Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Understand what tourism is and its many definitions. Learn the components of tourism.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Understand what tourism is and its many definitions. Learn the components of tourism."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Understand what tourism is and its many definitions. Learn the components of tourism and tourism management. Examine the various approaches to studying tourism. Appreciate how important this industry is to the economy of the world and of many countries. Know the benefits and costs of tourism. Learning Objectives Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

3 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

4 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Definition of Tourism Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors. Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

5 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 WTO Definition of Tourism Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

6 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Visitor A “visitor” is defined as those persons who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence but outside their usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

7 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Classification of Travelers (1)Tourists in international technical definitions. (2)Excursionists in international technical definitions. (3)Travelers whose trips are shorter than those that qualify for travel and tourism; e.g., under 50 miles (80 km) from home. (4)Students traveling between home and school only -- other travel of students is within scope of travel and tourism. (5)All persons moving to a new place of residence including all one-way travelers, such as emigrants, immigrants, refugees, domestic migrants, and nomads. Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

8 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 The Tourism Phenomenon: Components of tourism and tourism management Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

9 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Tourism Course Department or Discipline Management of Tourism Organizations Tourism Studies Policy Issues Recreation Management Sociology of Tourism Tourism Education Transportation Studies Host-Guest Relationship Tourism Motivation Economics of Tourism Rural Tourism Geography of Tourism Tourism Law Marketing of Tourism Tourism Planning and Development Sociology Parks and Recreation Political Science Business Economics Anthropology Geography Architecture Agriculture Transportation Hotel and Restaurant Administration Education Law Marketing Urban and Regional Planning New Venture Development Entrepreneurship Heritage and Environment Management Environmental Studies History of Tourism History Casino Management Gaming Sports Tourism and Medicine Kinesiology Psychology Landscap e Design Hospitality Studies Source: adapted from Jafar Jafari, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Study of Tourism: Choices of Discipline and Approach. Disciplinary inputs to the tourism field Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

10 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 In 2001 it is estimated to account for some: $3.5 trillion of Economic Activity 207 million jobs In 2011 it is estimated to account for : $7.0 trillion of Economic Activity 260 million jobs Travel and Tourism --- World’s Largest Industry Source: WTTC Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

11 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Travel and Tourism will continue to expand faster than the economy as a whole and faster than comparable industries. By 2011 Travel & Tourism is expected to account for: *Over twice the output at $7.0 trillion *More jobs million employees Growth depends on enlightened government policy Travel and Tourism Can Double in Size by 2011 Source: WTTC Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

12 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 World’s Top 5 Tourism Destinations 2000 International Market Share Tourist Arrivals % of World Rank,(thousands)% Change Total, 2000Country / France74, United States52, Spain48, Italy41, China31, Source: WTO Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

13 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 World’s Top 5 Tourism Earners 2000 International Market Share Tourism Receipts % of World Rank,(US$ million)% Change Total, 2000Country / United States83, Spain31, France29, Italy27, United Kingdom19, Source: WTO Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

14 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Tourism: What it Means to the U.S. Economy Travel spending in U.S. generated $584.4 billion in Tourism is the nation’s third largest retail industry. Tourism is the nation’s largest service export. Over 7 million Americans employed directly in the travel industry, 9 million indirectly for a total of over 16 million jobs. Tourism is the first, second, or third largest employer in 29 states. Tourism provides more than 684,000 executive level positions in each year. Travel industry provides a disproportionate number of jobs for the traditionally disadvantaged. Source: Travel Industry Association of America (TIA) Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

15 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Can be developed with local products and resources Diversifies the economy Tends to be compatible with other economic activities Spreads development High multiplier impact Increases governmental revenues Benefits of Tourism - Economic Provides employment opportunities Generates foreign exchange Increases Incomes Increases GNP Can be built on existing infrastructure Develops an infrastructure that will also help stimulate local commerce and industry Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

16 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Broadens educational and cultural horizons Improves quality of life - higher incomes and improved standards of living Justifies environmental protection and improvement Provides tourist and recreational facilities that may be used by a local population Benefits of Tourism - Social Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

17 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition Visitor interest in local culture provides employment for artists, musicians and other performing artists enhancing cultural heritage Breaks down language barriers, sociocultural barriers, class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, and religious barriers Creates a favorable worldwide image for a destination Promotes a global community Promotes international understanding and peace Benefits of Tourism - Cultural Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

18 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Develops excess demand Results in high leakage Creates difficulties of seasonality Causes inflation Can result in unbalanced economic development Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes Disadvantages of Tourism - Economic Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

19 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Creates social problems Degrades the natural physical environment and creates pollution Degrades the cultural environment Threatens family structure Commercializes culture, religion, and the arts Creates misunderstanding Creates conflicts in the host society Contributes to disease, economic fluctuation, and transportation problems Disadvantages of Tourism - Social Chapter 1: Tourism in Perspective Part One: Tourism Overview

20 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Recognize the antiquity of human travel over vast distances on both sea and land. Understand how these journeys have evolved from trips which were difficult and often dangerous to mass travel for millions today. Learn the names of some of the great travelers in history who wrote astonishing accounts of exotic places they had visited. Discover the many similarities in travel motivations, economic conditions, political situations, attractions, and tourist facilities during the time of the Roman Empire and that of today. Learning Objectives Chapter 2: Tourism Through the Ages Part One: Tourism Overview

21 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Great Pyramids of Egypt (including Sphinx) Hanging Gardens of Babylon Tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus Statue of Zeus at Olympia Collosus of Rhodes in the Harbor at Rhodes Great Lighthouse (Pharos) in Alexandria, Egypt Temple Artemis at Ephesus Seven Wonders of the Ancient World The Great Pyramids of Egypt are the sole remaining wonder. Chapter 2: Tourism Through the Ages Part One: Tourism Overview

22 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Stagecoach Travel Water Travel Rail Travel Automobile and Motorcoach Travel Air Travel Historic Transportation Chapter 2: Tourism Through the Ages Part One: Tourism Overview

23 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Evaluate future job opportunities in the tourism field. Learn about the careers available. Discover which might match your interests and abilities. Know additional sources of information on careers. Learning Objectives Chapter 3: Career Opportunities Part One: Tourism Overview

24 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Airlines Bus Companies Cruise Companies Railroads Rental Car Companies Hotel, Motels, and Resorts Travel Agencies Tour Companies Food Service Career Possibilities Tourism Education Tourism Research Travel Communications Recreation and Leisure Attractions Tourist Offices and Information Centers Convention and Visitor Bureaus Meeting Planners Chapter 3: Career Opportunities Part One: Tourism Overview

25 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Career Paths Within the Tourism Industry Paths within education system and industry ………………………………………… Paths into industry __________________________________________ Chapter 3: Career Opportunities Part One: Tourism Overview

26 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Sample Occupations, Values & Interests Accommodations Hotel Owner Hotel Manager Operations Chambermaid Entry Chambermaid Tour & Travel Tour Bus Line Owner Tour Bus Line Mgr.. Tour Bus Driver Ticket Agent Attractions Amusement Park G.M. Director of Special Attractions Operations Ride Operator Entry Ride Operator Food & Beverage Restaurant Owner Restaurant Manager Ass’t Executive Housekeeper Superintendent of Bus Maintenance Amusement Park Supervisor Maitre D’ Bartender Food & Beverage Server Entrepreneur Manager Supervisor Operations Entry Level Predominant Values and Interests People Quality Challenge Flexibility Novelty/Change People Pre-employment Personal Worth Work Chapter 3: Career Opportunities Part One: Tourism Overview

27 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Understand the magnitude of world tourism in terms of the vast numbers of organizations that serve the needs of their diverse memberships. Recognize the variety of types and functions of tourism organizations. Know why states support official offices of tourism. Learn how national, regional, and trade organizations are structured and operated. Chapter 4: World, National, Regional and Other Organizations Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

28 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Tourism Organizations Chapter 4: World, National, Regional and Other Organizations Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

29 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Tourism Organizations Tourism organizations can be viewed in the following ways: 1. Geographically 2. By ownership 3. By function 4. By industry 5. By motive Chapter 4: World, National, Regional and Other Organizations Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

30 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 International Tourism Organizations Some goals of WTTC are: 1.Work with governments to make tourism a strategic economic development and employment priority. 2.Move toward open and competitive markets. 3.Pursue sustainable development. 4.Eliminate barriers to growth in the industry. World Travel and Tourism Council Chapter 4: World, National, Regional and Other Organizations Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

31 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 International Tourism Organizations Most widely recognized organization in tourism Serves as a global forum Transfers tourism know-how Produces statistics and market research Develops tourism human resources Works to facilitate travel Promotes sustainability Creates special projects World Tourism Organization (WTO) Chapter 4: World, National, Regional and Other Organizations Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

32 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Developmental Organizations Examples: World Bank United Nations Development Program Asian Development Bank FONATUR (Mexico) EMBRATUR (Brazil) Chapter 4: World, National, Regional and Other Organizations Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

33 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Regional International Organizations Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development  Mostly European membership, but the United States, Canada, Japan and Australia are also members. Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA)  Represents nations in Asia and the Pacific. Chapter 4: World, National, Regional and Other Organizations Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

34 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 National Organizations Office of Travel and Tourism Industries (OTTI) –International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce –Research and Policy Travel Industry Association of America (TIA) –leading private tourism organization in U.S. –Represents the whole U.S. travel industry –Promotes and facilitates increased travel to and within the U.S. Canadian Tourism Commission –Public-private partnership –Plans, directs, manages, and implements programs to generate and promote tourism in Canada. Chapter 4: World, National, Regional and Other Organizations Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

35 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 State Organizations All 50 states have travel promotion offices. Spend $695.8 million on tourism development. View tourism as a tool for economic development. Chapter 4: World, National, Regional and Other Organizations Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

36 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Other Tourism Organizations Convention and Visitor Bureaus (CVBs ) * Not-for-profit umbrella organizations that represent a city or urban area in the solicitation an servicing of all types of travelers to that city or area, whether they visit for business, pleasure, or both. International Association of Convention and Visitor Bureaus (IACVB) * Most city CVBs belong to this organization. Chapter 4: World, National, Regional and Other Organizations Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

37 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Comprehend the importance of transportation in tourism. Understand the airline industry and its role in travel. Examine the domination of the automobile in travel. Learn about the role of rail and motorcoach travel. Study the cruise industry. Chapter 5: Passenger Transportation Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

38 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Operating Sectors of the Tourism Industry Travel Trade Sector Accommodation Sector Events Sector Transportation Sector Adventure & Outdoor Recreation Sector Food Services Sector Attractions Sector Entertainment Sector Tourism Services Graphics/Components(B&W2001) Chapter 5: Passenger Transportation Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

39 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Passenger Transportation Structure Other Transportation Road Rail Water Motor Bike Motor Bike Auto Bus Vehicles Used for Accommodation Vehicles Used for Accommodation Inland Maritime Air Charter Private Scheduled Charter and Tour Operator Scheduled Rental Privately Owned Truck Camper Motor Home Travel Trailer Tent Trailer Other Commercial Private Commercial Private Snowmobiles Foot Bicycles Horse Drawn Vehicles Aerial Tramways and Ski Lifts Charter Scheduled Commercial Charter Scheduled Chapter 5: Passenger Transportation Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

40 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Urgent Transportation Problems 1.Congestion 2.Safety and security 3.Environmental damage 4.Seasonality Chapter 5: Passenger Transportation Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

41 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Airline Industry World airline industry carries over 1 billion passengers per year. The U.S. airline industry in 2000 * Employed 679,967 people * Carried 1.6 million passengers each day * Recorded revenues of $129.5 billion However, during , U.S. carriers lost more than $12.8 billion. A weak air transportation system affects the rental car business, hotels, and attractions. In 2001 carriers suffered record losses. Chapter 5: Passenger Transportation Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

42 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Rail Industry Reached its peak volume in the U.S. in Major railroads want out of the passenger service business (except commuter service). Passenger service depends on Amtrak. The situation is similar in Canada with passenger service dependent on VIA Rail. Passenger rail service is much more important outside of North America. Efficient, economical, high speed trains provide an alternative to air travel. Chapter 5: Passenger Transportation Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

43 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Motorcoach Industry Intercity bus passengers tend to be lower income non-business travelers who are very price sensitive. Intercity bus service is becoming less important due to increased auto ownership and aggressive airline pricing. Bus travel is characterized by: More travel to and from rural areas and small towns than other modes of transportation. Lower average ticket revenues than other modes. Intercity bus industry is a small-business industry with a great deal of flexibility. Many bus companies focus primarily or exclusively on charter, tour or commuter operations. Chapter 5: Passenger Transportation Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

44 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Automobile Most popular mode of travel in the world because of affordability, flexibility, and convenience. In the U.S., the Travel Industry Association of America reports that 80% of person- trips are made by auto. Rental car industry growing in importance. * Grosses approximately $24 billion per year. Chapter 5: Passenger Transportation Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

45 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Cruise Industry Fastest growing segment of the travel industry. Since 1980 had average annual growth rate of 8.4%. Expanding fleets. Adding new ports of call. Seeing consolidation. Served by the Cruise Lines International Association. Chapter 5: Passenger Transportation Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

46 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Study the lodging industry. Appreciate the immensity of the restaurant-food service industry. Learn the current trends in resorts and timesharing mode of operation. Discover why meetings and conventions as well as meeting planners are so important to tourism. Chapter 6: Hospitality and Related Services Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

47 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Commercial Accommodations Non-Commercial Motels Time Share Facilities Time Share Facilities Upscale Mid Range Suite Hotels Private Institutional Private Homes College/ University Spas and Health Care Facilities Non-Profit Hostels Shelters YM / YWCA Bed & Breakfast Bed & Breakfast Hotels (Chains/Independent) Hotels (Chains/Independent) Meetings & Convention Hotels Budget Airport Hotels Mid Range Budget Home Exchange Deluxe Luxury Extended Stay Economy Resort Hotels Spa Casino Upscale Accomodations Structure Chapter 6: Hospitality and Related Services Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

48 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 The Lodging Industry World hotel room inventory grows about 2.5% a year. Occupancy rates average 65% overall. 72% of the world’s hotel rooms are located in Europe and North America. Europe has 45% of the rooms. In 2000, the U.S. lodging industry generated $108.5 billion in sales, numbered 53,500 properties, 4.1 millions rooms, and recorded profits of $24 billion. Chapter 6: Hospitality and Related Services Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

49 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Top 20 Hotel Chains (2000) RankCorporate ChainRoomsHotels 1Cendant Corporation541,3136,455 2Bass Hotels & Resorts490,5313,096 3Marriott International390,4692,099 4Accor389,4373,488 5Choice Hotels International350,3514,392 6Hilton Hotel Corporation317,8231,895 7Best Western International307,7374,065 8Starwood Hotels & Resorts227, Carlson Hospitality Worldwide129, Hyatt Hotels/Hyatt International86, Sol Meliá82, Hilton International64, Wyndham International62, Compass Group (Forte Hotels)59, Société du Louvre53, FelCor Lodging Trust50, TUI Group49, MeriStar Hotels & Resorts48, Extended Stay America41, U.S. Franchise Systems41, *Rankings are based on total rooms Source: Hotels, July Hotels magazine, a Cahners Publication, 2000 Clearwater Drive, Oak Brook, IL, U.S.A Chapter 6: Hospitality and Related Services Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

50 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Resorts and Timesharing 37% of the world’s resorts are located in the U.S. 52% of the world’s timeshare owners are U.S. Timeshare resorts are located in 81 countries. Timeshare owners reside in 174 nations. Major companies such as Disney, Hilton, Marriott, and Hyatt have become involved in timeshare. Chapter 6: Hospitality and Related Services Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

51 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Food Services Structure Food Services Independent Chain In-Hotel Fast Food Restaurants Fast Food Restaurants Traditional Restaurants Traditional Restaurants Ethnic Local Cafeterias Specialty Independent Broad Menu Specialty Ethnic Local Minimal Service Full Service Chapter 6: Hospitality and Related Services Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

52 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Food Service Industry (2001)  U.S. sales total estimated $399 billion -- 5% over  Employs more than 11 million people. 2.0 million more employees expected by Nearly 60% of employees are women, 13% are Hispanic, and 11% are African- American. Industry employees more more minority managers than any other retail industry.  Travelers contribute about $130 billion to sales each year. Chapter 6: Hospitality and Related Services Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

53 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Meetings and Conventions Industry worth $82 billion. Average convention attendee spends $218 per day, stays 4.1 days and spends $895 per event. Convention centers are expanding. Chapter 6: Hospitality and Related Services Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

54 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Become familiar with tourism distribution systems organizations and their functions. Understand the role of travel agents and their dominance in the distribution system. Consider the impact of the Internet on the distribution system. Examine the role of the tour wholesaler. Recognize that a combination of all channels of distribution can be used by travel suppliers. Chapter 7: Organizations in the Distribution Process Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

55 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Tourism Distribution Channels Suppliers Transportation Providers Accommodations Food Service Resorts Recreation, Entertainment, Etc. Suppliers Transportation Providers Accommodations Food Service Resorts Recreation, Entertainment, Etc. Customers Individuals Pleasure Groups Business Groups, Etc. Customers Individuals Pleasure Groups Business Groups, Etc. Tour Wholesaler Specialty Channeler Retail Travel Agent Specialty Channeler Specialty Channeler Specialty Channeler Tour Wholesaler Tour Wholesaler Tour Wholesaler Retail Travel Agent Retail Travel Agent Retail Travel Agent Direct Channel via Telephone Internet Suppliers Office Chapter 7: Organizations in the Distribution Process Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

56 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Examine the attractions industry. Look at the role of theme parks. Understand the gaming industry. Describe public and commercial recreation facilities. Recognize shopping as a travel attraction. Chapter 8: Attractions, Recreation, Entertainment and Other Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

57 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Overview of Attractions Attractions Historical Sites Cultural Attractions Cultural Attractions Natural Attractions Natural Attractions Events Recreation Entertainment Attractions Entertainment Attractions Archeological Sites Architecture Cuisine Monuments Industrial Sites Museums Ethnic Concerts Theatre Landscape Seascape Parks Mountains Flora Fauna Coasts Islands Mega- Events Community Events Festivals Religious Events Sports Events Trade Shows Corporate Sightseeing Golf Swimming Tennis Hiking Biking Snow Sports Theme Parks Amusement Parks Casinos Cinemas Shopping Facilities Performing Arts Centers Sports Complexes Chapter 8: Attractions, Recreation, Entertainment and Other Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

58 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Top U.S. Theme Park Admissions (2000) Theme ParkAttendance (millions) 1.The Magic Kingdom, Orlando Disneyland, Anaheim, California Epcot, Orlando Disney-MGM Studios, Orlando8.9 5.Disney’s Animal Kingdom, Orlando8.3 6.Universal Studios, Orlando Islands of Adventure at Universal, Orlando a Universal Studios, Los Angeles a Sea World, Orlando, Florida5.2 9.Busch Gardens Tampa Bay Sea World San Diego, California 3.6 a: Ties Source: Amusement Business magazine, based in Nashville, Tenn. Chapter 8: Attractions, Recreation, Entertainment and Other Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

59 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Top European Theme Park Admissions Chapter 8: Attractions, Recreation, Entertainment and Other Part Two: How Tourism Is Organized

60 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Adopt a professional approach to motivation and recognize differences in other people’s motives. Appreciate the range of ideas on travel motivation. Be aware of contemporary research practices in tourism that integrate motive and feature destination assessments. Be familiar with conceptual approaches to tourism motivation and recognize there is continual development and enhancement of ideas in this field. Chapter 9: Motivation for Pleasure Travel Part Three: Understanding Travel Behavior

61 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Requirements of a Sound Theory of Tourist Motivation Role of the theory. Ownership and appeal of the theory. Ease of communication. Ability to measure travel motivation. Multi-motive versus single trait approach. Dynamic versus snapshot approach. Roles of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Chapter 9: Motivation for Pleasure Travel Part Three: Understanding Travel Behavior

62 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Travelers tend to be more selective in their emphasis on travel motives with experience Self-esteem/development needs Fulfillment needs Relationship needs Safety/security needs Physiological Other=directed Self=directed Other=directed Self=directed Other=directed Externally oriented Internally oriented Travelers have multiple motives in their pattern of needs even though one category of needs may be more dominant Need for self-actualization Need for flow experiences Need for status Need for respect and recognition Need for achievement Need for self-development Need for growth Need for curiosity/mental stimulation Need for mastery, control, competence Need for self-efficacy Need to repeat intrinsically satisfying behaviors Need to reduce anxiety about others Need to affiliate Need to give love, direction Need to reduce anxiety Need to predict and explain the world Need for security Need for escape, excitement, curiosity Need for arousal, external excitement and stimulation Need for sex, eating, drinking Need for relaxation (manage arousal level) A “spine” or “core” of needs for nearly all travelers seems to include relationships, curiosity, and relaxation Chapter 9: Motivation for Pleasure Travel Part Three: Understanding Travel Behavior

63 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Recognize that travel experiences are the best way to learn about other cultures. Identify the cultural factors in tourism. Appreciate the rewards of participation in life-seeing tourism. Become aware of the most effective promotional measures involving an area’s cultural resources. Realize the importance of cultural attractions to any area promoting itself as a tourist destination. Evaluate the contributions that international tourism can make toward world peace. Chapter 10: Cultural and International Tourism for Life’s Enrichment Part Three: Understanding Travel Behavior

64 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Part Three: Understanding Travel Behavior Chapter 10: Cultural and International Tourism for Life’s Enrichment

65 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Six Categories of Tourism 1. Ethnic Tourism 2.Cultural Tourism 3.Historical Tourism 4.Environmental Tourism 5.Recreational Tourism 6.Business Tourism Source: Valene Smith, Hosts and Guests, Part Three: Understanding Travel Behavior Chapter 10: Cultural and International Tourism for Life’s Enrichment

66 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Appreciate the inordinate social impact that travel experiences make on the individual, the family or group, and society as a whole — especially the host society. Recognize that a country’s indigenous population may resent the presence of visitors, especially in large numbers. Discover that travel patterns change with changing life characteristics and social class. Become familiar with the concept of social tourism and its importance in various countries. Perceive that there are four extremes relating to the travel preferences of international tourists. Chapter 11: Sociology of Tourism Part Three: Understanding Travel Behavior

67 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Negative Social Effects of Tourism on a Host Society 1.Introduction of undesirable activities such as gambling 2.Demonstration effect Local people wanting the same luxuries and imported goods as those had by tourists 3.Racial tension 4.Development of a servile attitude on the part of tourist business employees 5.Trinketization of arts and crafts 6.Standardization of employees roles 7.Loss of cultural pride 8.Too rapid change in local ways 9.Disproportionate numbers of worker in low-paid, menial jobs These effects can be moderated or eliminated by intelligent planning and progressive management methods. Part Three: Understanding Travel Behavior Chapter 11: Sociology of Tourism

68 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Four Extremes Relating to the Behavior Preferences of the International Tourist 1.Relaxation versus activity 2.Familiarity versus novelty 3.Dependence versus autonomy 4.Order versus disorder Part Three: Understanding Travel Behavior Chapter 11: Sociology of Tourism

69 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Barriers to Travel 1.Cost 2.Lack of time 3.Health limitations 4.Family stage 5.Lack of interest 6. Fear and safety Part Three: Understanding Travel Behavior Chapter 11: Sociology of Tourism

70 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Know the four major supply components that any tourist area must possess. Become familiar with the newer forms of accommodations — condominium apartments and time sharing arrangements. Be able to use the mathematical formula to calculate the number of guest rooms needed for the estimated future demand. Develop the ability to perform a task analysis in order to match supply components with anticipated demand. Discover methods of adjusting supply components in accordance with fluctuating demand levels. Chapter 12: Tourism Components and Supply Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

71 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Components of Tourism Supply Travel Trade Sector Accommodation Sector Events Sector Transportation Sector Adventure & Outdoor Recreation Sector Food Services Sector Attractions Sector Entertainment Sector Tourism Services Chapter 12: Tourism Components and Supply Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

72 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Tourism Supply Components Can be classified into four main categories: 1.Natural resources 2.Built Environment 3.Operating Sectors 4.Spirit of hospitality and other resource Chapter 12: Tourism Components and Supply Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

73 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Formula to Calculate Number of Hotel Rooms Required R=T x P x L S x N where T=number of tourists P=percentage staying in hotels N=total number of guest nights/number of guests R=room demand per nights/number O=hotel occupancy used for estimating; divide number of rooms needed at 100% occupancy by estimated occupancy S=number of days per year in business L=average length of stay Example T=1,560,000 visitors P=98% L=9 days N=1.69 0=70 % S=365 days  R= 1,560,000 x.98 x x 1.69 R=22,306 (rooms needed at 100% occupancy) at 70 % occupancy need R=22,306/.70 = 31,866 rooms Chapter 12: Tourism Components and Supply Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

74 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Task Analysis Task analysis is the procedure used in matching supply with demand. The following steps are usually employed: 1. Identification of the present demand 2. A quantitative and qualitative inventory of the existing supply 3. The adequacy of present supply with present demand 4. Examination of present markets and the socioeconomic trends 5. Forecast of tourism demand 6. Matching supply with anticipated demand Chapter 12: Tourism Components and Supply Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

75 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Fluctuating Demand Levels and Supply (Seasonality) Seasonality can be reduced through either price differentials or multiple Chapter 12: Tourism Components and Supply Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

76 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Know the definition of demand and its application and importance in tourism development planning. Understand the factors determining the magnitude and fluctuations of demand. Become able to apply various methods to measure and forecast demand. Chapter 13: Measuring and Forecasting Demand Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

77 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Vital Demand Data 1.Number of visitors 2.Means of transportation used by visitors to arrive at destination 3.Length of stay and type of accommodations used 4.Amount of money spent by visitors Chapter 13: Measuring and Forecasting Demand Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

78 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Demand to a Destination Demand for travel to a particular destination is a function of the propensity of the individual to travel and the reciprocal of the resistant of the link between origin and destination areas. Demand=f(propensity, resistance) Propensity depends on: Psychographics Demographics (socioeconomic status) Marketing effectiveness Resistance depends on : Economic distance Cultural distance Cost of tourist services Quality of service Seasonality Chapter 13: Measuring and Forecasting Demand Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

79 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Measures of Actual Demand 1.Visitor arrivals –Number of people arriving at a destination who stay for 24 hours or longer 2.Visitor - days or - nights –= no. of visitors x avg. no. of days or nights at destination 3.Amounts spent –= no. of visitor - days or - nights x avg. expenditure per day/night Chapter 13: Measuring and Forecasting Demand Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

80 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Projection Methodology Several statistical methods or econometric analysis can be used to project demand. Trend analysis method Simple Regression — Linear least square method Multiple Regression — Linear least squares method Computer simulations and models Executive Judgement (Delphi) method Chapter 13: Measuring and Forecasting Demand Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

81 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Know the economic generators and impact of tourism Perceive the economic importance of tourism in various regions of the world Understand multipliers Know about balance of payments Comprehend elasticity and inelasticity Know about tourism satellite accounts Chapter 14: Tourism’s Economic Impact Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

82 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Three Major Goals of Tourism 1)Maximize the amount of psychological experience for tourists. 2)Maximize the profits for firms providing goods and services to tourists. 3)Maximize the direct (primary) and indirect (secondary) impacts of tourist expenditures on a community or region. These goals are often compatible but in certain situations they can be incompatible. Chapter 14: Tourism’s Economic Impact Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

83 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Constraints Faced in Tourism Goal Attainment Demand Supply of attractive resources Technical and environmental constraints Time constraints Indivisibilities Legal constraints Self-imposed constraints Lack of knowledge Limits on supportive resources Chapter 14: Tourism’s Economic Impact Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

84 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Economic Multipliers Direct Effect –Result from visitors spending money in tourist enterprises and providing a living for the owners and managers and creating jobs for employees. Indirect Effect –This is the multiplier impact. This is where visitor spending circulates and recirculates. Employment Multiplier Income Multiplier Chapter 14: Tourism’s Economic Impact Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

85 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Income Multiplier Formula Example $1,000 of tourist expenditure and an MPC of 1/2. Multiplier = =$2,000 Multiplier= where M =marginal (extra) P=propensity (inclination) C=consume (spending) MPC S =savings (money out of circulation) MPS A more simpler formula is Multiplier = 1/MPS Chapter 14: Tourism’s Economic Impact Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

86 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Learning Objectives Demonstrate the critical importance of tourism policy to the competitiveness and sustainability of a tourism destination. Outline the structure and content of a typical policy framework for a tourism destination. Identify some of the methods, techniques, and approaches used to assist in tourism policy formulation. Chapter 15: Tourism Policy, Structure, Content and Process Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

87 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 The Competitive/Sustainable Tourist Destination: A Managerial Framework The Competitive/Sustainable Destination Tourism Policy Structure and Content Tourism Policy Structure and Content The Policy Formulation Process The Policy Formulation Process Policy Formulation Methods Policy Formulation Methods Chapter 15: Tourism Policy, Structure, Content and Process Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

88 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Tourism Policy: A Definition Tourism policy can be defined as follows: A set of regulations, rules, guidelines, directives, and development/ promotion objectives and strategies that provide a framework within which the collective and individual decisions directly affecting tourism development and the daily activities within a destination are taken. Chapter 15: Tourism Policy, Structure, Content and Process Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

89 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Examples of the many “stakeholders” in tourism within a given destination/region. Residents of the “Host” Destination Local/Municipal/Regional/Provincial/National Governments Local/Regional/National Environmental Groups Local visitors/excursionists Remote visitors/tourists Tourism industry sectors:  Transportation  Accommodation  Attractions  Events  Commercial Outdoor Recreation  Commercial Visitor Service Destination Management Organization (DMO) Culture/Heritage Groups Social/Health/Education Groups Chapter 15: Tourism Policy, Structure, Content and Process Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

90 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Areas Addressed by Tourism Policy 1.The roles of tourism within the overall socio-economic development of the destination region 2.The type of destination that will most effectively fulfill the desired roles 3.Taxation – types and levels 4.Financing for the tourism sector – sources and terms 5.The nature and direction of product development and maintenance 6.Transportation access and infrastructure 7.Regulatory practices (e.g. airlines, travel agencies) 8.Environmental practices and restrictions 9.Industry image, credibility 10.Community relationships 11.Human resources and labor supply 12.Union and labor legislation 13.Technology 14.Marketing practices 15.Foreign travel rules Chapter 15: Tourism Policy, Structure, Content and Process Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

91 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Some Elements of Successful “total tourism destination management” Chapter 15: Tourism Policy, Structure, Content and Process Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

92 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 General Economic & Social Policies Affecting Tourism  Taxation – affects costs and thus profitability;  Interest Rate Policy – affects costs and thus profitability;  Bilateral Air Agreements – determines foreign visitor access;  Environmental Policy – limits growth and access to attractive, but sensitive areas;  Customs and Immigration Policy – can facilitate or hinder international visitation;  Communications Policy – can restrict use of certain advertising media;  Minimum Wage Policy – can affect labor markets;  Welfare Policy – can influence nature and behavior of work force;  Education Policy – can affect quality of workforce;  Cultural Policy – can affect preservation and promotion of national heritage;  Foreign Investment Policy/Regulations – can affect availability of investment capital;  Local Zoning Policy/By-Laws – can restrict or encourage tourism facility development;  National/Provincial/Local Policy re: funding support for major public facilities (e.g. stadiums, convention centers, museums, parks) – can drastically affect destination attractiveness;  Infrastructure Policy – can make destination safer for visitors, or restrict resident travel to foreign destinations;  Currency/Exchange Rate Policies – directly affects destination cost competitiveness; and  Legal System – determines consumer/visitor protection legislation (e.g. liability for failing to deliver advertised facilities/tours/experiences). Chapter 15: Tourism Policy, Structure, Content and Process Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

93 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Tourism: Some of its multiple interfaces with other sectors of the economy and society Legal/Political Players Technology Sector Environmental Movement Entertainment Industry Resource Extraction Industries Health Services Sector Education Sector Financial Sector T T O O U U R R I I S S M M Chapter 15: Tourism Policy, Structure, Content and Process Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

94 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 The Structure and Composition of Tourism Policy Chapter 15: Tourism Policy, Structure, Content and Process Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

95 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Destination Vision Framework Chapter 15: Tourism Policy, Structure, Content and Process Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

96 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Relate tourism planning to tourism policy. Discover what the goals of tourism development should be. Recognize that some serious barriers to tourism development must be overcome if a desired growth is to occur. Learn the political and economic aspects of development including those related to developing countries. Appreciate the importance of architectural design and concern for heritage preservation, local handicrafts, and use of indigenous materials in creating tourist facilities. Learning Objectives Chapter 16: Tourism Planning, Development, and Social Consideration Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

97 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Relating Tourism Planning to Tourism Policy SIMILARITIES 1.They both deal with the future development of a tourism destination or region; 2. They both emphasize the strategic dimensions of managerial action – although planning must also address a number of tactical concerns. DIFFERENCES 1.Policy formulation is definitely very “big picture” while much of planning is characterized by an attention to detail; 2.Policy formulation is a creative, intellectual process, while planning is generally a more constrained exercise; 3.Policy, and particularly its visioning component, has a very long-term strategic emphasis, while planning tends to be more restrictive in its time horizon. A one-year planning cycle is not uncommon, although 3-5 year plans are a possibility. In contrast, destination visions may have a 5, 10, 50, or even a 100 year time horizon; 4.Policy formulation must allow for as yet unseen circumstances and technologies to be considered. In contrast, planning tends to assume current conditions and technologies, with some allowances for predictable, or evolutionary change; 5.Policy formulation tends to emphasize a systematic determination of “WHAT” should be done in long-term tourism development, while planning tends to emphasize the “HOW” for the achievement of specific destination goals. Chapter 16: Tourism Planning, Development, and Social Consideration Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

98 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Some Advantages of Tourism Provide employment opportunities Generates foreign exchange Increases incomes Increases GNP Development of tourism infrastructure helps to stimulate local commerce and industry Justifies environmental protection and improvement Increase governmental revenues Diversifies the economy Creates a favorable worldwide image for the destination Facilitates the process of modernization Provides tourist and recreation al facilities for the local population Provides foreigners and opportunity to be favorable impressed by little-known nation or regions Chapter 16: Tourism Planning, Development, and Social Consideration Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

99 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Some Disadvantages of Tourism 1.Develops excess demand 2.Creates leakages so great that economic benefits do not accrue 3.Diverts funds from more promising forms of economic development 4.Creates social problems from income differences, social differences, introduction of prostitution, gambling, crime, and so on 5.Degrades the natural physical environment 6.Degrades the cultural environment 7.Poses the difficulties of seasonality 8.Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes 9.Adds to inflation of land values and the price of local goods and services Chapter 16: Tourism Planning, Development, and Social Consideration Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

100 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 The Planning Process 1.Define the system 2.Gather data 3.Analyze and interpret 4.Create the preliminary plan 5.Approve the plan 6.Create the final plan 7.Implement the plan Chapter 16: Tourism Planning, Development, and Social Consideration Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

101 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Goals of Tourism Development 1.Provide a framework for raising the living standard of the people through the economic benefits of tourism 2. Develop an infrastructure and provide recreation facilities for visitors and residents alike 3. Ensure development within visitor center and resorts is appropriate to those areas 4. Establish a development program consistent with the cultural, social, and economic philosophy of the government and people of that region 5. Optimize visitor satisfaction Chapter 16: Tourism Planning, Development, and Social Consideration Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

102 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Recognize the world-wide importance of natural resource conservation and sustainable tourism development. Learn how ecotourism can benefit local people. Understand the dangers and limitations of ecotourism. Understand tourist codes of ethics and guidelines. Learn current environmental practices of tourism organizations and suppliers. Learn how to maintain natural destinations. Learning Objectives Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

103 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 The WTTC ~ Four Myths of Tourism~ Myth #1: Travel & Tourism is a non-essential, ‘mass’ activity of affluent people in developed countries. Myth #2: Tourism’s major environmental impact is damage to developing countries. Myth #3: Ecotourism is the only logical, sustainable response to the environmental impacts of Travel & Tourism. Myth # 4: Comprehensive planning regulations and control are the only way to curb the environmental exploitation of Travel & Tourism. Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

104 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 WTTC ~ Key Environmental Issues ~  Global warming  Depletion of the ozone layer  Acid rain  Depletion and pollution of water resources  Depletion and pollution of land resources Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

105 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 WTTC ~ Implications of Resource Depletion ~  Political instability or increased competition for land could lead to loss of potential new tourism destinations and degradation of existing destinations.  Loss of landscape and wildlife could cause a decrease in customer satisfaction with tourism products and hence lower propensity to travel to some destinations.  Higher fuel prices could lead to operational price increases and corresponding decreases in the number of travelers in this price-sensitive market.” Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

106 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Elements of the WTTC Vision of Travel & Tourism and the Environment  Travel & Tourism is an integral aspect of modern societies  Global awareness of environmental damage is developing rapidly  The resources of the world’s largest industry can and must be harnessed to achieve environmental goals  The industry has the potential to influence billions of customers per years and to use its leverage to achieve beneficial environmental effects  The customer challenge will exert a growing pressure to achieve environmental improvements  Environmental lobbies will add pressure to develop good environmental practice  Self-regulation must be developed rapidly and effectively and used to influence the development of appropriate and workable regulations  Corporate environmental mission statements are a vital first step toward self-regulation  Environmental leadership must come from the major international companies Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

107 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 The Premises of Sustainable Development The Premise of Interdependency The Premise of Multidisciplinarity The Premise of Previous Experience The Premise that Nature is Better The Premise of Politics and Power Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

108 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Sustainable Development and Tourism: The Critical Areas Defining the Relevant Population/Community Defining the Time Horizon Defining the Dimensions of Sustainability Defining the Values that Underlie Sustainable Development Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

109 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Sustainable Development in Tourism: A Possible Allocation of Responsibility Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

110 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Sustainable Tourism ~ An Agenda for Action ~ ACTIVITIES:  Coordinating the development of a tourism philosophy and vision for the community/ region  Specifying the major goals of the community/region with respect to tourism  Obtaining consensus concerning the social, physical, and cultural carrying capacity of the community/region in question  Identifying the specific action initiatives necessary to meet the tourism development objectives while respecting the destination’s carrying capacities  Gaining agreement on the measures to be used in monitoring the impacts of tourism in the community/region  Gathering and disseminating information concerning the impacts of tourism on the community/region Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

111 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Sustainable Tourism ~ An Agenda for Action ~ PROGRAM ELEMENTS:  Maximum total visitation levels to a community/region  An obligatory tax to support tourism infrastructure planning, development, and maintenance  Community-supported legislation to protect and preserve unique resources and heritage sites  Community and industry consensus concerning architectural and signage standards  Support for standards and certification programs that encourage staff development and the delivery of high-quality service Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

112 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people Environmentally friendly travel that emphasizes seeing and saving natural habitats and archeological treasures A tool for conservation Ecologically responsible tourism Definitions of Ecotourism Some definitions of ecotourism are as follows: Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

113 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Provides jobs and income for local people Makes possible funds to purchase and improve protected or natural areas to attract more ecotourists in the future Provides environmental education for visitors Encourages heritage and environmental preservation and enhancement Benefits and Importance of Ecotourism Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

114 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Translating Idealism into Sustainable Tourism ~ What Managers Need to Know ~ Measures of The general relationship between tourism and the environment The effects of environmental factors on tourism The impacts of the tourism industry on the environment Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

115 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Types of Indicators Core indicators of sustainable tourism which have been developed for general application to all destinations Destination-specific indicators applicable to particular ecosystems or types of tourism. These indicators fall into two categories: –Supplementary ecosystem-specific indicators for application to particular ecosystems (e.g., coastal areas, parks and protected areas, or mountainous regions). –Site-specific indicators that are developed uniquely for the particular site. These indicators reflect important factors of the site. Which may not be adequately covered by the core and supplementary eco-system-specific indicator sets, but are nonetheless needed for management of the particular site. Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

116 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Core Indicators of Sustainable Tourism a International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources b The composite indices are largely composed of site-specific variables. Consequently, the identification and evaluation of the indicators composing these indices require on-site direction from an appropriately trained and experienced observer. In the future, based on the experiences in designing composite indicators for specific sites, it may be possible to derive these indices in a more systematic fashion. See the case studies for Villa Gesell and Peninsula Valdes for application of these indices. Source: World Tourism Organization Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

117 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Tourism Industry Associations of Canada Enjoy our diverse natural and cultural heritage and help us to protect and preserve it. Assist us in our conservation efforts through the efficient use of resources, including energy and water. Experience the friendliness of our people and the welcoming spirit of our communities. Help us to preserve these attributes by respecting our traditions, customs, and local regulations. Avoid activities which threaten wildlife or plant populations, or which may be potentially damaging to our natural environment. Select tourism products and services that demonstrate social, cultural, and environmental sensitivity. Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

118 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Common Features of All Codes  the need to make an overall commitment to the physical and human environment, to accept responsibility for environmental damage and take corrective action where necessary, and to promote and reward outstanding environmental performance;  the need to develop policies and strategies that take account of land-use planning regulations and the need to protect some areas from further development;  the need to develop management policies that enhance beneficial and minimize adverse impacts on the environment; and  the need to cooperate with other firms, sectors and countries. Chapter 17: Tourism and the Environment Part Four: Tourism Supply, Demand Policy, Planning, and Development

119 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Recognize the role and scope of travel research Learn the travel research process Study secondary data and how it can be used Understand the methods of collecting primary data Know who does travel research Learning Objectives Chapter 18: Travel and Tourism Research Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

120 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - © To delineate significant problems 2.To keep an organization or a business in touch with its markets 3.To reduce waste 4.To develop new sources of profit 5.To aid in sales promotion 6.To create goodwill Uses of Travel Research Some uses or functions of travel research are: Chapter 18: Travel and Tourism Research Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

121 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - © Identify the problem 2.Conduct a situation analysis 3.Conduct an informal investigation 4.Develop a formal research design 5.Collect the data 6.Tabulate and analyze 7.Interpret 8.Write the report 9.Follow up The Travel Research Process Chapter 18: Travel and Tourism Research Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

122 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Sources of Information Secondary Data Saves time and money if the data is related to your problem and is relatively current. The following criteria may be use to appraise the value of information obtained from secondary data sources: 1.The organizations supplying the data 2.The authority under which the data was gathered 3.Freedom from bias 4.Adequacy from the sample 5.The nature for the unit in which the data are expressed 6.Accuracy of the data 7.Pertinency to the problem 8.Careful work Chapter 18: Travel and Tourism Research Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

123 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Basic Research Methods Focus Groups The Survey Method – Factual surveys –Opinion surveys –Interpretive surveys –Personal interviews –Telephone surveys –Mail surveys –Electronic devices Observational method Experimental method Chapter 18: Travel and Tourism Research Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

124 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Become familiar with the marketing mix and be able to formulate the best mix for a particular travel product. Appreciate the importance of the relationship between the marketing concept and product planning and development. Understand the vital relationship between pricing and marketing. Know about distribution systems and how this marketing principle can best be applied to a variety of travel products. Be able to do market segmentation to plan a marketing program for the business you are most interested in. Understand the principles of branding and examine their applicability to destination branding. Learning Objectives Chapter 19: Tourism Marketing Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

125 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Marketing Mix The marketing mix is composed of every factor that influences the marketing effort. 1. Timing 2. Brands 3. Packaging 4. Pricing 5. Channels of distribution 6.Product 7.Image 8.Advertising 9.Selling 10.Public relations Chapter 19: Tourism Marketing Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

126 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Product Life Cycle Chapter 19: Tourism Marketing Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

127 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Factors that Influence Price Policies 1.Product quality 2.Product distinctiveness 3.Extent of the competition 4.Method of distribution 5.Character of the market 6.Cost of the product and service 7.Cost of distribution 8.Margin of profit desired 9.Seasonality 10.Special promotional prices 11.Psychological considerations Chapter 19: Tourism Marketing Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

128 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Price Skimming Skimming is appropriate when the product or service has the following characteristics: Price inelasticity No close substitutes High promotion elasticity Distinct market segments based on price Chapter 19: Tourism Marketing Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

129 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Penetration Pricing High price elasticity Economies of scales An easy fit of the product into consumer purchasing patterns Penetration pricing is appropriate when the following factors are present: Chapter 19: Tourism Marketing Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

130 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Selection of Channels of Distribution Channels of distribution are selected by: 1.Analyzing the product 2. Determining the nature and extent of the market 3.Analyzing the channels by sales 4.Determining the cooperation you can expect from the channel 5.Determining the assistance you will have to give to the channel 6.Determining the number outlets outlets to be used Chapter 19: Tourism Marketing Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

131 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Promotion In order to sell the product it is necessary to: 1. Attract attention 2. Create interest 3. Create a desire 4. Get action Chapter 19: Tourism Marketing Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

132 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Typical Bases for Market Segmentation Geographic Demographic Socio-economic Psychographic Behavior patterns Consumption patterns Consumer predispositions Chapter 19: Tourism Marketing Part Five: Essentials of Tourism Research and Marketing

133 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Examine forecasts concerning the growth of international tourism. Identify the major global forces which are shaping the tourism of tomorrow. Understand the impacts, both positive and negative, which these forces are likely to have on tourism markets and on the ability of destinations to respond to the demands of these markets. Highlight the powerful and positive impact that the environmental movement has had, and will increasingly have, on tourism development. Learning Objectives Chapter 20: Tourism’s Future Part Six: Tourism Prospects

134 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 The World of Tourism in 2020 Chapter 20: Tourism’s Future Part Six: Tourism Prospects

135 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Forces Impacting The Future of Tourism Economic A decline in the mega-nation-rise of the city state Political Socio-environmental awareness Technology Emergence of the knowledge based society Demographic shifts Shifting value systems Diversity within a homogeneous world Quest for stability and security Pressures for mass migration Change from a service to an experience economy Evolution of leisure time Competition for leisure time Chapter 20: Tourism’s Future Part Six: Tourism Prospects

136 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 WTO – Tourism to the Year 2020 Chapter 20: Tourism’s Future Part Six: Tourism Prospects

137 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 WTO – Tourism to the Year 2020 Chapter 20: Tourism’s Future Part Six: Tourism Prospects

138 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Chapter 20: Tourism’s Future Part Six: Tourism Prospects

139 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Chapter 20: Tourism’s Future Part Six: Tourism Prospects

140 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Chapter 20: Tourism’s Future Part Six: Tourism Prospects

141 Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that named in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written consent of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

142 Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 End of Presentation Thank you for joining us!


Download ppt "Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies 9th Edition - ©2003 Understand what tourism is and its many definitions. Learn the components of tourism."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google