2Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactivity.Students will be able to compare properties of nuclear reactions with chemical reactions.Students will demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through application and graphing.Students will assess the application of nuclear chemistry as a continual alternative resource of energy for developed countries.Students will understand and classify nuclear reactions by the types of radiation produced.
3Nuclear Reactions vs. Chemical Reactions Similarities
5Bell Ringer: Atomic Forces What are the two primary forces within an atom?Distinguish between these forces.a. Which one of the forces is stronger ?b. Why is this important to the atom’s existence?
6Atomic Forces Electrostatic Forces : Forces between charged particles. Types of electrostatic forces:Attractive: (p+ and e-)Repulsion: (p+ and p+e- and e-)Nuclear Forces:Forces that holds p+ and n0together in nucleus.Nucear forces > Electrostatic forces
7Atomic History and Structure Quiz Chpt. 4 in textbook
9Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactive decay.Students will demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through applications and graphing.Students will understand and classify nuclear reactions by the types of radiation produced.
13Nuclear Band of Stability The ratio of n0 to p+ determines the stability of the nucleus.For most atoms nuclear stability means more n0 than p+If the ratio of n0 to p+ is inadequate it will have an unstablenucleus . (radioisotope)If an atom has more than 83 p+, it is a radioisotope.If an atom has 83 or less p+, it has at least one radioisotope.
14Radioisotopes Radioisotopes Atoms with unstable nuclei. The ratio of protons-to-neutrons is not adequate for nuclear stability.Most elements need more neutrons than protons to maintain stability within the nucleus.Elements with more than 83 protons are radioisotopes.Elements with less than 83 protons have at least one radioisotope.
15Nuclear Band of Stability *Big Misconception: Stable nucleus means equal number of protons and neutrons. Fromgraph, students confirmed that most elements with a stable nucleus needs more neutrons to minimize the repulsion force between protons within the nucleus.
16Nuclear Band of Stability Using the graph above, determine if the following are radioisotopes.Hg b. Na c. Zn-70T or F Nuclear reactions are spontaneous and their reaction rates are constant unless an inhibitor or catalyst is added to the sample.
17Radiosotope’s Notation What is the radioisotope notation for each of the following?a. Polonium (Po). It has a mass number of 210.b. Rn-240 with an atomic number of 86.c. Th-230.
18Nuclear ReactionsA reaction that occurs within the nucleus of a radioisotope in order to stabilize it.Also called: radioactive decay; radioactivitySpontaneous Reactions (occurs naturally).Reaction rates (speed of reactions) remain constant for radioisotopes despite changes in temperature, pressure, or addition of catalyst.Radioisotopes have half-lives.
19Nuclear Reactions: Half-Life Half-Life: The time it takes for half of a radioisotopesample (parent isotope) to decay into a more stable isotope (daughter isotope).Nuclear Equation:radioisotopeparent decays α daughter isotope isotope(unstable) (stable)Transmutation: An element is converted into a new element during a nuclear reaction.
20Radioactive Decay Problems a. A patient is given a 100 mg sample of I How much of the isotope will remain in the body after 16 days? The half-life of I-131 isotopes is 8 days.b. How many days will pass for a 1.0g sample of I-131 isotope to decay to 0.25g.
21Nuclear Chemistry Worksheet Complete for homework.Tomorrow: Radioactive Decay Lab
22Radioactive Decay LabPurpose: Simulate and graph the radioactive decay of an artificial radioisotope, M&Mium.Revised Procedures:Pre-Lab Questions:What side of the candy represents the parent isotope?What side of the candy represent the daughter isotope?What is the half-life of the M&Mium radioisotope?Hypothesis: Complete on lab.thefoxisblack.comusd314.k12.ks.us
23Radioactive Decay Lab: Data Table Number of Half-LivesTotal Time(seconds)# of M&Miums(parent isotope)Daughter Isotope(decayed)1234567
32Nuclear Radiation Nuclear Radiation: Matter and large amounts of energy produced during a nuclear reaction.Three main types of nuclear radiation:Alpha radiation (α )Beta radiation (β)Gamma radiation (ϒ)
33Nuclear RadiationTypes of radiation can be classified by type of shielding.paper(alpha particle)wood(beta particle)(gamma particle)concrete or lead
34Types of Nuclear Radiation Types of radiation can be classified by their charges.
35Alpha (α ) Radiation change in mass number: change in atomic number: parent decays α daughter isotopeisotope particle (stable)(unstable) (He nucleus)change in mass number:change in atomic number:
36Transmutation Transmutation: An element is converted to a new element during radioactive decay.What must happen in the nucleus for a transmutationto occur?Does a transmutation occur during alpha, beta, andgamma reactions?
37Beta (β) Radiation β particle change in mass number: change in atomic number:transmutation occur?37
38Gamma (ϒ) Radiation +ϒ parent decays α + daughter isotope + ϒ isotope particle (stable)(unstable) (He nucleus)change in mass number:change in atomic number:transmutation occur?
39Nuclear Equations radioisotope parent decays α + daughter isotope Illustrate the nuclear process in which radioisotopes become stable.radioisotopeparent decays α daughter isotopeisotope particle (stable)(unstable)
41Nuclear EquationsIllustrate the nuclear process in which radioisotopes become stable.parent decays α daughter isotopeisotope particle (stable)(unstable)Half-Life: The time it takes for half of the radioisotope sample (parent isotopes) to decay into a more stable isotope (daughter isotope)
42Graphing Skills Worksheet # of Half-LivesParent Isotope(grams)DaughterIsotope31425
43Radioactive Decay Lab: Revised Procedures Carefully pour the M&Mium radioisotope sample onto a plate.Count the number of M&Mium radioisotopes in sample and record in table under 0 half-life.Cover sample with another plate and gently shake for 10 seconds. Record time in table under first half-life.Remove the top plate and count the number of M&Miums that have decayed into the daughter isotope(candy with no M&M print) during the first half-life. Record in table.Consume the daughter isotopes (decayed isotopes).Count the remaining M&Mium radioisotopes after the first half-life and record in table.Continue shaking for 10 seconds, counting, recording, and consuming until all the M&Mium sample has decayed into the more stable daughter isotope.Graph the rate of decay for the M&Mium radioisotope and the rate of production for the daughter isotope.Independent variable: half-life time (seconds)Dependent variable: number of isotopes
44Radioactive Decay Lab: Data Table Number of Half-LivesTotal Time(seconds)# of M&Miums(parent isotope)Daughter Isotope(decayed)1234567
45Radioactivity Decay Review Wksht. Key 4a. I b. C-14 c. U-238No, only 75% of parent isotope decays, still 25% remaining.1 million radioactive atomsa mg of I-131 remainingb. 24 days8 a. 20% b. about 85 grams c. about 83 daysd. about 28 daysB.C.
46Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will understand, classify, and predict nuclear reactions by the types of radiation produced.
47Nuclear RadiationTypes of radiation can be classified by changes in mass number and atomic number between the parent isotope and the daughter isotope.
48Nuclear Radiation: Bell Ringer What are the three main types of nuclear radiation?2. List three ways you can distinguish between these types of radiation.
50TransmutationTransmutation:An element is converted to a new element during radioactive decay.How else could you define transmutation?What must happen in the nucleus for atransmutation to occur?Does a transmutation occur when alpha, beta, or gamma radiation is produced?
51TransmutationTransmutation:An element is converted to a new element during radioactive decay.A parent isotope is converted to daughter isotopeAn unstable atom converted to a more stable atom.Atomic number changes during radioactive decayparent decays α daughter isotopeisotope particle (stable)(unstable) (He nucleus)
52Nuclear Chemistry Objective Students can explain the difference between fission and fusion.Students can analyze the benefits and risks of nuclear energy
53Transmutation Transmutation occurs during: 1. Radioactive Decay 2. Bombarding an atom’s nucleus with particles.-can occur naturally or artificially-fission and fusion nuclear reactions
61Nuclear Chemistry Objectives Students will assess the application of nuclear chemistry as a continual alternative resource of energy for developed countries.Assessment by:-reading and annotating literature that addresses pros and cons of nuclear energy.Debating with peers why we should or should not depend on nuclear energy.Formulating an opinion based on facts as to why the U.S. should continue to support the research and development of nuclear energy. (ORQ format)
62Exit Slip1. What is the difference between fission and fusion and give an example of each?2. Should the United States continue the research, development, and application of nuclear energy through nuclear fission?
63Nuclear Chemistry Objective I can analyze the benefits and risks of nuclear energy. (SC-H-ET-S-2)
64Nuclear Energy DebateNUCLEAR REACTORbreakthrougheurope.org
75Fukushima, Japan Disaster Effects novinite.comguardian.co.uknucleaire11.wordpress.combusiness.financialpost.comuncannyterrain.com
76Gallery Walk: Nuclear Energy Pros and Cons Each debate group record on chart paper important pros and cons you addressed today.Walk around and observe what other debate groups discussed.
77Exit Slip: Nuclear Energy Did today’s nuclear energy debate strengthen or weaken your view on this issue?What is your view on this issue now: Should the U.S. continue to support the research, development, and application of nuclear energy?*Make sure to validate your view with several supporting facts. *