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English 306A; Harris 1 Syntax Word patterns. English 306A; Harris 2 Post & post- Post haste Post hoc “Post the Geneva meeting of Opec the OECD reckons.

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Presentation on theme: "English 306A; Harris 1 Syntax Word patterns. English 306A; Harris 2 Post & post- Post haste Post hoc “Post the Geneva meeting of Opec the OECD reckons."— Presentation transcript:

1 English 306A; Harris 1 Syntax Word patterns

2 English 306A; Harris 2 Post & post- Post haste Post hoc “Post the Geneva meeting of Opec the OECD reckons that its 24 member countries…” postpartum Postmodern Postposition post-apartheid Post-game

3 English 306A; Harris 3 Post & post- N NPAvpP S Post the election Frink was depressed NP VAuxAdvDetN VPNP

4 English 306A; Harris 4 Post & post- NVN NP VP S Marge has postpartum depression NP A AP postpartum NAf A

5 English 306A; Harris 5 Post & post- postpartum NAf A post Adv

6 English 306A; Harris 6 Arguments and roles Argument: a phrase governed by a predicate (verb). Grammatical role: the grammatical job arguments assume. Semantic role: the conceptual job arguments assume. Semasiological (concern form) Onomasiological (concern meaning)

7 English 306A; Harris 7 Linear Sequence English basic sentence patterns (p.89) V 1 V 2 V 3 V COP V COMP V T-COMP Intransitive Transitive Ditransitive Copulative Complement Transitive-complement 1 argument 2 arguments 3 arguments 2 arguments (1= complement) 2 argument (1=complement) 3 arguments (1=complement)

8 English 306A; Harris 8 Sentences Homer preens. Homer loves his blanket. Homer eats. Homer eats crap. The fat bald guy eats crap. The fat bald guy eats vast quantities of artery- hardening crap. The fat bald guy throws the dog a bone.

9 English 306A; Harris 9 Verbs Homer preens. Homer loves his blanket. Homer eats. Homer eats crap. The fat bald guy eats crap. The fat bald guy eats vast quantities of artery- hardening crap. The fat bald guy throws the dog a bone.

10 English 306A; Harris 10 Arguments Homer preens. Homer loves his blanket. Homer eats. Homer eats crap. The fat bald guy eats crap. The fat bald guy eats vast quantities of artery- hardening crap. The fat bald guy throws the dog a bone. V1V1 V2V2 V1V1 V2V2 V2V2 V2V2 V3V3

11 English 306A; Harris 11 Sentences Homer is sexy. Homer is a nuclear-plant operations guy. Homer is in the kitchen. Homer goes to the bar. The collar belongs to Santa’s Little Helper. Marge bakes a cake for Maggie. Bart throws a bone to the dog

12 English 306A; Harris 12 Verbs Homer is sexy. Homer is a nuclear-plant operations guy. Homer is in the kitchen. Homer goes to the bar. The collar belongs to Santa’s Little Helper. Marge bakes a cake for Maggie. Bart throws a bone to the dog.

13 English 306A; Harris 13 Arguments Homer is sexy. Homer is a nuclear-plant operations guy. Homer is in the kitchen. Homer goes to the bar. The collar belongs to Santa’s Little Helper. Marge bakes a cake for Maggie. Bart throws a bone to the dog. V COP V COMP V T-COMP V T-C0MP

14 English 306A; Harris 14 Semantic roles Homer is sexy. Homer is a nuclear-plant operations guy. Homer is in the kitchen. Homer goes to the bar. The collar belongs to Santa’s Little Helper. Marge bakes a cake for Maggie. Bart throws a bone to the dog. PatientEssive PatientEssive

15 English 306A; Harris 15 Semantic roles Homer is sexy. Homer is a nuclear-plant operations guy. Homer is in the kitchen. Homer goes to the bar. The collar belongs to Santa’s Little Helper. Marge bakes a cake for Maggie. Bart throws a bone to the dog. PatientEssive PatientEssive PatientEssive

16 English 306A; Harris 16 Semantic roles Homer is sexy. Homer is a nuclear-plant operations guy. Homer is in the kitchen. Homer goes to the bar. The collar belongs to Santa’s Little Helper. Marge bakes a cake for Maggie. Bart throws a bone to the dog. PatientEssive PatientEssive PatientEssive AgentLocation

17 English 306A; Harris 17 Semantic roles Homer is sexy. Homer is a nuclear-plant operations guy. Homer is in the kitchen. Homer goes to the bar. The collar belongs to Santa’s Little Helper. Marge bakes a cake for Maggie. Bart throws a bone to the dog. PatientEssive PatientEssive PatientEssive Agent Location PatientPossessor

18 English 306A; Harris 18 Semantic roles Homer is sexy. Homer is a nuclear-plant operations guy. Homer is in the kitchen. Homer goes to the bar. The collar belongs to Santa’s Little Helper. Marge bakes a cake for Maggie. Bart throws a bone to the dog. PatientEssive PatientEssive PatientEssive Agent Location PatientPossessor PatientAgentRecipient

19 English 306A; Harris 19 Semantic roles Homer is sexy. Homer is a nuclear-plant operations guy. Homer is in the kitchen. Homer goes to the bar. The collar belongs to Santa’s Little Helper. Marge bakes a cake for Maggie. Bart throws a bone to the dog. PatientEssive PatientEssive PatientEssive Agent Location PatientPossessor PatientAgentRecipient PatientAgentRecipient

20 English 306A; Harris 20 RoleDefinition Agent The entity that performs the action Patient The entity undergoing the action; the object of the experience Experiencer The entity that experiences the state Receiver The entity receives something from the action Essive Anything predicated by the (main) verb “to be” Possessor The entity who possesses something. Source The starting point for a movement Goal The end point for a movement Path The route over which movement happens Time The time an event occurs Location The place an event happens Semantic Roles

21 English 306A; Harris 21 Event schemata Being Happening Doing Experiencing Having Moving Transferring Complex Simplex

22 English 306A; Harris 22 RoleEvent Schemata Agent DOING, MOVING, TRANSFERRING Patient BEING, HAPPENING, DOING, EXPERIENCING, HAVING, MOVING, TRANSFERRING Experiencer EXPERIENCING Receiver TRANSFERRING Essive BEING Possessor HAVING, TRANSFERRING Source MOVING, TRANSFERRING Goal Path Time ALL Location Semantic Roles

23 English 306A; Harris 23 Simplex event schemata Being Happening Doing Experiencing Having E.g.s Homer is large. Homer is a safety inspector. Homer is in the shower. ComplementsSubjects Subject NP ≈ Patient Complement ≈ Essive EssivesPatients

24 English 306A; Harris 24 Simplex event schemata Being Happening Doing Experiencing Having Subject NP ≈ Patient E.g.s Homer fell asleep. Homer ages. Homer stumbled. Subjects Patients

25 English 306A; Harris 25 Simplex event schemata Being Happening Doing Experiencing Having Subject NP ≈ Agent E.g.s Homer eats. Homer yells. Subjects Agents

26 English 306A; Harris 26 Simplex event schemata Being Happening Doing Experiencing Having Subject NP ≈ Agent (Object NP ≈ Patient) E.g.s Homer eats. Homer yells. Homer catches Bart. Homer blamed Marge. Subjects Agents Objects Patients

27 English 306A; Harris 27 Simplex event schemata Being Happening Doing Experiencing Having Subject NP ≈ Experiencer (Object NP ≈ Patient) E.g.s Homer laments. Homer loathes Flanders. Homer saw Chief Wiggum.

28 English 306A; Harris 28 (Contrast: Homer watched Chief Wiggum.) Simplex event schemata Being Happening Doing Experiencing Having Subject NP ≈ Experiencer (Object NP ≈ Patient) E.g.s Homer laments. Homer loathes Flanders. Homer saw Chief Wiggum. Subjects Experiencer Objects Patients

29 English 306A; Harris 29 Simplex event schemata Being Happening Doing Experiencing Having Subject NP ≈ Possessor Object NP ≈ Patient E.g.s Homer has three kids. Homer has a keen sense of smell. Homer has chicken pox. Homer owns a dog. Homer possesses a hatbox. Subjects Possessors Objects Patients

30 English 306A; Harris 30 Complex event schemata Simplex occurrence (Happening, Having, or Doing) with explicit reference to motion. Start = Source End = Goal Route = Path Moving Transferring

31 English 306A; Harris 31 Complex event schemata Simplex occurrence (Happening, Having, or Doing) with explicit reference to motion. Happening + Source/Path/Goal Doing + Source/Path/Goal Moving Transferring

32 English 306A; Harris 32 Complex event schemata Happening + Source/Path/Goal Subj NP ≈ Patient Complements ≈ Source, Path, Goal Moving Transferring

33 English 306A; Harris 33 Complex event schemata Happening + Source/Path/Goal E.g.s Homer stumbled home. Homer stumbled home from Apu’s. Homer stumbled home, down the sidewalk from Apu’s. Moving Transferring

34 English 306A; Harris 34 Complex event schemata Happening + Source/Path/Goal Moving Transferring Homer stumbled home, down the sidewalk from Apu’s. PatientSourcePathGoal

35 English 306A; Harris 35 Complex event schemata Doing + Source/Path/Goal E.g.s Homer climbed out of the window. Homer climbed up Mount Splashmore from base camp to the summit. Homer ran screaming across the back yard to Flander’s. Moving Transferring

36 English 306A; Harris 36 Complex event schemata Doing + Source/Path/Goal Moving Transferring Homer ran screaming across the back yard to Flander’s. AgentPath Goal

37 English 306A; Harris 37 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing + Moving Transferring

38 English 306A; Harris 38 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing + Moving Transferring A complex schema already

39 English 306A; Harris 39 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing + Moving Transferring A complex schema already Happening or Doing + Source/Path/Goal

40 English 306A; Harris 40 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing E.g. Homer dropped the ball on his foot. Homer won $1.76 from the Springfield Lottery Corporation. Moving Transferring

41 English 306A; Harris 41 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing E.g. Homer dropped the ball on his foot. Moving Transferring Patient Source Patient Happening: Moving: Happening: Patient Goal Patient

42 English 306A; Harris 42 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing E.g.s Homer sold the dog. Homer sold the dog to Moe. Homer bought the dog from Moe. Homer bought the dog from a puppy mill in Halton. + Moving Transferring

43 English 306A; Harris 43 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing E.g. Homer sold the dog. + Moving Transferring

44 English 306A; Harris 44 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing E.g. Homer sold the dog. + Moving Transferring Having:It’s about possession, Moving:but the possession ‘moves’. It leaves Homer (transfers from him). Doing: Homer actively causes the transfer.

45 English 306A; Harris 45 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing E.g. Homer sold the dog. + Moving Transferring PossessorPatient SourcePatient Having: Moving: AgentPatient Doing:

46 English 306A; Harris 46 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing E.g. Homer sold the dog to Moe. + Moving Transferring

47 English 306A; Harris 47 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing E.g. Homer sold the dog to Moe. + Having:It’s about possession, Moving:but the possession ‘moves’. It transfers from Homer to Moe. Doing: Homer actively causes the transfer. Moving Transferring

48 English 306A; Harris 48 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing E.g.s Homer threw the dog a bone. Homer mailed Marge a letter. Moving Transferring

49 English 306A; Harris 49 Complex event schemata Happening Having Moving Doing E.g. Homer threw the dog a bone. Moving Transferring AgentReceiver SourceGoal Agent Doing: Moving: Doing: Patient Receiver

50 English 306A; Harris 50 Argument2Argument1 Arguments and “voice” V2V2 Maggie bandages the cat. Doing schema Active voice

51 English 306A; Harris 51 Arguments and “voice” Grammatical roles ObjectSubjectV2V2 Maggie bandages the cat. Doing schema Active voice

52 English 306A; Harris 52 Arguments and “voice” Semantic roles PatientAgentV2V2 Maggie bandages the cat. Doing schema Active voice

53 English 306A; Harris 53 V1V1 Argument1 The cat is bandaged by Maggie. Arguments and “voice” Happening schema Passive voice

54 English 306A; Harris 54 Arguments and “voice” Grammatical roles V1V1 Comp Subject The cat is bandaged by Maggie. Happening schema Passive voice

55 English 306A; Harris 55 Passive an alternate Happening schema for a proposition normally expressed as a Doing schema an alternate V COMP pattern for what is normally expressed as a V 2 pattern The cat is bandaged by Maggie. Arguments and “voice” Happening schema Passive voice

56 English 306A; Harris 56 Arguments and “voice” Semantic roles V1V1 Agent Patient The cat is bandaged by Maggie. Happening schema Passive voice

57 English 306A; Harris 57 Syntax The sentence the verb and its arguments the subject and the predicate phrase Event schemata simplex complex (simplex + relocation) semantic roles


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