Oral Drug Forms TabletTablet –Disc of compressed drug –May be in a variety of shapes and colors –May be coated or “scored” Why would they be coated? Why would they be scored?
Oral Drug Forms Enteric Coated TabletEnteric Coated Tablet –Tablet with a special coating that resists disintegration by gastric juices the coating dissolves further down the GI tract in the enteric or intestinal regionthe coating dissolves further down the GI tract in the enteric or intestinal region Ex. AspirinEx. Aspirin –Note” –Note” Do not crush or chew when administered.
Oral Drug Forms Drug is contained within a gelatin-type container easier to swallow double chamber may be pulled apart to allow the drug powder to be put into sot foods or beverages for patients who cannot swallow the pill. *note: sometimes this is contraindicated for absorption Why? Capsule
Oral Drug Forms Other Oral Drug Forms Timed release capsule (sometimes called sustained release) Drug particles have various coatings (often of different colors)Drug particles have various coatings (often of different colors) Different parts dissolve at different timesDifferent parts dissolve at different times Must be swallowed whole, with no physical damage to the capsuleMust be swallowed whole, with no physical damage to the capsule
Lozenge oAlso called a troche oContains “good tasting” flavoring and sometimes a local anesthetic for soothing irritation in the throat or mouth oDissolves- not to be swallowed oPatient should not drink liquids for approximately 15 minutes after administration to prevent washing away the medicine
Suspension Liquid form of medicationLiquid form of medication Must be shaken WELL before administration because the drug particles settle to the bottom (the drug is not DISSOLVED but SUSPENDED in the liquid)Must be shaken WELL before administration because the drug particles settle to the bottom (the drug is not DISSOLVED but SUSPENDED in the liquid)
Emulsion Emulsion Oils and Fats in water SHAKE WELL! pour immediately after shaking
Elixir Liquid Drug forms with ALCOHOL baseLiquid Drug forms with ALCOHOL base Need tight capping to prevent evaporation of the alcoholNeed tight capping to prevent evaporation of the alcohol Do not make available for alcoholicsDo not make available for alcoholics
Solution Clear because the solute is completely dissolved in the liquid
Syrup Syrup Sweetened, flavored liquid drug form.Sweetened, flavored liquid drug form. Cherry syrup drug preparations are common for children.Cherry syrup drug preparations are common for children.
Rectal Drug Forms Suppository Enema Solution Enema Solution Note: While the rectal route is often not the preferred route for the patient, it is sometime necessary due to age, vomiting, NPO orders, inability to swallow, etcNote: While the rectal route is often not the preferred route for the patient, it is sometime necessary due to age, vomiting, NPO orders, inability to swallow, etc
Injectable Drug Forms Solution- this is different from an oral solution –Waterlike solutions are called “aqueous” –Oil based solutions have long absorption times and often patients say they are more painful injections because of the thick, viscous nature.
…more injectible drug forms Powder- obviously we don’t inject a dry powder but mix it with a sterile solution to RECONSTITUTE it. Why would a drug come in this form?
IV push, IV drip, IV “piggyback” What’s the difference between these? Intravenous- injected directly into a vein. Is this good or bad? –YES! This means that the drug gets into the patient’s system really fast BUT if a mistake has been made, the patient reacts almost immediately. –Piggy back- this is really the term. The second medication “piggy backs” into the line for the IV fluid. IV Push IV PB or Drip
IM, subQ, and ID Intramuscular- 90 degrees, slower absorption Subcutaneous- 45 degrees Intradermal- 15 degrees Ex TB test
Now for the really funky ones! Epidural Intracapsular Guide for intraspinal injection
On to another TOPIC (lol) Topical drugs –Cream or ointment –Lotion –Liniment –Dermal patch –Eye,ear, and nose drops (gtt) –Eye ointment –Vaginal creams –Rectal, vaginal, and urethral suppositories –Douche solutions –Buccal tablet (rarely used) –Sublingual tablet
Inhalable drugs Spray or mist via bottles, nebulizers, or metered dose inhalers Gas Two types of nebulizers- aerosolize medicine for inhalation Metered Dose Inhaler like your asthma puffer Anesthesia gas
Preparation supplies Medicine cupMedicine cup Metal pill crusherMetal pill crusher Mortar and pestleMortar and pestle AmpuleAmpule VialVial NeedlesNeedles SyringesSyringes
Safety OSHA mandates that every effort must be made to reduce the risk of needle stick injuries that could lead to exposure to bloodborne pathogens –Safety needles –Needleless devices
Quiz time! What route is used most often and why?