management style and establish control tools—your main focus is to complete the project on time and under budget while trying to meet the client’s expectationsStage 4 Closing occurs when the project is accepted by the client—install deliverables and carry out training—may also have to write a report in which you document everything that has happened
165Break-Even AnalysisBreak-even analysis is a way of identifying how much revenue is needed to cover the total costs of developing and selling a product
166Break-even analysis Panel 5.6 Costs/Revenues (in dollars) ProfitVariable CostsTotal CostsTotal Sales RevenueBreak-even pointFixed Costs$3,000,000$2,400,00$1,800,00$1,200,000$600,000Loss0 10, , , , , , ,000Sales Units (of shirts and blouses)
167Benefits and Limitations of Break-even Analysis Benefits Break-even analysis has two benefits:For doing future “what-if” alternate scenarios of costs, prices, and salesFor analyzing the profitability of past projectsLimitations Break-even analysis is not a cure-all:It oversimplifiesThe assumptions may be faulty
169Management in ActionIf planning is coping with uncertainty, what kind of uncertainty were Mondavi and Pearson dealing with– state, effect, response?Which adjective best describes Mondavi’s approach to uncertainty—defender, prospector, analyzer, reactor?Would you say that Pearson’s goals were SMART goals?In the planning/control cycle, what should Pearson have done to have had a better chance of success?
170Ethical DilemmaWhat would you do if you were presiding judge in the bankruptcy court?Allow the retention bonuses to be paid as proposed by Kmart management.Not allow any retention bonuses because the company is bankrupt.Allow retention bonuses equitably for both managers and rank-and-file employees.Invent other options. (Discuss).
173Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer: 6.1 The Dynamics of Strategic Planning: Am I really managing if I don’t have a strategy?6.2 The Strategic Management Process What’s the five-step recipe for the strategic-management process?6.3 Establishing the Grand Strategy How can SWOT and forecasting help me establish my strategy?
174Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer Continued: 6.4 Formulating Strategy How can two techniques—Porter’s competitive strategies and the product life cycle—help me formulate strategy?6.5 Carrying Out & Controlling Strategy: How can two techniques—balanced scorecard and measured management—help me carry out control strategy?
175Successful Top Managers Lesson #1—in an Era of Management Fads, Strategic Planning is Still TopsLesson #2—A Manager’s Most Valuable Character Trait: Be Willing to Make Large, Painful Decisions to Suddenly Alter Strategy
176StrategyStrategy is a large scale action plan that sets the direction for the organizationStrategic Management is a process that involves managers from all parts of the organization in the formulation and the implementation of strategies and strategic goalsStrategic Planning determines not only the organization’s long-term goals for the next 1-5 year regarding growth and profits, but also the ways the organization should achieve them
177Why Strategic Management & Strategic Planning Are Important Provide Direction & MomentumEncourage New IdeasDevelop a Sustainable Competitive Advantage
178The Strategic Management Process Panel 6.12. Establish the grand strategy (using SWOT and forecasting)3. Formulate the strategic plans (using e.g. Porter)4. Carry out the strategic plan5. Maintain strategic control1. Establish the mission and visionFeedback: Revise actions, if necessary, based on feedback
179Step 1 Establish the Mission and Vision The Mission Statement should answer some or all of the following questionsWho are our customers?What are our major products or services?In what geographical areas do we compete?What is our basic technology?What is our commitment to economic objectives?What are our basic beliefs, values, aspirations, and philosophical priorities?What are our major strengths and competitive advantages?What are our public responsibilities, and what image do we wish to project?What is our attitude toward our employees?
180Step 1 Establish the Mission and Vision A powerful Vision Statement should answer “yes” to the following questionsIs is appropriate for the organization and for the times?Does it set standards of excellence and reflect high ideals?Does it clarify purpose and direction?Does it inspire enthusiasm and encourage commitment?Is it well articulated and easily understood?Does it reflect the uniqueness of the organization, its distinctive competence, what it stands for, what it’s able to achieve?Is it ambitious?
181Step 2 Establish the Grand Strategy Grand Strategy explains how the organization’s mission is to be accomplished—three common grand strategies are:Growth StrategyStability StrategyDefense Strategy
182Step 3 Formulate Strategic Plans Strategic Formulation is the process of choosing among different strategies and altering them to best fit the organization’s needsStep 4 Carry Out the Strategic PlanStrategic Implementation is putting the strategic plans into effect
183Step 4 Carry Out the Strategic Plan Strategic Implementation is putting the strategic plans into effect
184Step 5 Maintain Strategic Control Strategic Control consists of monitoring the execution of strategy and making adjustments, if necessaryEngage peopleKeep it simpleStay focusedKeep moving
186Inside Matters—analysis of internal Strengths & Weaknesses SWOT AnalysisPanel 6.2Inside Matters—analysis of internal Strengths & WeaknessesS—Strengths: inside matters Strengths could be work processes, organization, culture, staff, product quality, production capacity, image, financial resources & requirements, service levels, other internal mattersW--Weaknesses: inside matters Weaknesses could be the same categories as stated for Strengths: work processes, organization, culture, etc.
187Outside Matters—analysis of external Opportunities & Threats SWOT AnalysisPanel 6.2O—Opportunities: outside matters opportunities could be market segment analysis, industry & competition analysis, impact of technology on organization, product analysis, governmental impacts, other external mattersT—Threats: outside matters Threats could be in the same categories as stated for Opportunities: market segment analysis, etc.Outside Matters—analysis of external Opportunities & Threats
188Strategic Planning Tools & Techniques Forecasting is a vision or projection of the future—two types:Trend Analysis is a hypothetical extension of a past series of events into the futureContingency Planning also known as scenario planning & scenario analysis is the creation of alternative hypothetical but equally likely future conditions
193The Product Life CycleStage 1 Introduction Stage is the stage in the product life cycle in which a new product is introduced into the marketplaceStage 2 Growth Stage which is the most profitable stage, is the period in which customer demand increases, the product’s sales grow, and later competitors may enter the marketStage 3 Maturity Stage is the period in which the product starts to fall out of favor and sales and profits to fall offStage 4 Decline Stage is the period in which the product falls out of favor, and the organization withdraws from the marketplace
194The Balanced Scorecard The Balanced Scorecard gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of the organization via four indicators:Financial MeasuresCustomer SatisfactionInternal ProcessesThe Organization’s Innovation and Improvement Activities
195The Balanced Scorecard Panel 6.5Financial Perspective“How do we look to shareholders?”Goals Measures2. Customer Perspective“Ho do customers see us?”Goals Measures3. Internal Business Perspective“What must we excel at?”Goals Measures4. Innovation & Learning Perspective“Can we continue to improve and create value?Goals Measures
196Successful Measurement-managed Firms Top executives agree on strategyCommunication is clearThere is better focus and alignmentsThe organizational culture emphasizes teamwork and allows risk taking
197Barriers to Effective Management Objectives are fuzzyManagers put too much trust in informal feedback systemsEmployees resist new measurement systemsCompanies focus too much on measuring activities instead of results
199Management in ActionAs described in this article, does Intel’s strategy seem clear or confusing? Explain.How would you describe Intel’s grand strategy?Using Panel 6.2 as a framework, conduct a SWOT analysis of Intel. What are your conclusions?Which of Porter’s four generic competitive strategies is Intel pursuing? Explain.Using the descriptions in Panel 6.5 describe the driving force behind Intel’s strategic decisions.
200Ethical DilemmaIf you were in charge of corporate strategy for Stanley Works, would you continue to relocate your nominal headquarters to Bermuda?Yes, because the action will make the company more money.No, because the move is bad public relations and might cost the company goodwill and government contracts.I’d delay the decision until I see what action the U.S. Senate takes.Other possible options. (Discuss).
203Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer: 7.1 The Nature of Decision Making How do I decide to decide?7.2 Two Kinds of Decision Making—Rational & Nonrational How do people know when they’re being logical or illogical?7.3 Solving Problems and Seizing Opportunities What are the fours steps in practical decision making?
204Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer Continued: 7.4 Group Decision Making How do I work with others to make things happen?7.5 How to Overcome Barriers to Decision Making Trying to be rational isn’t always easy—What are the barriers?
205How Exceptional Managers Make Decisions When should you make a decision and when should you delay?UnderstandingComfort level about outcomeFuture possible alternativesSeizing the opportunity
206How Exceptional Managers Make Decisions Making Tough ChoicesDecide in a timely fashionDon’t agonize over minor decisionsSeparate outcome from processLearn when to stop gathering factsWhen overwhelmed, narrow your choices
207Decision Making Defined Decision is a choice made from among available alternativesDecision Making is the process of identifying and choosing alternative courses of action
208Types of DecisionsProgrammed Decisions are repetitive and routineNonprogrammed Decisions are those that occur under nonroutine, unfamiliar circumstances
209General Decision Making Styles Decision-making Style reflects the combination of how an individual perceives and responds to information
210Decision Making Conditions Panel 7.1AnalyticalConceptualDirectiveBehavioralHighTolerance for ambiguityLowTask & technical concernsPeople & social concernsValue Orientation
211Using Knowledge Knowledge of styles helps you to understand yourself You can increase your ability to influence others by being aware of stylesKnowledge of styles gives you an awareness of how people can take the same information yet arrive at different decisions using a variety of decision-making strategies
212Rational Decision Making Rational Model of Decision Making also called the classical model explains how managers should make decisions; it assumes managers will make logical decisions that will be optimum in furthering the organization’s best interestsThe Rational Model is based on unrealistic assumptions:Complete information, no uncertaintyLogical, unemotional analysis,Best Decision for the organization
213Nonrational Decision Making Nonrational models of decision making explain how managers do make decisions; they assume the decision making is nearly always uncertain and risky, making it difficult for managers to make the optimum decisionsFive Nonrational Models are:SatisficingIncrementalCoalitionalGarbage canIntuitional
214Nonrational ModelsSatisficing Model managers seek alternatives until they find one that is satisfactory, not optimalIncremental Model managers take small, short-term steps to alleviate a problemCoalitional Model managers band together in groups favoring different alternatives, and the groups bargain, negotiate, and compromise on a particular problemGarbage Can Model managers virtually make random decisionsIntuitive Model consists of a manager’s quickly sizing up a situation and making a decision based on his or her experience or practice
215Some Hindrances to Perfectly Rational Decision Making Panel 7.2ComplexityTime and money constraintsDifferent cognitive capacity, values, skills, habits, and unconscious reflexesImperfect informationInformation overloadDifferent prioritiesConflicting goals
216The Four Steps in Practical Decision Making Panel 7.3Stage 2Think up alternative solutionsStage 3Evaluate alternatives & select a solutionStage 4Implement & evaluate the solution chosenStage 1Identify the problem or opportunity
217Stage 1 Problems difficulties that inhibit the achievement of goals Identify the problem or opportunityDiagnosis analyzing underlying causesProblems difficulties that inhibit the achievement of goalsOpportunities situations that present possibilities for exceeding existing goals
218Stage 2Stage 2Think up alternative solutionsFor a programmed decision—the alternative will be easy and obviousFor a nonprogrammed decision—the more creative and innovative the alternative, the better0
219Stage 3 Is solution feasible? Is solution ethical? Evaluate alternatives & select a solutionIs solution feasible?Is solution ethical?Is solution ultimately effective?
220Is Solution Ethical?Panel 7.4Here are some tests for business people worried about whether they’re committing fraudThe Smell TestCan you look yourself in the eye and tell yourself that the decision you have made is okay? Or does the situation have a bad smell to it?The “What Would Your Parent Say?” TestCould you explain to your parents (or family) the basis for the action you are considering?The Deposition TestCould you swear in court or in a deposition (testimony taken by lawyers while you’re under oath) that the activity you are doing is right?
221Stage 4 Successful Implementation you need to: Implement & evaluate the solution chosenSuccessful Implementation you need to:Plan carefullyBe sensitive to those affectedEvaluation You need to follow up and evaluate the results of the decision
222Evaluation What should you do if the solution is not working? Give it more timeChange it slightlyTry another alternativeStart over
223Group-aided decision making: potential advantages and disadvantages Panel 7.5Potential AdvantagesPotential Disadvantages1. Greater pool of knowledge1. A few people dominate2. Different perspectives2. Groupthink3. Intellectual stimulation3. Satisficing4. Better understanding of decisionrationale4. Goal displacement5. Deeper commitment to the decision
224Groups & Decision Making They are less effectiveTheir size affects decision qualityThey may be too confidentKnowledge counts
225When to use groups in decision making Panel 7.6When it can increase qualityWhen it can increase acceptanceWhen it can increase development
226Participative Management Participative Management (PM) the process of involving employees inSetting goalsMaking decisionsSolving problemsMaking changes in the organization
227Increasing PM’s Effectiveness Top management is continually involvedMiddle and supervisory managers are supportiveEmployees trust managersEmployees are readyEmployees don’t work in interdependent jobsPM is implemented with TQM
228Group Problem-Solving Techniques DosUse active listening skillsInvolve as many members as possibleSeek out the reasons behind argumentsDig for factsDon’tsAvoid log rolling and horse trading (“I’ll support your pet project, if you support mine”)Avoid making an agreement simply to keep relations amicable and not rock the boatTry to achieve consensus by putting question to a vote
229More Group Problem-Solving Techniques Interacting GroupNominal GroupThe Delphi GroupComputer-Aided Decision MakingChauffer-driven systemsGroup-driven systems
230Ineffective Reactions to Decision Situations Relaxed AvoidanceRelaxed ChangeDefense AvoidancePanic
231Effective Reactions to Decision Situations Deciding to Decide a manager agrees that he or she must decide what to do about a problem or opportunity and take effective decision-making stepsImportanceCredibilityUrgency
232HeuristicsHeuristics strategies that simplify the process of making decisions
233Decision Making Biases Availability BiasRepresentative BiasAnchoring and Adjustment BiasEscalation of Commitment Bias
234Key Terms availability bounded rationality coalitional model consensus deciding to decidedecisiondecision makingdecision-making styleDelphi groupDiagnosisescalation of commitmentgarbage-can modelgoal displacementGroupthinkHeuristicsincremental modelinteracting groupintuitive modelnominal groupnonprogrammed decisionsnonrational models of decision makingopportunitiespanicparticipative management (PM)problemsprogrammed decisionrational models of decision makingrelaxed avoidancerelaxed changerepresentative biassatisficing model
235Management in ActionWhat examples of programmed and nonprogrammed decisions were made by management?What types of decision-making styles see, to characterize Gordon McFadden and Philip Knight? Explain your rationale.Which of the five nonrational models of decision-making best characterizes the decision making at Nike? Explain.Describe the apparent advantages and disadvantages of group decision making among Nike’s top management team.How would you describe the decision-making culture at Nike?
236Ethical DilemmaWhat would you do if you were a PaineWebber supervisor aware of the rumors about Enron’s stability and received the Enron complaint?Fire Mr. Wu. That is, go along with Enron’s request, because they are an important client.Not fire Mr. Wu and let his recommendation to clients stand in order to encourage independent decision making and fiduciary responsibility to all clients. Send a tactful letter to Enron executives who complained.Buck the whole problem to your own supervisor, even though your being neutral will satisfy no one and may even invite litigationInvent other options. (Discuss)
239Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer: 8.1 The Kinds of Organizational Structure You May Be Operating In How do I find out about an organization’s “social glue,” its normal way of doing business?8.2 What Is an Organization? How do for-profit, nonprofit, and mutual-benefit organizations differ?8.3 The Major Elements of an Organization When I join an organization, what seven elements should I look for?
240Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer Continued: 8.4 Basic Types of Organizational Structures How would one describe the eight organizational cultures?8.5 Contingency Design—Factors to Consider in Creating the Best Structure What factors affect the design of an organization’s structure?8.6 Toward Building a Learning Organization Why do organizations resist learning, and what is a new way for employees in an organization to view themselves?
241Mentoring: The New Rules Choose anyone you can learn from, not just someone higher upChoose more than one mentorPick your mentors, don’t wait to be pickedDo a self-assessmentLook for someone different from youInvestigate your prospectsShow your prospective mentor how you can be helpfulAgree on how your mentoring relationship will work
242What is an Organizational Culture? Organizational Culture sometimes called corporate culture is a system of shared beliefs and values that develops within an organization and guide the behavior of its members
243Not seen by the naked eye Levels of CultureThe Invisible Level:Not seen by the naked eyeThe Visible Level:Manifestations
244Characteristics of Invisible Level ValuesBeliefsAssumptions
245Manifestations of Culture Symbols objects, acts, qualities, or events that convey meaning to othersStories narratives based on true events, which are repeated—and sometimes embellished—to emphasize a particular valueHeroes people whose accomplishments embody the values of the organizationRites and Rituals are the activities and ceremonies, planned and unplanned, that celebrate important occasions and accomplishments
246Four Functions of Organizational Culture It gives members an organizational identityIt facilitates collective commitmentIt promotes social-system stabilityIt shapes behavior by helping employees make sense of their surroundings
247OrganizationsOrganization is a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more people—There are three types of organizations, according to their purpose
248Three Types of Organizations For-Profit OrganizationsNonprofit OrganizationsMutual-Benefit Organizations
249The Organization Chart Organization Chart is a box-and-lines illustration showing the formal lines of authority and the organization’s official positions or division of labor
250Information in Organization Charts The Vertical Hierarchy of Authority: A glance up and a glance down shows the chain of commandThe Horizontal Specialization: A glance to the left and right on the line of an organization chart shows the different jobs or work specialization
251Organization Chart—Example for a Hospital Panel 8.1Board of DirectorsStrategic Planning AdvisorChief Executive OfficerLegal CounselPresidentCost Containment StaffExecutive Administrative DirectorExecutive Medical DirectorDirector of X-Ray & Laboratory ServicesDirector of PharmacyChief PhysicianDirector of PersonnelDirector of AdmissionsDirector of Nutrition & Food ServicesDirector of Patient & Public RelationsDirector of AccountingDirector of SurgeryDirector of Outpatient Services
252An Organization’s Major Elements Common PurposeCoordinated EffortDivision of LaborHierarchy of AuthoritySpan of Control
253Spans of Control: Narrow versus Wide Panel 8.2FCEONarrowKey:T = Top managerM = Middle managerF = First-line (supervisory) managerTMWide
254An Organization’s Major Elements Authority refers to the rights inherent in a managerial position to make decisions, give orders, and utilize resourcesAccountability managers must report and justify work results to managers above themResponsibility is the obligation you have to perform the tasks assigned to youDelegation is the process of assigning managerial authority and responsibility to managers and employees lower in the hierarchy
255Line Positions versus Staff Positions Panel 8.3Line and Staff: Line have solid lines, staff have dotted linesBoard of DirectorsStrategic Planning AdvisorChief Executive OfficerLegal CounselPresidentCost Containment StaffExecutive Administrative DirectorExecutive Medical Director
256Line Vs. StaffLine Managers have authority to make decisions and usually have people reporting to themStaff Personnel have authority functions; they provide advice, recommendations, and research to line managers
257Centralized Vs. Decentralized Organizations Centralized Authority important decisions are made by higher-level managersDecentralized Authority important decisions are made by middle-level and supervisory-level managers
259Simple StructurePanel 8.4OwnerAdministrativeAssistantThere is only one hierarchical level of management beneath the owner
260Functional Structure Structure for a business Structure for a hospital Panel 8.5Structure for a businessPresidentVicePresident,MarketingFinanceProductionHumanResourcesStructure for a hospitalChiefAdministratorChief ofMedicalServicesDirector ofAdministrativeOutpatientNutrition &Food Services
261Divisional StructureProduct Divisions group activities are arranged around similar products or servicesCustomer Divisions group activities around common customers or clientsGeographic Divisions group activities around defined regional locations
263Conglomerate Structures Panel 8.7This resembles the structure of General ElectricPresidentLightingProductsAppliancesAircraftEnginesPlasticsFinancialServicesBroad-casting
264Hybrid Structures A Hypothetical example of what GM might use Panel 8.8Vice-President,ProductionMarketingFinanceHumanResourcesFunctional divisional structurePresidentCadillacBuickPontiacChevroletProduct Divisional StructureManagerRegion IRegion IIRegion IIIRegion IVGeographical divisional structureA Hypothetical example of what GM might use
265Matrix Structure Example of Ford Motor Company Panel 8.9 PresidentVicePresident,EngineeringFinanceProductionPresident.MarketingProjectManager, TaurusManager, MustangManager, ExplorerManager, ExpeditionFunctional StructureSubordinate reports toboth Vice President of marketing &to projectManager for MustangProject structureExample of Ford Motor Company
266Team-Based Structures Panel 8.10PresidentVicePresident,Research &DevelopmentDesignEngineeringMarketingProduct TeamManager,ManufacturingLight TrucksSedansSport CarsProject team membersFunctional structureProject teams
267Network Structure Core of personal computer company USA Panel 8.11 DesignStudioSwedenComponentsAssemblyMexico, AsiaCore of personal computer companyUSAEngineeringCompanyJapanDistributionCompanyCanadaAccounting& FinanceUSA
268Contingency DesignContingency Design the process of fitting the organization to the environment
269Factors Affecting Organizational Design Mechanistic vs. OrganicDifferentiation vs. IntegrationSizeTechnologyLife Cycle
270Characteristics of Mechanistic & Organic Organizations Panel 8.12Organic organizationsMechanisticorganizationsCentralized hierarchy of authorityDecentralized hierarchy of authorityMany rules and proceduresFew rules and proceduresSpecialized tasksShared tasksFormalized communicationInformal communicationFew teams or task forcesMany teams or task forcesNarrow span of control, taller structureWider span of control, flatter structure
271Lawrence & Lorsch Model Differentiation the tendency of parts of an organization to disperse and fragmentIntegration the tendency of the parts of an organization to draw together to achieve a common purpose
272SizeOrganizational Size is usually measured by the number of full-time employeesThe larger the organization, the more mechanistic.
273Technology Small-Batch Technology Large-Batch Technology Continuous Process
274Organizational Life Cycle Birth Stage the nonbureaucratic stage in which the organization is createdYouth Stage the organization is in a prebureaucratic stage, a stage of growth and expansionMidlife Stage the organization becomes bureaucratic, a period of growth evolving into stabilityMaturity Stage the organization becomes very bureaucratic, large and mechanistic
275Why Organizations Resist Learning People believe competition is always better than collaborationFragmentation leads to specialized fiefdoms that resist learningUnless encouraged, people won’t take risks, the basis of learning
276Key Terms authority birth stage centralized authority common purpose contingency designcontinuous-process technologycoordinated effortcustomer divisionsdecentralized authoritydelegationdivision of labordivisional structurefunctional structuregeographic divisionsherohierarchy of authorityhybrid structurelarge-batch technologymatrix structurematurity stagemechanistic organizationmidlife stagenetwork structureorganic differentiationOrganizationorganization chartorganizational cultureorganizational life cycleorganizational sizeParadigmsproduct divisionsResponsibilityrites and ritualssimple structuresmall-batch technologystorySymbolteam-based structuretechnologyyouth stage
277Management in ActionHow would you describe the “core culture” of Arthur Andersen?Would you say there was more than one culture, and were they in conflict?What kind of divisional structure does the company seem to have had?Was Andersen characterized by differentiation or integration, according to Lawrence and Lorsch model?
278Ethical DilemmaWhat would you do to the performance evaluation system?Leave it alone because it rewards individual achievement.Keep the basic ranking process, but drop the requirement that the PRC must unanimously agree on each person’s evaluation. The company might use an average ranking across all raters as the final rating.Drop the entire ranking process because it is too subjective.Invent other options. Discuss.