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Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactivity. Students.

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Presentation on theme: "Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactivity. Students."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nuclear Chemistry

2 Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactivity. Students will be able to compare properties of nuclear reactions with chemical reactions. Students will demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through application and graphing. Students will assess the application of nuclear chemistry as a continual alternative resource of energy for developed countries. Students will understand and classify nuclear reactions by the types of radiation produced.

3 Nuclear Reactions vs. Chemical Reactions Chemical ReactionsNuclear Reactions Similarities

4 Nuclear Chemistry

5 Bell Ringer: Atomic Forces 1.What are the two primary forces within an atom? 2.Distinguish between these forces. 3.a. Which one of the forces is stronger ? b. Why is this important to the atom’s existence?

6 Atomic Forces Electrostatic Forces : -Forces between charged particles. Types of electrostatic forces: a.Attractive: (p+ and e-) b.Repulsion: (p+ and p+ e- and e-) Nuclear Forces: Forces that holds p+ and n 0 together in nucleus. Nucear forces > Electrostatic forces

7 Atomic History and Structure Quiz Chpt. 4 in textbook

8 Nuclear Chemistry

9 Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactive decay. Students will demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through applications and graphing. Students will understand and classify nuclear reactions by the types of radiation produced.

10 Nuclear Chemistry

11 Radioisotopes Radioisotopes: atoms with an unstable nucleus. What determines if an atom has an unstable nucleus?

12 Nuclear Band of Stability tm

13 Nuclear Band of Stability tm The ratio of n 0 to p + determines the stability of the nucleus. For most atoms nuclear stability means more n 0 than p + If the ratio of n 0 to p + is inadequate it will have an unstable nucleus. (radioisotope) If an atom has more than 83 p +, it is a radioisotope. If an atom has 83 or less p +, it has at least one radioisotope.

14 Radioisotopes Atoms with unstable nuclei. The ratio of protons-to-neutrons is not adequate for nuclear stability. Most elements need more neutrons than protons to maintain stability within the nucleus. Elements with more than 83 protons are radioisotopes. Elements with less than 83 protons have at least one radioisotope.

15 Nuclear Band of Stability tm *Big Misconception: Stable nucleus means equal number of protons and neutrons. From graph, students confirmed that most elements with a stable nucleus needs more neutrons to minimize the repulsion force between protons within the nucleus.

16 Nuclear Band of Stability Using the graph above, determine if the following are radioisotopes. a.Hg-200 b. Na-22 c. Zn-70 T or F Nuclear reactions are spontaneous and their reaction rates are constant unless an inhibitor or catalyst is added to the sample.

17 Radiosotope’s Notation What is the radioisotope notation for each of the following? a. Polonium (Po). It has a mass number of 210. b. Rn-240 with an atomic number of 86. c. Th-230.

18 A reaction that occurs within the nucleus of a radioisotope in order to stabilize it. Also called: radioactive decay; radioactivity Spontaneous Reactions (occurs naturally). Reaction rates (speed of reactions) remain constant for radioisotopes despite changes in temperature, pressure, or addition of catalyst. Radioisotopes have half-lives. Nuclear Reactions

19 Nuclear Reactions: Half-Life radioisotope parent decays α + daughter isotope isotope (unstable) (stable) Transmutation: An element is converted into a new element during a nuclear reaction. Half-Life: The time it takes for half of a radioisotope sample (parent isotope) to decay into a more stable isotope (daughter isotope). Nuclear Equation:

20 Radioactive Decay Problems 1.a. A patient is given a 100 mg sample of I-131. How much of the isotope will remain in the body after 16 days? The half-life of I-131 isotopes is 8 days. b. How many days will pass for a 1.0g sample of I-131 isotope to decay to 0.25g.

21 Nuclear Chemistry Worksheet Complete for homework. Tomorrow: Radioactive Decay Lab

22 Radioactive Decay Lab Purpose: Simulate and graph the radioactive decay of an artificial radioisotope, M&Mium. Revised Procedures: Pre-Lab Questions: 1.What side of the candy represents the parent isotope? 2.What side of the candy represent the daughter isotope? 3.What is the half-life of the M&Mium radioisotope? Hypothesis: Complete on lab. thefoxisblack.com usd314.k12.ks.us

23 Radioactive Decay Lab: Data Table Number of Half- Lives Total Time (seconds) # of M&Miums (parent isotope) Daughter Isotope (decayed)

24 Radioactive Decay Graph astronomy.nmsu.edu

25 Infinite Campus Update: Chemistry Radioactive Decay Lab (15pts.) Modeling Radioactive Decay (5 pts.)

26 Nuclear Chemistry General Chemistry courses STOP here:

27 Infinite Campus Update: pre-AP Chem Radioactivity Article (10pts) Modeling Radioactive Decay (5pts.)

28 Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Review

29 Nuclear Band of Stability tm

30 Nuclear Radiation What is nuclear radiation?

31 M&Mium Lab Due

32 Nuclear Radiation Nuclear Radiation: Matter and large amounts of energy produced during a nuclear reaction. Three main types of nuclear radiation: 1.Alpha radiation (α ) 2.Beta radiation (β) 3.Gamma radiation (ϒ)

33 Nuclear Radiation paper wood concrete or lead Types of radiation can be classified by type of shielding. (alpha particle) (beta particle) (gamma particle)

34 Types of Nuclear Radiation Types of radiation can be classified by their charges.

35 Alpha (α ) Radiation parent decays α + daughter isotope isotope particle (stable) (unstable) (He nucleus) change in mass number: change in atomic number:

36 Transmutation Transmutation: An element is converted to a new element during radioactive decay. What must happen in the nucleus for a transmutation to occur? Does a transmutation occur during alpha, beta, and gamma reactions?

37 Beta (β) Radiation β particle change in mass number: change in atomic number: transmutation occur?

38 Gamma (ϒ) Radiation parent decays α + daughter isotope + ϒ isotope particle (stable) (unstable) (He nucleus) +ϒ+ϒ change in mass number: change in atomic number: transmutation occur?

39 Nuclear Equations radioisotope parent decays α + daughter isotope isotope particle (stable) (unstable) Illustrate the nuclear process in which radioisotopes become stable.

40 Nuclear Equations

41 parent decays α + daughter isotope isotope particle (stable) (unstable) Illustrate the nuclear process in which radioisotopes become stable. Half-Life: The time it takes for half of the radioisotope sample (parent isotopes) to decay into a more stable isotope (daughter isotope)

42 Graphing Skills Worksheet # of Half-LivesParent Isotope (grams) Daughter Isotope (grams) # of Half-LivesParent Isotope (grams) Daughter Isotope (grams)

43 Radioactive Decay Lab: Revised Procedures 1.Carefully pour the M&Mium radioisotope sample onto a plate. 2.Count the number of M&Mium radioisotopes in sample and record in table under 0 half-life. 3.Cover sample with another plate and gently shake for 10 seconds. Record time in table under first half-life. 4.Remove the top plate and count the number of M&Miums that have decayed into the daughter isotope(candy with no M&M print) during the first half-life. Record in table. 5.Consume the daughter isotopes (decayed isotopes). 6.Count the remaining M&Mium radioisotopes after the first half-life and record in table. 7.Continue shaking for 10 seconds, counting, recording, and consuming until all the M&Mium sample has decayed into the more stable daughter isotope. 8.Graph the rate of decay for the M&Mium radioisotope and the rate of production for the daughter isotope. Independent variable: half-life time (seconds) Dependent variable: number of isotopes

44 Radioactive Decay Lab: Data Table Number of Half- Lives Total Time (seconds) # of M&Miums (parent isotope) Daughter Isotope (decayed)

45 Radioactivity Decay Review Wksht. Key 4a. I-131 b. C-14 c. U No, only 75% of parent isotope decays, still 25% remaining. 6.1 million radioactive atoms 7.a mg of I-131 remaining b. 24 days 8 a. 20% b. about 85 grams c. about 83 days d. about 28 days B.C.

46 Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will understand, classify, and predict nuclear reactions by the types of radiation produced.

47 Nuclear Radiation Types of radiation can be classified by changes in mass number and atomic number between the parent isotope and the daughter isotope.

48 Nuclear Radiation: Bell Ringer 1.What are the three main types of nuclear radiation? 2. List three ways you can distinguish between these types of radiation.

49 Nuclear Radiation Problems

50 Transmutation Transmutation: An element is converted to a new element during radioactive decay. How else could you define transmutation? What must happen in the nucleus for a transmutation to occur? Does a transmutation occur when alpha, beta, or gamma radiation is produced?

51 Transmutation parent decays α + daughter isotope isotope particle (stable) (unstable) (He nucleus) Transmutation: An element is converted to a new element during radioactive decay. A parent isotope is converted to daughter isotope An unstable atom converted to a more stable atom. Atomic number changes during radioactive decay

52 Nuclear Chemistry Objective Students can explain the difference between fission and fusion. Students can analyze the benefits and risks of nuclear energy

53 Transmutation Transmutation occurs during: 1. Radioactive Decay 2. Bombarding an atom’s nucleus with particles. -can occur naturally or artificially -fission and fusion nuclear reactions

54 Fission vs. Fusion FissionFusion Similarities

55 Nuclear Fission Fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus by bombarding it with neutrons. cikguwong.blogspot.com chm.bris.ac.uk

56 Nuclear Fission Application chm.bris.ac.ukenglish-online.at Generates electricity where only steam is released into the environment.

57 Nuclear Fission Problem Nuclear Waste: Spent fuel rods must be disposed of properly. (pg. 812 in text) On-site or off-site holding tanks called pools. coto2.wordpress.com

58 Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Fusion – Small radioisotope nuclei combine. mrbarlow.wordpress.com

59 Nuclear Fusion Produces immense amount of energy. Does not produce nuclear waste Applications? Not yet. Requires immense amount of energy. Example: sun (40,000,000 0 C) scienceknowledge.org

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61 Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will assess the application of nuclear chemistry as a continual alternative resource of energy for developed countries. Assessment by: -reading and annotating literature that addresses pros and cons of nuclear energy. -Debating with peers why we should or should not depend on nuclear energy. -Formulating an opinion based on facts as to why the U.S. should continue to support the research and development of nuclear energy. (ORQ format)

62 Exit Slip 1. What is the difference between fission and fusion and give an example of each? 2. Should the United States continue the research, development, and application of nuclear energy through nuclear fission?

63 Nuclear Chemistry Objective I can analyze the benefits and risks of nuclear energy. (SC-H-ET-S-2)

64 Nuclear Energy Debate breakthrougheurope.org

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68 earth-policy.org

69 firstlab.webege.com

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71 Nuclear Energy

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74 Chernobyl,Ukraine Nuclear Disaster Effects

75 Fukushima, Japan Disaster Effects novinite.com guardian.co.uknucleaire11.wordpress.com uncannyterrain.com business.financialpost.com

76 Gallery Walk: Nuclear Energy Pros and Cons Each debate group record on chart paper important pros and cons you addressed today. Walk around and observe what other debate groups discussed.

77 Exit Slip: Nuclear Energy 1.Did today’s nuclear energy debate strengthen or weaken your view on this issue? 2.What is your view on this issue now: Should the U.S. continue to support the research, development, and application of nuclear energy? *Make sure to validate your view with several supporting facts. *


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