Presentation on theme: "CADASIL Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy."— Presentation transcript:
CADASIL Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy
CADASIL Define To describe three cases of CADASIL in the same family Discuss the main findings of the MRI image Pathological features Evolution and Prognosis Differential diagnoses Demonstrate current perspectives of treatment
CADASIL Hereditary small-vessel disease due to mutations in Notch3 gene on chromosome 19, which causes stroke in young adults It is also known by the names of hereditary multi- infarct dementia, subcortical vascular dementia and familial encephalophaty
CADASIL The histopathology of small arteries and medium- sized leptomeningeal and long perforating arteries of the brain revealed luminal narrowing or even obliteration caused by deposition of electron-dense granular material in the membrane of vascular smooth muscle cells, and loss of smooth muscle cells vessel walls.
CADASIL Two types of lesions affecting small cerebral arteries compromising cerebral hemodynamics Reduction of the arterial lumen by fibrous thickening of artery walls Destruction of the wall smooth muscle cells of blood vessels can impair the vasodilator response to hypoxia secondary
CADASIL The CADASIL disease has a worldwide distribution distribution, there are few published hundreds of families being referred to this issue as a bibliographic study of 500 Orphanet (www.orpha.net) The disease prevalence of CADASIL is unknown.
The patient was a previously healthy 23 y female with occasional headache of recent onset diagnosed as migraine without aura, without neuropsychiatric disorders with onset of first symptoms at the age of 22. She had no cognitive impairment, epilepsy, peripheral neuropathy, ocular abnormalities or other neurological disorders. There was no clinical criteria to suggest multiple sclerosis or other demyelinating disease. However, family history showed that the mother of 52 years had onset of seizures and grandmother had debilitating demyelinating disease being defined without a previous diagnosis.
CADASIL The central nervous system lesions have an age of onset and the rate of progression varies widely. Can be identified even in asymptomatic individuals. In most patients, these lesions are located in the subcortical white matter, but can also be found in other locations central nervous system (brain stem and subcortical gray matter)
Initial examination: Conducted study of intracranial arteries by MRI angiography for diagnostic investigation which revealed no vascular changes CADASIL
Intracranial venous phase were normal CADASIL
The FLAIR sequence performed by MRI showed multiple hyperintense lesions affecting the white matter predominantly to the temporal lobe and bilaterally symmetrical CADASIL
MRI axial T1 sequence after the use of intravenous contrast with gadolinium showed no uptake in the lesions CADASIL
MRI axial T2 sequence at the level of the midbrain demonstrating hyperintense subcortical white matter bi-temporal CADASIL
T2 * gradient sequence showed no changes CADASIL
Diffusion technique without restriction of water molecules CADASIL
Proton spectroscopy demonstrated increased peak of choline and NAA CADASIL
Studies show that blood flow is reduced in demyelinating lesions compared to normal values in normal white matter due to hypoxic- ischemic events in vascular occlusion observed in this pathology CADASIL
Intrafamilial comparative study We observed the temporal lobes bilaterally symmetrical and its clinical symptoms reported CADASIL 23 y (daughter) 52 y (mother) 71 y(grandmother) Headaches Seizures Advanced cognitive deficit
The same image looks predominantly at the tips of the temporal lobes in the left picture patient of 23 y, the middle image patient of 52 y and the image on the right patient with 77 y all of the same family and female CADASIL Hyperintense on FLAIR compromising the temporal lobes (white arrows)
FLAIR sequence showing multiple hard hyperintense foci of deep white matter affecting the peri-ventricular level in accordance with the progressive age of the patients still noting brain volume reduction CADASIL 23 y (daughter) 52 y (mother) 71 y(grandmother)
Impairment of deep white matter in the region of high curvature of the semi-oval centers and peri-Rolandic CADASIL 23 y (daughter) 52 y (mother) 71 y(grandmother)
Bilateral and symmetric temporal lobe is an important feature in the imaging findings. The brain atrophy is a sign of disease progression and often found to be related to cognitive impairment and functional CADASIL 23 y (daughter) 52 y (mother) 71 y(grandmother)
Sagittal FLAIR sequence shows extensive involvement of the corpus callosum (blue arrows) in older patientswith clinical lush cognitive impairment, difficulty walking, psychiatric disorders CADASIL
Corpus Callosum preserved in patients 23 y and 52 y (left and center) compared with the diffuse involvement of the corpus callosum in the oldest patient (right) CADASIL
T2 sequence at the basal ganglia of older patients showing disease progression observed here in the latest scan on the right with important involvement of white matter cortical / subcortical sparing the subcortical fiber in "U"
First examination in 1985Control held in 2009 First diagnosed as Multiple Sclerosis on this MRI performed in 1985 Worsening mental status Difficulty in walking Cognitive deficit Incontinence sphincter
CADASIL Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research Reduction of the arterial lumen by fibrous thickening of artery walls Destruction of the wall smooth muscle cells of blood vessels can impair the vasodilator response to hypoxia
CADASIL The CADASIL disease has a progressive course and a final very debilitating and disabling. There is great variability within and between families. There is the description of individuals who remained asymptomatic until the seventh decade of life. In the final phase of the disease, most patients have dementia with pseudobulbar palsy and sphincter incontinence
Images obtained in patients with biopsy-proven CADASIL (top row) and sporadic subcortical atherosclerotic encephalopathy (bottom row) showing the different involvement of white matter and frontal temporo-polar with marked symmetry of lesions Auer D P et al. Radiology 2001;218:
Comparison between CADASIL patient in 71 y with an extension of the lesions to the subcortical region and MELAS in a patient of 35 y (Literature File) CADASIL Millar, W. S. et al. Am. J. Roentgenol. 2004;182:
CADASIL There is no effective therapy. These patients are usually monitored in child neurology, but with the progression of the disease need to have a multidisciplinary team, where the psychological support of patients and their families should not be forgotten. Thus, treatment is provided only symptomatic relief. Migraine headaches are treated with analgesia. The efficacy and safety of triptans are uncertain. The frequent and disabling attacks may require prophylactic drug therapy in the long term. Depression and mood disorders are treated with conventional antidepressants. The crises of emotional lability benefit from the administration of serotonin reuptake inhibitors
1. Sourander, P. and J. Walinder, Hereditary multi-infarct dementia. Lancet, (8019): p Auer, D.P., et al., Differential lesion patterns in CADASIL and sporadic subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy: MR imaging study with statistical parametric group comparison. Radiology, (2): p O'Sullivan, M., et al., MRI hyperintensities of the temporal lobe and external capsule in patients with CADASIL. Neurology, (5): p Davous, P., CADASIL: a review with proposed diagnostic criteria. Eur J Neurol, (3): p Jouvent, E., et al., Brain atrophy is related to lacunar lesions and tissue microstructural changes in CADASIL. Stroke, (6): p Oberstein L et al: Incipient CADASIL. Arch Neurol 60: ,2003