Presentation on theme: "China’s One Child Policy “ Giving birth is a fundamental human right. In China, the government controls it.” -Harry Wu, Laogai Research Foundation."— Presentation transcript:
China’s One Child Policy “ Giving birth is a fundamental human right. In China, the government controls it.” -Harry Wu, Laogai Research Foundation
“ A “ A big population is a very good thing … even if China’s population multiplies many times we are fully capable of finding solutions. ” solutions. ” - Mao - Mao Zedong, 1949 (He countered criticism of his policy by claiming that “with every mouth comes two hands…” meaning that it would be okay to have a large population as there would be more people to work the fields to grow the food. The problem is… there was not arable land to do so.)
“ Bear as many children as possible… to make China stronger.” -Mao Zedong “The happy life Chairman Mao gave us.”, 1954 In 1953, the census revealed a doubling of the population in a very short period of time…
“ Late, spaced, and few…” “Practice family planning for the revolution.”, 1972 “Deliver medicine (contraceptives) to the door step, do a good job in birth control work.”, 1974 In 1953, the census revealed a doubling of the population in a very short period of time, so by 1956 Mao Zedong began a family planning campaign.
“ One couple, one child.” 1979 “ It is absolutely imperative that we all support the One Child Policy in our country. If we don’t, our people will go hungry. Do you think we want our people to be a burden to the rest of the world? It is our duty to have only one child.” -Rongzhao Li, Wuhan, Hubei Province Despite a decline in the population during the Great Leap Forward & the Cultural Revolution, the campaign became more intensive in the 1960s. Family planning & education was advertised on TV, radio, & in newspapers.
What is the “One Child Policy”? 1979: Introduced under Deng Xiaoping 1979: Introduced under Deng Xiaoping Goal is to control population growthGoal is to control population growth System of rewards & punishmentsSystem of rewards & punishments 1982: Detailed plans & quotas for all provinces 1982: Detailed plans & quotas for all provinces National Quota: 2000 1.3 Billion 2010: 1.4 BillionNational Quota: 2000 1.3 Billion 2010: 1.4 Billion 2002: Official law 2002: Official law General exceptions: General exceptions: Members of ethnic minoritiesMembers of ethnic minorities First child disabled or diesFirst child disabled or dies Remarried couplesRemarried couples In rural areas, if first child is a girlIn rural areas, if first child is a girl Pregnancy after adoptionPregnancy after adoption
Rewards & Punishments Loss of family allowances Loss of family allowances Loss of medical benefits Loss of medical benefits Demotion/discharge from government jobs Demotion/discharge from government jobs Confiscation of property Confiscation of property Fines- up to 7x annual salary Fines- up to 7x annual salary Social stigma Social stigma “One Child Certificate” “One Child Certificate” Cash bonuses Cash bonuses Longer maternity leave Longer maternity leave Better childcare Better childcare Preferential housing Preferential housing Preferential employment Preferential employment Preferential school placement Preferential school placement Paid medical/hospital expenses Paid medical/hospital expenses Increased grain rations & other material goods Increased grain rations & other material goods
Policy Implementation Monitored by local provincial authorities Monitored by local provincial authorities Applied differently across the country Applied differently across the country Birth permits required Birth permits required Pressure to achieve targets have resulted in: Pressure to achieve targets have resulted in: Mass sterilizations Mass sterilizations Coercion to abort illegal pregnanciesCoercion to abort illegal pregnancies Enforcement difficult Enforcement difficult Strong resistance in rural areas Strong resistance in rural areas China says it has been successful China says it has been successful
“ According to official figures, 97.5% of all aborted fetuses in China are female. “ –Marie Claire, June 2001 Illegal & hidden children Illegal & hidden children Abandonment Abandonment Sex-selected abortions Sex-selected abortions Infanticide Infanticide Gender Imbalance Gender Imbalance 4-2-1 Problem- 4 grandparents/2 parents/1 child 4-2-1 Problem- 4 grandparents/2 parents/1 child High suicide rate for reproductive-aged women High suicide rate for reproductive-aged women Growth of an aging population Growth of an aging population “…a complex collision of China’s notorious One Child Policy and its traditional preference for sons…” –Brian Woods, BBC documentarian Consequences “The imbalance between the sexes is now so distorted that there are 111 million men in China—more than three times the population of Canada— who will not be able to find a wife.” -Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 1999 A generation of “little emperors.” An “army of bachelors….” “Sex Ratio as high as 131 to 100…” “China is the only country in which more women than men kill themselves, and by a huge margin.” –Time Magazine, 1998 The Projection of China’s Aging Population “Without permission, a second child cannot be registered and, therefore, does not legally exist.”
Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women (1992) “…Article 35. Women's right of life and health shall be inviolable. Drowning, abandoning or cruel infanticide in any manner of female babies shall be prohibited; discrimination against or maltreatment of women who gave birth to female babies or women who are sterile shall be prohibited; cruel treatment causing bodily injury to or death of women by means of superstition or violence shall be prohibited; maltreatment or abandonment of aged women shall be prohibited. Article 42. When a wife terminates gestation as required by the family planning programme, her husband may not apply for a divorce within six months after the operation…” -The Legistlatie Affaris Commission of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China __________________________________________________________________________ Notification of Prohibiting from Fetal Sex Identification (1993) “…In order to safeguard the long-term interests of nation and stability of the country, it is necessary to reaffirm that except for the diagnosis of the hereditary diseases, any units and departments are strictly banned to conduct fetal sex identification by using the medical techniques such as the B-scanner, chromosome techniques and etc…” -Women’s Department, Ministry of Health
Promotion of Girls “Less births, better births, to develop China vigrously.”, 1987
US Adoption Information China opened doors for US adoption 1992 China opened doors for US adoption 1992 Requires approval of both governments Requires approval of both governments Qualifications: Qualifications: –Age (30-54) –Marriage (2+ years) & ≤ 2 divorces –Income ($10,000/family member) –Family size (≤ 4 children) & spacing (> 6 months) Average time frame 15-18 months Average time frame 15-18 months Average cost $13,000 - $14,000 Average cost $13,000 - $14,000 In past decade over 30,000 children adopted In past decade over 30,000 children adopted