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Chapter One: Shaping Your Health

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1 Chapter One: Shaping Your Health

2 1. Chapter Objectives: Learning Objectives
Understand how health affects your lifestyle Recognize how the delivery of health care influences definitions of health Detail some of the health concerns outlined by the Institute of Medicine and Healthy People 2010 Suggest additional reasons why health behavior change is difficult, beyond those outlined in the text Speculate on strategies for encouraging health behavior change List Prochaska’s six stages of change Describe and compare the range of traditional and nontraditional students on your campus Describe the developmental tasks of young adulthood, and assess your level of progress in mastering them

3 1. Chapter Objectives: Behavior Change Objectives
Monitor your own activities, and list the dimensions of health from which resources are drawn Compare wellness and health promotion, noting both the differences and the similarities between the two concepts Describe your text’s new definition of health and compare it with definitions of episodic health care and health promotion Behavior Change Objectives Assess your commitment to your own individual wellness, rather than simply your ability to avoid illness. Review your use of tobacco and alcohol, your participation in exercise, your diet, your coping techniques, your body weight, your access to preventive health care, your outlook on life, and your belief system. Depending on your age, assess your progress in the developmental tasks of young adulthood, middle adulthood, or late adulthood. Identify at least three specific steps you can take to increase your progress in the developmental tasks of your age group. Identify a high-risk health behavior that you would like to change and chart a plan to change it.

4 Key Terms empowerment  the nurturing of an individual's or group's ability to be responsible for their own health and well-being health promotion  movement in which knowledge, practices, and values are transmitted to people for use in lengthening their lives, reducing the incidence of illness, and feeling better high-risk health behavior  a behavioral pattern, such as smoking, associated with a high risk of developing a chronic illness holistic health  a view of health in terms of its physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational makeup morbidity  pertaining to illness and disease

5 Key Terms mortality pertaining to death
nontraditional-age students  administrative term used by colleges and universities for students who, for whatever reason, are pursuing undergraduate work at an age other than that associated with the traditional college years (18–24) preventive or prospective medicine  physician-centered medical care in which areas of risk for chronic illnesses are identified so that they might be lowered Prochaska's Stages of Change  the six predictable stages— precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination—people go through in establishing new habits and patterns of behaviorrisk factor  a biomedical index such as serum cholesterol level or a behavioral pattern such as smoking, associated with a chronic illness wellness  the unlocking of our full potential through the adoption of an overall wellness lifestyle

6 Eye on the Media Radio and Television Newspapers and Magazines
Professional Journals Government Documents Books Internet

7 Take care of your health, because you’ll miss it when it’s gone.
Failing health affects: Pursuit of education and/or career Socializing Travel Meeting new people Having or raising children Hobbies and recreation Food Living independently

8 Keys to Longer Life Test cholesterol and take appropriate actions if needed Brisk walk 30 min/day Seat belt Olive oil vs. butter Reduce or quit tobacco Avoid sun excessive exposure Question Dr. Don’t worry

9 Definitions of Health Episodic: seeking medical treatment during episodes when ill or injured Preventive Medicine: identifying risk factors to lower the risk of illness Morbidity: Pertaining to illness and disease Mortality: Pertaining to death

10 Episodic Only when sick Racial groups Whites 3.4/yr Blacks 2.5/yr
Asians 2.3/yr Native Americans 0.8/yr

11 2004 Statistics Top eight causes of death, first time cancer surpassed heart disease as leading cause of death in Americans under age 80

12 Preventive or Prospective Medicine
Defined: physician-centered medical care in which areas of risk for chronic illnesses are identified so that they might be lowered. Risk factor: a biomedical index such as serum cholesterol level or a behavioral pattern such as smoking, a/w a chronic illness. High-risk health behavior: a behavioral pattern, such as smoking, a/w a high risk of developing a chronic illness

13 Risk Reduction Refrain form tobacco Drink in moderation or not at all
Regular exercise Follow dietary guidelines Reduce portions Increase fruits and veggies Maintain normal body weight Effective coping strategies Regular preventive health care Maintain optimism Spiritual growth

14 What is Health Promotion?
Defined: Movement in which knowledge, practices, and values are transmitted to people for use in: Longer and better quality of life Reducing incidence of illness Feeling better

15 Why Men Die Young Females - 80, men – 70
Once believed mostly genetics, i.e. protective effects of estrogen New evidence demonstrates discrepancy due to male behaviors than genetics

16 Why Men Die Young More men smoke Men twice as likely to drink heavily
Men work in more dangerous settings More men drive SUV’s

17 Individual vs. Community Health Promotion
Individual focuses upon risk reduction that doesn’t always emphasize the reduction of chronic illness Community places emphasis on a group centered concept to promote empowerment Empowerment: gain more self control over one’s health perspective (i.e., drug prevention within communities at risk)

18 Healthy People 2010 Goals Increase the quality and years of life
Eliminate health disparities in areas such as gender, race, ethnicity, income and education level.

19 Why Behavior Change is Difficult
Factors that influence a person to change health behaviors. Behavior must be associated with a health problem The belief must exist that the behavior causes the health problem The knowledge that risk prevention-intervention programs exist and can be effective The belief that a new behavior can justify the change of old behavior The belief that people who care about them will be accepting of such changes

20 Stages of Change Prochaska et al. (1994) demonstrated the following 6 stages to accomplish change of health behaviors Pre-contemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Termination

21 Today’s College Students
Traditional (early adults = 66%) Non-traditional (older adults) Minority groups (numbers increasing) Disabled population (9.3%)

22 Identifying Developmental Tasks of Young Adults
Forming an initial adult identity (who am I?) Establishing independence Assuming responsibility Broadening social skills Nurturing intimacy

23 Developmental Tasks of Young Adults

24 Related Developmental Tasks of Young Adulthood
Obtaining entry-level employment Development of parenting skills

25 Multiple Dimensions of Health
Physical Emotional Spiritual Social Occupational Intellectual Holistic health: A requirement of health that moves beyond the cure/prevention of illness and the postponement of death

26 What is Wellness? A form of health promotion
Uses assessments and information Develops boundaries of health beyond mortality/morbidity Unlocks an individual’s full potential at discovering a positive lifestyle

27 A New Definition of Health
A view less centered on the concepts of mortality and morbidity Two areas of differences to focus upon:

28 A New Definition of Health
1) The Role of Health (process of transitions) Moving through each stage of adulthood does not occur simply because time passes We actively participate daily in demands appropriate to our life stage

29 A New Definition of Health
The Composition of Health: Health is a reflection of one’s ability to use the intrinsic and extrinsic resources related to each dimension of health to participate fully in the activities that contribute to growth and development, with the goal of feeling a sense of well being as one evaluates one’s progress through life.

30 A New Definition of Health
Intrinsic resources basic and essential: belonging to something as one of the basic and essential elements that make it what it is of itself: by or in itself, rather than because of its associations or consequences Extrinsic resources inessential: that is not an essential part of something coming from outside: coming or operating from outside something

31 Chapter One: Shaping Your Health Practice Questions

32 Multiple Choice The most important reason that talk radio is a poor source of health information is that the radio hosts make poor moderators. the shows are commercially sponsored. much of the information broadcast could be wrong. information is delivered in a very emotional fashion. there is seldom time to explore all sides of an issue. The biggest problem with obtaining all of your health information from magazines is that the articles are too short. the articles are written at too low a of an academic level. their accuracy and reliability vary widely. they are an expensive information source. their purpose is to sell products, not convey information. The best reason to trust the health-related articles in professional journals is that the authors have extensive credentials in their fields. they are not driven by advertising. the authors are very competitive in their fields. they are usually reviewed by experts before publication. many are sponsored by federal government research grants.

33 Multiple Choice The vast majority of Americans use the services of health-care providers during periods of illness and injury, a practice called intensive health care. episodic health care. health promotion. consumer health care. interventional health care. When physicians attempt to practice preventive medicine, they first attempt to schedule more patients. get patients to schedule appointments only when they are sick. treat emergency cases. identify risk factors. become more specialized. The health professionals at your local YMCA will attempt to guide you towards activities and behaviors that will lower your risk of chronic illness. This process is termed invasive health care. managed health care. comprehensive health care.

34 Multiple Choice The process in which individuals gain increasing control over their health is known as risk reduction. preventive health care. empowerment. prospective medicine. quality health assessment. Of the following, the main reason the Healthy People 2000 goals were revised to produce Healthy People 2010 was little or no progress was reported in some areas. the WHO’s global initiatives took precedence. the Healthy People 2000 goals were achieved. the Healthy People 2000 goals were unrealistic. a major change in emphasis from disease prevention to wellness. All of the following are stages in Prochaska’s Stages of Change except maintenance preparation action meditation contemplation

35 Multiple Choice Lisa has a desire to lose 15 pounds but she has very little understanding on how to go about it. According to Prochaska’s Stages of Change, she is in which stage of change? active precontemplation contemplation preparation Consideration You have been named chairperson of a campus drive for famine relief. Which developmental task does this involve most strongly? developing social skills assuming responsibility establishing independence establishing an adult identity developing intimate relationships The most important reason to develop intimate relationships is to enhance your social skills. release emotional stresses. prepare you to accept responsibility. demonstrate the ability to protect another’s privacy. have someone with whom to share deeply held thoughts and feelings.

36 Multiple Choice The first developmental task of young adulthood, which serves as a foundation for later stages, is establishing independence. nurturing intimacy. broadening social skills. forming an initial adult identity. getting a high paying job. A view of health in which the six components or dimensions of health interact in a synergistic manner is termed holistic health. health management. interactive health. complete health. dimensional health. Which of the following is the best example of the emotional dimension of health? coping with stress analyzing health issues identifying with a faith tradition working successfully in groups monitoring one’s individual health status

37 Multiple Choice Of the following, the best example of using the intellectual dimension of health is interacting with students of other ages. coping with uncomfortable situations. adapting to changing circumstances. developing aerobic fitness. choosing medical providers. The essence of the spiritual dimension of health is finding an appropriate religion. developing empathy for those in need. developing the ability to compete successfully in one’s field. developing the ability to interpret the actions of others. better defining our relationship with the universe and all it contains. All of the following may be benefits of developing the occupational dimension of health except gain financial resources. learn to manipulate other people. learn conflict resolution learn to share responsibility. develop intellectual growth.

38 True / False The internet is an important source of health information for both professionals and the general public. A sense of well-being is important to of the traditional definitions of health. Many physicians say they have little time to practice preventive medicine because of the high cost of managed health care plans. An important tool in assessing risk is an accurate family history. Episodic and preventive medicine both place their main focus on illness. During the maintenance stage new habits are well established so efforts to change are complete. All college students face the same developmental tasks, regardless

39 True / False Gaining the ability to make mature parenting decisions is not considered one of the five major developmental tasks. Social skills and insights are considered a dimension of health. Spirituality requires a belief in a higher power. Wellness is mostly concerned with one’s morbidity and mortality

40 Critical Thinking You have considered quitting smoking for sometime now. What factors can strongly influence your desire to change this high health-risk behavior? Describe how the different definitions of health represent an evolving concept of health. Why is access to quality health care a major goal of both Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010? Discuss the challenges faced by Franco, a 19-year-old man with hemophilia (a hereditary, life-threatening blood disorder that requires frequent medical attention) as he tries to complete the developmental tasks of adulthood. Try to make a case for the spiritual dimension of health being the

41 Summary When used to define health, morbidity and mortality relate to the prevalence of particular diseases and illnesses and to death resulting form those disease and illnesses. When we seek the services of health care practitioner because of symptoms of illness or disease we are said to be seeking episodic health care.

42 Summary Preventive medical care attempts to minimize the incidence of illness and disease by identifying early indicators of risk to bring them under control. Individual health promotion involves risk reduction activities similar to those used in preventive medicine, except that the techniques cannot be invasive and are directed by professionals who are not physicians. Its most visible emphasis tends to be on fitness and body composition.

43 Summary Community health promotion involves the empowerment of individuals so that they can organize and participate in their own health promotion. Healthy People 2010 is federally funded program to improve the nation’s health, increase life expectancy, and expand access to comprehensive health care.

44 Summary A decision to change a health behavior is often difficult to make bacause of the multiplicity of factors underlying the maintenance of the high risk behavior Health behavior change requires movement through a multistaged process including precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination.

45 Summary A wide array of health problems persist despite today’s highly sophisticated health care technology. Today's college campus is a dynamic blend of students of both traditional and nontraditional ages and of diverse background, cultures, and attributes.

46 Summary Young adulthood is characterized by five key developmental tasks: forming an initial adult identity, establishing inde­pendence, assuming responsibility, broadening social skills, and nurturing intimacy. Personal development during young adulthood involves a set of developmental tasks that are common to all yet may be undertaken differently by each individual.

47 Summary Multidimensional definitions of health, including holistic health, have existed for decades—although the primary emphasis has always been on the physical dimension. Current multidimensions of health may include many or all of the following dimensions: physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational.

48 Summary Wellness contends a disinterest in morbidity and mortality, rather emphasizing living a wellness lifestyle that leads to a sense of well-being. Our definition of health includes the role of health and the composition of health. The role of health is to enable individuals to participate in the activities that collectively constitute growth and development. The composition of health is the intrinsic and extrinsic resources on which individuals can draw to participate fully in their own growth and development.

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