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© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter One: Shaping Your Health.

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1 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter One: Shaping Your Health

2 1. Chapter Objectives: Learning Objectives Learning Objectives Understand how health affects your lifestyleUnderstand how health affects your lifestyle Recognize how the delivery of health care influences definitions of healthRecognize how the delivery of health care influences definitions of health Detail some of the health concerns outlined by the Institute of Medicine and Healthy People 2010Detail some of the health concerns outlined by the Institute of Medicine and Healthy People 2010 Suggest additional reasons why health behavior change is difficult, beyond those outlined in the textSuggest additional reasons why health behavior change is difficult, beyond those outlined in the text Speculate on strategies for encouraging health behavior changeSpeculate on strategies for encouraging health behavior change List Prochaska’s six stages of changeList Prochaska’s six stages of change Describe and compare the range of traditional and nontraditional students on your campusDescribe and compare the range of traditional and nontraditional students on your campus Describe the developmental tasks of young adulthood, and assess your level of progress in mastering themDescribe the developmental tasks of young adulthood, and assess your level of progress in mastering them

3 1. Chapter Objectives: Monitor your own activities, and list the dimensions of health from which resources are drawnMonitor your own activities, and list the dimensions of health from which resources are drawn Compare wellness and health promotion, noting both the differences and the similarities between the two conceptsCompare wellness and health promotion, noting both the differences and the similarities between the two concepts Describe your text’s new definition of health and compare it with definitions of episodic health care and health promotionDescribe your text’s new definition of health and compare it with definitions of episodic health care and health promotion Behavior Change Objectives Behavior Change Objectives Assess your commitment to your own individual wellness, rather than simply your ability to avoid illness.Assess your commitment to your own individual wellness, rather than simply your ability to avoid illness. Review your use of tobacco and alcohol, your participation in exercise, your diet, your coping techniques, your body weight, your access to preventive health care, your outlook on life, and your belief system.Review your use of tobacco and alcohol, your participation in exercise, your diet, your coping techniques, your body weight, your access to preventive health care, your outlook on life, and your belief system. Depending on your age, assess your progress in the developmental tasks of young adulthood, middle adulthood, or late adulthood.Depending on your age, assess your progress in the developmental tasks of young adulthood, middle adulthood, or late adulthood. Identify at least three specific steps you can take to increase your progress in the developmental tasks of your age group.Identify at least three specific steps you can take to increase your progress in the developmental tasks of your age group. Identify a high-risk health behavior that you would like to change and chart a plan to change it.Identify a high-risk health behavior that you would like to change and chart a plan to change it.

4 Key Terms empowerment the nurturing of an individual's or group's ability to be responsible for their own health and well-being empowerment the nurturing of an individual's or group's ability to be responsible for their own health and well-being health promotion movement in which knowledge, practices, and values are transmitted to people for use in lengthening their lives, reducing the incidence of illness, and feeling better health promotion movement in which knowledge, practices, and values are transmitted to people for use in lengthening their lives, reducing the incidence of illness, and feeling better high-risk health behavior a behavioral pattern, such as smoking, associated with a high risk of developing a chronic illness high-risk health behavior a behavioral pattern, such as smoking, associated with a high risk of developing a chronic illness holistic health a view of health in terms of its physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational makeup holistic health a view of health in terms of its physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational makeup morbidity pertaining to illness and disease morbidity pertaining to illness and disease

5 Key Terms mortality pertaining to death mortality pertaining to death nontraditional-age students administrative term used by colleges and universities for students who, for whatever reason, are pursuing undergraduate work at an age other than that associated with the traditional college years (18–24) nontraditional-age students administrative term used by colleges and universities for students who, for whatever reason, are pursuing undergraduate work at an age other than that associated with the traditional college years (18–24) preventive or prospective medicine physician-centered medical care in which areas of risk for chronic illnesses are identified so that they might be lowered preventive or prospective medicine physician-centered medical care in which areas of risk for chronic illnesses are identified so that they might be lowered Prochaska's Stages of Change the six predictable stages— precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination—people go through in establishing new habits and patterns of behaviorrisk factor a biomedical index such as serum cholesterol level or a behavioral pattern such as smoking, associated with a chronic illness Prochaska's Stages of Change the six predictable stages— precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination—people go through in establishing new habits and patterns of behaviorrisk factor a biomedical index such as serum cholesterol level or a behavioral pattern such as smoking, associated with a chronic illness wellness the unlocking of our full potential through the adoption of an overall wellness lifestyle wellness the unlocking of our full potential through the adoption of an overall wellness lifestyle

6 Eye on the Media Radio and Television Radio and Television Newspapers and Magazines Newspapers and Magazines Professional Journals Professional Journals Government Documents Government Documents Books Books Internet Internet

7 Take care of your health, because you’ll miss it when it’s gone. Failing health affects: Failing health affects: Pursuit of education and/or careerPursuit of education and/or career SocializingSocializing TravelTravel Meeting new peopleMeeting new people Having or raising childrenHaving or raising children Hobbies and recreationHobbies and recreation FoodFood Living independentlyLiving independently

8 Keys to Longer Life Test cholesterol and take appropriate actions if needed Test cholesterol and take appropriate actions if needed Brisk walk 30 min/day Brisk walk 30 min/day Seat belt Seat belt Olive oil vs. butter Olive oil vs. butter Reduce or quit tobacco Reduce or quit tobacco Avoid sun excessive exposure Avoid sun excessive exposure Question Dr. Question Dr. Don’t worry Don’t worry

9 Definitions of Health Episodic: seeking medical treatment during episodes when ill or injured Episodic: seeking medical treatment during episodes when ill or injured Preventive Medicine: identifying risk factors to lower the risk of illness Preventive Medicine: identifying risk factors to lower the risk of illness Morbidity: Pertaining to illness and disease Morbidity: Pertaining to illness and disease Mortality: Pertaining to death Mortality: Pertaining to death

10 Episodic Only when sick Only when sick Racial groups Racial groups Whites 3.4/yrWhites 3.4/yr Blacks 2.5/yrBlacks 2.5/yr Asians 2.3/yrAsians 2.3/yr Native Americans 0.8/yrNative Americans 0.8/yr

11 2004 Statistics Top eight causes of death, first time cancer surpassed heart disease as leading cause of death in Americans under age 80 Top eight causes of death, first time cancer surpassed heart disease as leading cause of death in Americans under age 80

12 Preventive or Prospective Medicine Defined: physician-centered medical care in which areas of risk for chronic illnesses are identified so that they might be lowered. Defined: physician-centered medical care in which areas of risk for chronic illnesses are identified so that they might be lowered. Risk factor: a biomedical index such as serum cholesterol level or a behavioral pattern such as smoking, a/w a chronic illness. Risk factor: a biomedical index such as serum cholesterol level or a behavioral pattern such as smoking, a/w a chronic illness. High-risk health behavior: a behavioral pattern, such as smoking, a/w a high risk of developing a chronic illness High-risk health behavior: a behavioral pattern, such as smoking, a/w a high risk of developing a chronic illness

13 Risk Reduction Refrain form tobacco Refrain form tobacco Drink in moderation or not at all Drink in moderation or not at all Regular exercise Regular exercise Follow dietary guidelines Follow dietary guidelines Reduce portionsReduce portions Increase fruits and veggiesIncrease fruits and veggies Maintain normal body weightMaintain normal body weight Effective coping strategies Effective coping strategies Regular preventive health care Regular preventive health care Maintain optimism Maintain optimism Spiritual growth Spiritual growth

14 What is Health Promotion? Defined: Movement in which knowledge, practices, and values are transmitted to people for use in: Defined: Movement in which knowledge, practices, and values are transmitted to people for use in: Longer and better quality of lifeLonger and better quality of life Reducing incidence of illnessReducing incidence of illness Feeling betterFeeling better

15 Why Men Die Young Females - 80, men – 70 Females - 80, men – 70 Once believed mostly genetics, i.e. protective effects of estrogen Once believed mostly genetics, i.e. protective effects of estrogen New evidence demonstrates discrepancy due to male behaviors than genetics New evidence demonstrates discrepancy due to male behaviors than genetics

16 Why Men Die Young More men smoke More men smoke Men twice as likely to drink heavily Men twice as likely to drink heavily Men work in more dangerous settings Men work in more dangerous settings More men drive SUV’s More men drive SUV’s

17 Individual vs. Community Health Promotion Individual focuses upon risk reduction that doesn’t always emphasize the reduction of chronic illness Individual focuses upon risk reduction that doesn’t always emphasize the reduction of chronic illness Community places emphasis on a group centered concept to promote empowerment Community places emphasis on a group centered concept to promote empowerment Empowerment: gain more self control over one’s health perspective (i.e., drug prevention within communities at risk) Empowerment: gain more self control over one’s health perspective (i.e., drug prevention within communities at risk)

18 Healthy People 2010 Goals Increase the quality and years of life Increase the quality and years of life Eliminate health disparities in areas such as gender, race, ethnicity, income and education level. Eliminate health disparities in areas such as gender, race, ethnicity, income and education level.

19 Why Behavior Change is Difficult Factors that influence a person to change health behaviors. Factors that influence a person to change health behaviors. Behavior must be associated with a health problemBehavior must be associated with a health problem The belief must exist that the behavior causes the health problemThe belief must exist that the behavior causes the health problem The knowledge that risk prevention- intervention programs exist and can be effectiveThe knowledge that risk prevention- intervention programs exist and can be effective The belief that a new behavior can justify the change of old behaviorThe belief that a new behavior can justify the change of old behavior The belief that people who care about them will be accepting of such changesThe belief that people who care about them will be accepting of such changes

20 Stages of Change Prochaska et al. (1994) demonstrated the following 6 stages to accomplish change of health behaviors Prochaska et al. (1994) demonstrated the following 6 stages to accomplish change of health behaviors Pre-contemplationPre-contemplation ContemplationContemplation PreparationPreparation ActionAction MaintenanceMaintenance TerminationTermination

21 Today’s College Students 1. Traditional (early adults = 66%) 2. Non-traditional (older adults) 3. Minority groups (numbers increasing) 4. Disabled population (9.3%)

22 Identifying Developmental Tasks of Young Adults 1. Forming an initial adult identity (who am I?) 2. Establishing independence 3. Assuming responsibility 4. Broadening social skills 5. Nurturing intimacy

23 Developmental Tasks of Young Adults

24 Related Developmental Tasks of Young Adulthood 1. Obtaining entry-level employment 2. Development of parenting skills

25 Multiple Dimensions of Health Physical Physical Emotional Emotional Spiritual Spiritual Social Social Occupational Occupational Intellectual Intellectual Holistic health: A requirement of health that moves beyond the cure/prevention of illness and the postponement of death

26 What is Wellness? A form of health promotion A form of health promotion Uses assessments and information Uses assessments and information Develops boundaries of health beyond mortality/morbidity Develops boundaries of health beyond mortality/morbidity Unlocks an individual’s full potential at discovering a positive lifestyle Unlocks an individual’s full potential at discovering a positive lifestyle

27 A New Definition of Health A view less centered on the concepts of mortality and morbidity A view less centered on the concepts of mortality and morbidity Two areas of differences to focus upon: Two areas of differences to focus upon:

28 A New Definition of Health 1) The Role of Health (process of transitions) Moving through each stage of adulthood does not occur simply because time passesMoving through each stage of adulthood does not occur simply because time passes We actively participate daily in demands appropriate to our life stageWe actively participate daily in demands appropriate to our life stage

29 A New Definition of Health 2)The Composition of Health: Health is a reflection of one’s ability to use the intrinsic and extrinsic resources related to each dimension of health to participate fully in the activities that contribute to growth and development, with the goal of feeling a sense of well being as one evaluates one’s progress through life. Health is a reflection of one’s ability to use the intrinsic and extrinsic resources related to each dimension of health to participate fully in the activities that contribute to growth and development, with the goal of feeling a sense of well being as one evaluates one’s progress through life.

30 A New Definition of Health Intrinsic resourcesIntrinsic resources basic and essential: belonging to something as one of the basic and essential elements that make it what it is basic and essential: belonging to something as one of the basic and essential elements that make it what it is of itself: by or in itself, rather than because of its associations or consequences of itself: by or in itself, rather than because of its associations or consequences Extrinsic resourcesExtrinsic resources inessential: that is not an essential part of something inessential: that is not an essential part of something coming from outside: coming or operating from outside something coming from outside: coming or operating from outside something

31 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Chapter One: Shaping Your Health Practice Questions

32 Multiple Choice The most important reason that talk radio is a poor source of health information is that The most important reason that talk radio is a poor source of health information is that the radio hosts make poor moderators.the radio hosts make poor moderators. the shows are commercially sponsored.the shows are commercially sponsored. much of the information broadcast could be wrong.much of the information broadcast could be wrong. information is delivered in a very emotional fashion.information is delivered in a very emotional fashion. there is seldom time to explore all sides of an issue.there is seldom time to explore all sides of an issue. The biggest problem with obtaining all of your health information from magazines is that The biggest problem with obtaining all of your health information from magazines is that the articles are too short.the articles are too short. the articles are written at too low a of an academic level.the articles are written at too low a of an academic level. their accuracy and reliability vary widely.their accuracy and reliability vary widely. they are an expensive information source.they are an expensive information source. their purpose is to sell products, not convey information.their purpose is to sell products, not convey information. The best reason to trust the health-related articles in professional journals is that The best reason to trust the health-related articles in professional journals is that the authors have extensive credentials in their fields.the authors have extensive credentials in their fields. they are not driven by advertising.they are not driven by advertising. the authors are very competitive in their fields.the authors are very competitive in their fields. they are usually reviewed by experts before publication.they are usually reviewed by experts before publication. many are sponsored by federal government research grants.many are sponsored by federal government research grants.

33 Multiple Choice The vast majority of Americans use the services of health-care providers during periods of illness and injury, a practice called The vast majority of Americans use the services of health-care providers during periods of illness and injury, a practice called intensive health care.intensive health care. episodic health care.episodic health care. health promotion.health promotion. consumer health care.consumer health care. interventional health care.interventional health care. When physicians attempt to practice preventive medicine, they first attempt to When physicians attempt to practice preventive medicine, they first attempt to schedule more patients.schedule more patients. get patients to schedule appointments only when they are sick.get patients to schedule appointments only when they are sick. treat emergency cases.treat emergency cases. identify risk factors.identify risk factors. become more specialized.become more specialized. The health professionals at your local YMCA will attempt to guide you The health professionals at your local YMCA will attempt to guide you towards activities and behaviors that will lower your risk of chronic illness. This process is termed health promotion.health promotion. episodic health care.episodic health care. invasive health care.invasive health care. managed health care.managed health care. comprehensive health care.comprehensive health care.

34 Multiple Choice The process in which individuals gain increasing control over their health is known as The process in which individuals gain increasing control over their health is known as risk reduction.risk reduction. preventive health care.preventive health care. empowerment.empowerment. prospective medicine.prospective medicine. quality health assessment.quality health assessment. Of the following, the main reason the Healthy People 2000 goals were revised to produce Healthy People 2010 was Of the following, the main reason the Healthy People 2000 goals were revised to produce Healthy People 2010 was little or no progress was reported in some areas.little or no progress was reported in some areas. the WHO’s global initiatives took precedence.the WHO’s global initiatives took precedence. the Healthy People 2000 goals were achieved.the Healthy People 2000 goals were achieved. the Healthy People 2000 goals were unrealistic.the Healthy People 2000 goals were unrealistic. a major change in emphasis from disease prevention to wellness.a major change in emphasis from disease prevention to wellness. All of the following are stages in Prochaska’s Stages of Change except All of the following are stages in Prochaska’s Stages of Change except maintenancemaintenance preparationpreparation actionaction meditationmeditation contemplationcontemplation

35 Multiple Choice Lisa has a desire to lose 15 pounds but she has very little understanding on how to go about it. According to Prochaska’s Stages of Change, she is in which stage of change? Lisa has a desire to lose 15 pounds but she has very little understanding on how to go about it. According to Prochaska’s Stages of Change, she is in which stage of change? activeactive precontemplationprecontemplation contemplationcontemplation preparationpreparation ConsiderationConsideration You have been named chairperson of a campus drive for famine relief. Which developmental task does this involve most strongly? You have been named chairperson of a campus drive for famine relief. Which developmental task does this involve most strongly? developing social skillsdeveloping social skills assuming responsibilityassuming responsibility establishing independenceestablishing independence establishing an adult identityestablishing an adult identity developing intimate relationshipsdeveloping intimate relationships The most important reason to develop intimate relationships is to The most important reason to develop intimate relationships is to enhance your social skills.enhance your social skills. release emotional stresses.release emotional stresses. prepare you to accept responsibility.prepare you to accept responsibility. demonstrate the ability to protect another’s privacy.demonstrate the ability to protect another’s privacy. have someone with whom to share deeply held thoughts and feelings. have someone with whom to share deeply held thoughts and feelings.

36 Multiple Choice The first developmental task of young adulthood, which serves as a foundation for later stages, is The first developmental task of young adulthood, which serves as a foundation for later stages, is establishing independence.establishing independence. nurturing intimacy.nurturing intimacy. broadening social skills.broadening social skills. forming an initial adult identity.forming an initial adult identity. getting a high paying job.getting a high paying job. A view of health in which the six components or dimensions of health interact in a synergistic manner is termed A view of health in which the six components or dimensions of health interact in a synergistic manner is termed holistic health.holistic health. health management.health management. interactive health.interactive health. complete health.complete health. dimensional health.dimensional health. Which of the following is the best example of the emotional dimension of health? Which of the following is the best example of the emotional dimension of health? coping with stresscoping with stress analyzing health issuesanalyzing health issues identifying with a faith traditionidentifying with a faith tradition working successfully in groupsworking successfully in groups monitoring one’s individual health statusmonitoring one’s individual health status

37 Multiple Choice Of the following, the best example of using the intellectual dimension of health is Of the following, the best example of using the intellectual dimension of health is interacting with students of other ages.interacting with students of other ages. coping with uncomfortable situations.coping with uncomfortable situations. adapting to changing circumstances.adapting to changing circumstances. developing aerobic fitness.developing aerobic fitness. choosing medical providers.choosing medical providers. The essence of the spiritual dimension of health is The essence of the spiritual dimension of health is finding an appropriate religion.finding an appropriate religion. developing empathy for those in need.developing empathy for those in need. developing the ability to compete successfully in one’s field.developing the ability to compete successfully in one’s field. developing the ability to interpret the actions of others.developing the ability to interpret the actions of others. better defining our relationship with the universe and all it contains.better defining our relationship with the universe and all it contains. All of the following may be benefits of developing the occupational dimension of health except All of the following may be benefits of developing the occupational dimension of health except gain financial resources.gain financial resources. learn to manipulate other people.learn to manipulate other people. learn conflict resolutionlearn conflict resolution learn to share responsibility.learn to share responsibility. develop intellectual growth.develop intellectual growth.

38 True / False The internet is an important source of health information for both professionals and the general public. The internet is an important source of health information for both professionals and the general public. A sense of well-being is important to of the traditional definitions of health. A sense of well-being is important to of the traditional definitions of health. Many physicians say they have little time to practice preventive medicine because of the high cost of managed health care plans. Many physicians say they have little time to practice preventive medicine because of the high cost of managed health care plans. An important tool in assessing risk is an accurate family history. An important tool in assessing risk is an accurate family history. Episodic and preventive medicine both place their main focus on illness. Episodic and preventive medicine both place their main focus on illness. During the maintenance stage new habits are well established so efforts to change are complete. During the maintenance stage new habits are well established so efforts to change are complete. All college students face the same developmental tasks, regardless All college students face the same developmental tasks, regardless

39 True / False Gaining the ability to make mature parenting decisions is not considered one of the five major developmental tasks. Gaining the ability to make mature parenting decisions is not considered one of the five major developmental tasks. Social skills and insights are considered a dimension of health. Social skills and insights are considered a dimension of health. Spirituality requires a belief in a higher power. Spirituality requires a belief in a higher power. Wellness is mostly concerned with one’s morbidity and mortality Wellness is mostly concerned with one’s morbidity and mortality

40 Critical Thinking You have considered quitting smoking for sometime now. What factors can strongly influence your desire to change this high health-risk behavior? You have considered quitting smoking for sometime now. What factors can strongly influence your desire to change this high health-risk behavior? Describe how the different definitions of health represent an evolving concept of health. Describe how the different definitions of health represent an evolving concept of health. Why is access to quality health care a major goal of both Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010? Why is access to quality health care a major goal of both Healthy People 2000 and Healthy People 2010? Discuss the challenges faced by Franco, a 19-year-old man with hemophilia (a hereditary, life-threatening blood disorder that requires frequent medical attention) as he tries to complete the developmental tasks of adulthood. Discuss the challenges faced by Franco, a 19-year-old man with hemophilia (a hereditary, life-threatening blood disorder that requires frequent medical attention) as he tries to complete the developmental tasks of adulthood. Try to make a case for the spiritual dimension of health being the Try to make a case for the spiritual dimension of health being the

41 Summary When used to define health, morbidity and mortality relate to the prevalence of particular diseases and illnesses and to death resulting form those disease and illnesses. When used to define health, morbidity and mortality relate to the prevalence of particular diseases and illnesses and to death resulting form those disease and illnesses. When we seek the services of health care practitioner because of symptoms of illness or disease we are said to be seeking episodic health care. When we seek the services of health care practitioner because of symptoms of illness or disease we are said to be seeking episodic health care.

42 Summary Preventive medical care attempts to minimize the incidence of illness and disease by identifying early indicators of risk to bring them under control. Preventive medical care attempts to minimize the incidence of illness and disease by identifying early indicators of risk to bring them under control. Individual health promotion involves risk reduction activities similar to those used in preventive medicine, except that the techniques cannot be invasive and are directed by professionals who are not physicians. Its most visible emphasis tends to be on fitness and body composition. Individual health promotion involves risk reduction activities similar to those used in preventive medicine, except that the techniques cannot be invasive and are directed by professionals who are not physicians. Its most visible emphasis tends to be on fitness and body composition.

43 Summary Community health promotion involves the empowerment of individuals so that they can organize and participate in their own health promotion. Community health promotion involves the empowerment of individuals so that they can organize and participate in their own health promotion. Healthy People 2010 is federally funded program to improve the nation’s health, increase life expectancy, and expand access to comprehensive health care. Healthy People 2010 is federally funded program to improve the nation’s health, increase life expectancy, and expand access to comprehensive health care.

44 Summary A decision to change a health behavior is often difficult to make bacause of the multiplicity of factors underlying the maintenance of the high risk behavior A decision to change a health behavior is often difficult to make bacause of the multiplicity of factors underlying the maintenance of the high risk behavior Health behavior change requires movement through a multistaged process including precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination. Health behavior change requires movement through a multistaged process including precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination.

45 Summary A wide array of health problems persist despite today’s highly sophisticated health care technology. A wide array of health problems persist despite today’s highly sophisticated health care technology.  Today's college campus is a dynamic blend of students of both traditional and nontraditional ages and of diverse background, cultures, and attributes.

46 Summary Young adulthood is characterized by five key developmental tasks: forming an initial adult identity, establishing inde­ pendence, assuming responsibility, broadening social skills, and nurturing intimacy. Young adulthood is characterized by five key developmental tasks: forming an initial adult identity, establishing inde­ pendence, assuming responsibility, broadening social skills, and nurturing intimacy. Personal development during young adulthood involves a set of developmental tasks that are common to all yet may be undertaken differently by each individual. Personal development during young adulthood involves a set of developmental tasks that are common to all yet may be undertaken differently by each individual.

47 Summary Multidimensional definitions of health, including holistic health, have existed for decades—although the primary emphasis has always been on the physical dimension. Multidimensional definitions of health, including holistic health, have existed for decades—although the primary emphasis has always been on the physical dimension. Current multidimensions of health may include many or all of the following dimensions: physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational. Current multidimensions of health may include many or all of the following dimensions: physical, emotional, social, intellectual, spiritual, and occupational.

48 Summary Wellness contends a disinterest in morbidity and mortality, rather emphasizing living a wellness lifestyle that leads to a sense of well-being. Wellness contends a disinterest in morbidity and mortality, rather emphasizing living a wellness lifestyle that leads to a sense of well-being. Our definition of health includes the role of health and the composition of health. The role of health is to enable individuals to participate in the activities that collectively constitute growth and development. The composition of health is the intrinsic and extrinsic resources on which individuals can draw to participate fully in their own growth and development. Our definition of health includes the role of health and the composition of health. The role of health is to enable individuals to participate in the activities that collectively constitute growth and development. The composition of health is the intrinsic and extrinsic resources on which individuals can draw to participate fully in their own growth and development.


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