Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Holmes Chapter 4- Medication Preparations and Supplies"— Presentation transcript:
1Mrs. Holmes Chapter 4- Medication Preparations and Supplies PharmacologyChapter 4- Medication Preparations and SuppliesPharmacologyMrs. HolmesChapter 4- Medication Preparations and Supplies
2Oral Drug Forms Tablet Disc of compressed drug May be in a variety of shapes and colorsMay be coated or “scored”Why would they be coated?Why would they be scored?
3Oral Drug Forms Enteric Coated Tablet Tablet with a special coating that resists disintegration by gastric juicesthe coating dissolves further down the GI tract in the enteric or intestinal regionEx. AspirinNote” Do not crush or chew when administered.
4Oral Drug Forms Drug is contained within a gelatin-type container Why? CapsuleDrug is contained within a gelatin-type containerWhy?easier to swallowdouble chamber may be pulled apart to allow the drug powder to be put into sot foods or beverages for patients who cannot swallow the pill. *note: sometimes this is contraindicated for absorption
5Oral Drug Forms Other Oral Drug Forms Timed release capsule (sometimes called sustained release)Drug particles have various coatings (often of different colors)Different parts dissolve at different timesMust be swallowed whole, with no physical damage to the capsuleOral Drug Forms
6Dissolves- not to be swallowed LozengeAlso called a trocheContains “good tasting” flavoring and sometimes a local anesthetic for soothing irritation in the throat or mouthDissolves- not to be swallowedPatient should not drink liquids for approximately 15 minutes after administration to prevent washing away the medicine
7Suspension Liquid form of medication Must be shaken WELL before administration because the drug particles settle to the bottom (the drug is not DISSOLVED but SUSPENDED in the liquid)
8pour immediately after shaking EmulsionOils and Fats in waterSHAKE WELL!pour immediately after shaking
9Elixir Liquid Drug forms with ALCOHOL base Need tight capping to prevent evaporation of the alcoholDo not make available for alcoholics
10SolutionClear because the solute is completely dissolved in the liquid
11Syrup Sweetened, flavored liquid drug form. Cherry syrup drug preparations are common for children.
12Rectal Drug FormsSuppositoryEnema SolutionNote: While the rectal route is often not the preferred route for the patient, it is sometime necessary due to age, vomiting, NPO orders, inability to swallow, etc
13Injectable Drug FormsSolution- this is different from an oral solutionWaterlike solutions are called “aqueous”Oil based solutions have long absorption times and often patients say they are more painful injections because of the thick, viscous nature.
14…more injectible drug forms Powder- obviously we don’t inject a dry powder but mix it with a sterile solution toRECONSTITUTE it.Why would a drug come in this form?
15IV push, IV drip, IV “piggyback” What’s the difference between these?Intravenous- injected directly into a vein. Is this good or bad?YES! This means that the drug gets into the patient’s system really fast BUT if a mistake has been made, the patient reacts almost immediately.Piggy back- this is really the term. The second medication “piggy backs” into the line for the IV fluid.IV PushIV PB or Drip
17Now for the really funky ones! EpiduralIntracapsularGuide for intraspinal injection
18On to another TOPIC (lol) Topical drugsCream or ointmentLotionLinimentDermal patchEye,ear, and nose drops (gtt)Eye ointmentVaginal creamsRectal, vaginal, and urethral suppositoriesDouche solutionsBuccal tablet (rarely used)Sublingual tablet
19Metered Dose Inhaler like your asthma puffer Inhalable drugsSpray or mist via bottles, nebulizers, or metered dose inhalersGasAnesthesia gasMetered Dose Inhaler like your asthma pufferTwo types of nebulizers- aerosolize medicine for inhalation
20Preparation supplies Medicine cup Metal pill crusher Mortar and pestle AmpuleVialNeedlesSyringes
21SafetyOSHA mandates that every effort must be made to reduce the risk of needle stick injuries that could lead to exposure to bloodborne pathogensSafety needlesNeedleless devices
22What route is used most often and why? Quiz time!What route is used most often and why?