21. Chapter Objectives: Learning Objectives Understand how health affects your lifestyleRecognize how the delivery of health care influences definitions of healthDetail some of the health concerns outlined by the Institute of Medicine and Healthy People 2010Suggest additional reasons why health behavior change is difficult, beyond those outlined in the textSpeculate on strategies for encouraging health behavior changeList Prochaska’s six stages of changeDescribe and compare the range of traditional and nontraditional students on your campusDescribe the developmental tasks of young adulthood, and assess your level of progress in mastering them
31. Chapter Objectives: Behavior Change Objectives Monitor your own activities, and list the dimensions of health from which resources are drawnCompare wellness and health promotion, noting both the differences and the similarities between the two conceptsDescribe your text’s new definition of health and compare it with definitions of episodic health care and health promotionBehavior Change ObjectivesAssess your commitment to your own individual wellness, rather than simply your ability to avoid illness.Review your use of tobacco and alcohol, your participation in exercise, your diet, your coping techniques, your body weight, your access to preventive health care, your outlook on life, and your belief system.Depending on your age, assess your progress in the developmental tasks of young adulthood, middle adulthood, or late adulthood.Identify at least three specific steps you can take to increase your progress in the developmental tasks of your age group.Identify a high-risk health behavior that you would like to change and chart a plan to change it.
4Key Termsempowerment the nurturing of an individual's or group's ability to be responsible for their own health and well-beinghealth promotion movement in which knowledge, practices, and values are transmitted to people for use in lengthening their lives, reducing the incidence of illness, and feeling betterhigh-risk health behavior a behavioral pattern, such as smoking, associated with a high risk of developing a chronic illnessholistic health a view of health in terms of its physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational makeupmorbidity pertaining to illness and disease
5Key Terms mortality pertaining to death nontraditional-age students administrative term used by colleges and universities for students who, for whatever reason, are pursuing undergraduate work at an age other than that associated with the traditional college years (18–24)preventive or prospective medicine physician-centered medical care in which areas of risk for chronic illnesses are identified so that they might be loweredProchaska's Stages of Change the six predictable stages— precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination—people go through in establishing new habits and patterns of behaviorrisk factor a biomedical index such as serum cholesterol level or a behavioral pattern such as smoking, associated with a chronic illnesswellness the unlocking of our full potential through the adoption of an overall wellness lifestyle
6Eye on the Media Radio and Television Newspapers and Magazines Professional JournalsGovernment DocumentsBooksInternet
7Take care of your health, because you’ll miss it when it’s gone. Failing health affects:Pursuit of education and/or careerSocializingTravelMeeting new peopleHaving or raising childrenHobbies and recreationFoodLiving independently
8Keys to Longer LifeTest cholesterol and take appropriate actions if neededBrisk walk 30 min/daySeat beltOlive oil vs. butterReduce or quit tobaccoAvoid sun excessive exposureQuestion Dr.Don’t worry
9Definitions of HealthEpisodic: seeking medical treatment during episodes when ill or injuredPreventive Medicine: identifying risk factors to lower the risk of illnessMorbidity: Pertaining to illness and diseaseMortality: Pertaining to death
10Episodic Only when sick Racial groups Whites 3.4/yr Blacks 2.5/yr Asians 2.3/yrNative Americans 0.8/yr
112004 StatisticsTop eight causes of death, first time cancer surpassed heart disease as leading cause of death in Americans under age 80
12Preventive or Prospective Medicine Defined: physician-centered medical care in which areas of risk for chronic illnesses are identified so that they might be lowered.Risk factor: a biomedical index such as serum cholesterol level or a behavioral pattern such as smoking, a/w a chronic illness.High-risk health behavior: a behavioral pattern, such as smoking, a/w a high risk of developing a chronic illness
13Risk Reduction Refrain form tobacco Drink in moderation or not at all Regular exerciseFollow dietary guidelinesReduce portionsIncrease fruits and veggiesMaintain normal body weightEffective coping strategiesRegular preventive health careMaintain optimismSpiritual growth
14What is Health Promotion? Defined: Movement in which knowledge, practices, and values are transmitted to people for use in:Longer and better quality of lifeReducing incidence of illnessFeeling better
15Why Men Die Young Females - 80, men – 70 Once believed mostly genetics, i.e. protective effects of estrogenNew evidence demonstrates discrepancy due to male behaviors than genetics
16Why Men Die Young More men smoke Men twice as likely to drink heavily Men work in more dangerous settingsMore men drive SUV’s
17Individual vs. Community Health Promotion Individual focuses upon risk reduction that doesn’t always emphasize the reduction of chronic illnessCommunity places emphasis on a group centered concept to promote empowermentEmpowerment: gain more self control over one’s health perspective (i.e., drug prevention within communities at risk)
18Healthy People 2010 Goals Increase the quality and years of life Eliminate health disparities in areas such as gender, race, ethnicity, income and education level.
19Why Behavior Change is Difficult Factors that influence a person to change health behaviors.Behavior must be associated with a health problemThe belief must exist that the behavior causes the health problemThe knowledge that risk prevention-intervention programs exist and can be effectiveThe belief that a new behavior can justify the change of old behaviorThe belief that people who care about them will be accepting of such changes
20Stages of ChangeProchaska et al. (1994) demonstrated the following 6 stages to accomplish change of health behaviorsPre-contemplationContemplationPreparationActionMaintenanceTermination
21Today’s College Students Traditional (early adults = 66%)Non-traditional (older adults)Minority groups (numbers increasing)Disabled population (9.3%)
22Identifying Developmental Tasks of Young Adults Forming an initial adult identity (who am I?)Establishing independenceAssuming responsibilityBroadening social skillsNurturing intimacy
24Related Developmental Tasks of Young Adulthood Obtaining entry-level employmentDevelopment of parenting skills
25Multiple Dimensions of Health PhysicalEmotionalSpiritualSocialOccupationalIntellectualHolistic health: A requirement of health that moves beyond the cure/prevention of illness and the postponement of death
26What is Wellness? A form of health promotion Uses assessments and informationDevelops boundaries of health beyond mortality/morbidityUnlocks an individual’s full potential at discovering a positive lifestyle
27A New Definition of Health A view less centered on the concepts of mortality and morbidityTwo areas of differences to focus upon:
28A New Definition of Health 1) The Role of Health (process of transitions)Moving through each stage of adulthood does not occur simply because time passesWe actively participate daily in demands appropriate to our life stage
29A New Definition of Health The Composition of Health:Health is a reflection of one’s ability to use the intrinsic and extrinsic resources related to each dimension of health to participate fully in the activities that contribute to growth and development, with the goal of feeling a sense of well being as one evaluates one’s progress through life.
30A New Definition of Health Intrinsic resourcesbasic and essential: belonging to something as one of the basic and essential elements that make it what it isof itself: by or in itself, rather than because of its associations or consequencesExtrinsic resourcesinessential: that is not an essential part of somethingcoming from outside: coming or operating from outside something
31Chapter One: Shaping Your Health Practice Questions
32Multiple ChoiceThe most important reason that talk radio is a poor source of health information is thatthe radio hosts make poor moderators.the shows are commercially sponsored.much of the information broadcast could be wrong.information is delivered in a very emotional fashion.there is seldom time to explore all sides of an issue.The biggest problem with obtaining all of your health information from magazines is thatthe articles are too short.the articles are written at too low a of an academic level.their accuracy and reliability vary widely.they are an expensive information source.their purpose is to sell products, not convey information.The best reason to trust the health-related articles in professional journals is thatthe authors have extensive credentials in their fields.they are not driven by advertising.the authors are very competitive in their fields.they are usually reviewed by experts before publication.many are sponsored by federal government research grants.
33Multiple ChoiceThe vast majority of Americans use the services of health-care providers during periods of illness and injury, a practice calledintensive health care.episodic health care.health promotion.consumer health care.interventional health care.When physicians attempt to practice preventive medicine, they first attempt toschedule more patients.get patients to schedule appointments only when they are sick.treat emergency cases.identify risk factors.become more specialized.The health professionals at your local YMCA will attempt to guide youtowards activities and behaviors that will lower your risk of chronic illness. This process is termedinvasive health care.managed health care.comprehensive health care.
34Multiple ChoiceThe process in which individuals gain increasing control over their health is known asrisk reduction.preventive health care.empowerment.prospective medicine.quality health assessment.Of the following, the main reason the Healthy People 2000 goals were revised to produce Healthy People 2010 waslittle or no progress was reported in some areas.the WHO’s global initiatives took precedence.the Healthy People 2000 goals were achieved.the Healthy People 2000 goals were unrealistic.a major change in emphasis from disease prevention to wellness.All of the following are stages in Prochaska’s Stages of Change exceptmaintenancepreparationactionmeditationcontemplation
35Multiple ChoiceLisa has a desire to lose 15 pounds but she has very little understanding on how to go about it. According to Prochaska’s Stages of Change, she is in which stage of change?activeprecontemplationcontemplationpreparationConsiderationYou have been named chairperson of a campus drive for famine relief. Which developmental task does this involve most strongly?developing social skillsassuming responsibilityestablishing independenceestablishing an adult identitydeveloping intimate relationshipsThe most important reason to develop intimate relationships is toenhance your social skills.release emotional stresses.prepare you to accept responsibility.demonstrate the ability to protect another’s privacy.have someone with whom to share deeply held thoughts and feelings.
36Multiple ChoiceThe first developmental task of young adulthood, which serves as a foundation for later stages, isestablishing independence.nurturing intimacy.broadening social skills.forming an initial adult identity.getting a high paying job.A view of health in which the six components or dimensions of health interact in a synergistic manner is termedholistic health.health management.interactive health.complete health.dimensional health.Which of the following is the best example of the emotional dimension of health?coping with stressanalyzing health issuesidentifying with a faith traditionworking successfully in groupsmonitoring one’s individual health status
37Multiple ChoiceOf the following, the best example of using the intellectual dimension of health isinteracting with students of other ages.coping with uncomfortable situations.adapting to changing circumstances.developing aerobic fitness.choosing medical providers.The essence of the spiritual dimension of health isfinding an appropriate religion.developing empathy for those in need.developing the ability to compete successfully in one’s field.developing the ability to interpret the actions of others.better defining our relationship with the universe and all it contains.All of the following may be benefits of developing the occupational dimension of health exceptgain financial resources.learn to manipulate other people.learn conflict resolutionlearn to share responsibility.develop intellectual growth.
38True / FalseThe internet is an important source of health information for both professionals and the general public.A sense of well-being is important to of the traditional definitions of health.Many physicians say they have little time to practice preventive medicine because of the high cost of managed health care plans.An important tool in assessing risk is an accurate family history.Episodic and preventive medicine both place their main focus on illness.During the maintenance stage new habits are well established so efforts to change are complete.All college students face the same developmental tasks, regardless
39True / FalseGaining the ability to make mature parenting decisions is not considered one of the five major developmental tasks.Social skills and insights are considered a dimension of health.Spirituality requires a belief in a higher power.Wellness is mostly concerned with one’s morbidity and mortality
40Critical ThinkingYou have considered quitting smoking for sometime now. What factors can strongly influence your desire to change this high health-risk behavior?Describe how the different definitions of health represent an evolving concept of health.Why is access to quality health care a major goal of both Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010?Discuss the challenges faced by Franco, a 19-year-old man with hemophilia (a hereditary, life-threatening blood disorder that requires frequent medical attention) as he tries to complete the developmental tasks of adulthood.Try to make a case for the spiritual dimension of health being the
41SummaryWhen used to define health, morbidity and mortality relate to the prevalence of particular diseases and illnesses and to death resulting form those disease and illnesses.When we seek the services of health care practitioner because of symptoms of illness or disease we are said to be seeking episodic health care.
42SummaryPreventive medical care attempts to minimize the incidence of illness and disease by identifying early indicators of risk to bring them under control.Individual health promotion involves risk reduction activities similar to those used in preventive medicine, except that the techniques cannot be invasive and are directed by professionals who are not physicians. Its most visible emphasis tends to be on fitness and body composition.
43SummaryCommunity health promotion involves the empowerment of individuals so that they can organize and participate in their own health promotion.Healthy People 2010 is federally funded program to improve the nation’s health, increase life expectancy, and expand access to comprehensive health care.
44SummaryA decision to change a health behavior is often difficult to make bacause of the multiplicity of factors underlying the maintenance of the high risk behaviorHealth behavior change requires movement through a multistaged process including precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination.
45SummaryA wide array of health problems persist despite today’s highly sophisticated health care technology.Today's college campus is a dynamic blend of students of both traditional and nontraditional ages and of diverse background, cultures, and attributes.
46SummaryYoung adulthood is characterized by five key developmental tasks: forming an initial adult identity, establishing independence, assuming responsibility, broadening social skills, and nurturing intimacy.Personal development during young adulthood involves a set of developmental tasks that are common to all yet may be undertaken differently by each individual.
47SummaryMultidimensional definitions of health, including holistic health, have existed for decades—although the primary emphasis has always been on the physical dimension.Current multidimensions of health may include many or all of the following dimensions: physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational.
48SummaryWellness contends a disinterest in morbidity and mortality, rather emphasizing living a wellness lifestyle that leads to a sense of well-being.Our definition of health includes the role of health and the composition of health. The role of health is to enable individuals to participate in the activities that collectively constitute growth and development. The composition of health is the intrinsic and extrinsic resources on which individuals can draw to participate fully in their own growth and development.