Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy and Medical Imaging with or without Contrast"— Presentation transcript:
1Pregnancy and Medical Imaging with or without Contrast
2Informed consent and understanding The pregnant patient has a right to know the magnitude and type of potential radiation effects on a fetus that might result from in-utero exposure.
3Evaluation of potentially pregnant patients In females of child-bearing age, an attempt should be made to determine who is, or could be, pregnant, prior to radiation exposure.
4NoticesA missed period in a regularly menstruating woman should be considered due to pregnancy, until proven otherwise.
5MRI SCANSMR Imaging is known to cause slight heating of the body of the patient being scanned.There is at present no objective data to suggest that MR Imaging has any other adverse effects on the patient being scanned or on an unborn fetus.It is not possible to determine the true risk of MR Imaging on an unborn fetus.MR Imaging should be avoided unless a delay until after delivery would be dangerous to the fetus or mother.If the only other means of diagnosis is with ionizing radiation, MR Imaging would be the preferred diagnostic study.MR Imaging can if necessary, be performed at any stage in pregnancy.
6Pregnant patients may undergo MRI scans at any stage of pregnancy, if the ordering physician determines the risk-benefit ratio for the patient warrants that the study be performed.The justification for the exam must be documented in the patient’s hospital chart by the ordering clinician for inpatients or emergency room patients prior to the exam being performed.For outpatients written documentation must be faxed to the department by the ordering clinician prior to the procedure being scheduled.Gadolinium contrast will not be used during pregnancy without prior approval by a radiologist
7Fetal radiation riskThere are radiation-related risks throughout pregnancy that are related to the stage of pregnancy and absorbed dose.Radiation risks are most significant during organogenesis in the early fetal period, somewhat less in the 2nd trimester, and least in the 3rd trimester.LessLeastMostrisk
8Radiation-induced malformations Malformations have a threshold of rad or higher and are typically associated with central nervous system problems.
9Central nervous system effects During 8-25 weeks post-conception the CNS is particularly sensitive to radiation.Fetal doses in excess of 10 rad can result in some reduction of IQ (intelligence quotient).Fetal doses in the range of 100 rad can result in severe mental retardation and microcephaly, particularly during 8-15 weeks and to a lesser extent at weeks.The accepted maximum cumulative fetal dose during pregnancy is 5 rad.
10Breast Feeding and Contrast An infant absorbs approximately 0.01% of the maternal intravenous dose of iodinated contrast from breast milk, over the first 24 hours (equivalent to less than 1% of the recommended dose for an infant undergoing a contrasted imaging study). The ACR recommends that it is safe to breast feed immediately after an iodinated study or she may wait 24 hours, if she continues to be concerned about potential risk.An infant absorbs approximately % of the maternal intravenous dose of gadolinium contrast from breast milk, over the first 24 hours (equivalent to less than 0.04% of the recommended dose for an infant undergoing a contrasted imaging study). The ACR recommends that it is safe to either breast feed immediately after a gadolinium contrast study or she may wait 24 hours, if she continues to be concerned about potential risk.
11Use of contrast (iodinated or gadolinium) during pregnancy is recommended only if: The referring physician feels that the information gained by imaging with a contrasted study cannot be obtained by an alternative method.The results will not affect the patient/fetus during the pregnancy.Waiting after the pregnancy to obtain this information is not prudent for the patient’s/fetus’ care.Documentation is made on the patient’s chart by the referring physician who has approved informed consent.“ACR Manual on Contrast Media (Version 5.0)”
13Plain Films Examination type Estimated fetal dose per examination (rad)*Number of examinations required for a cumulative 5-rad dose+Plain FilmsSkull0.0041,250Dental0.000150,000Cervical Spine0.0022,500Upper or Lower Extremity0.0015,000Chest (two views)71,429Mammogram0.020250Abdominal (multiple views)0.24520Thoracic Spine0.009555Lumbosacral spine0.35913Intravenous pyelogram1.3983Pelvis0.040125Hip (single view)0.21323
14CT scans 9slice thickness: 10 MM) Non-helical Examination typeEstimated fetal dose per examination (rad)*Number of examinations required for a cumulative 5-rad dose+CT scans 9slice thickness: 10 MM) Non-helicalHead (10 Slices)<0.050>100Chest (10 slices)<0.100>50Abdomen (10slices)2.6001Lumbar Spine (5 slices)3.500Pelvimetry (1 slice with scout film)0.25020
15Nuclear medicine studies Examination typeEstimated fetal dose per examination (rad)*Number of examinations required for a cumulative 5-rad dose+Fluoroscopic studiesUpper GI Series0.05689Barium Swallow0.006833Barium Enema3.9861Nuclear medicine studiesMost studies using technetium (99mTc)<0.500>10Hepatobiliary technetium HIDA scan0.15033Ventilation-perfusion scan (total) 0.2150.21523Perfusion portion:Technetium.017528Ventilation portion: xenon (133 Xe)0.040125Iodine ( I 131 ), at fetal thyroid tissueIodine (I 131) is contraindicated during pregnancy
16Environmental sources (for comparison) Examination typeEstimated fetal dose per examination (rad)*Number of examinations required for a cumulative 5-rad dose+Environmental sources (for comparison)Environmental background radiation (cumulative dose over nine months)0.100N/ACT= computed tomographic; GI=gastrointestinal; HIDA=hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid; N/A= not applicable*--Where the reference provides a range of estimated doses, the highest value of the range listed here.+--Authors’ calculation from data provided in reference: values rounded to lowest whole number.
17Chest for Pulmonary Embolism CT Helical ScanEstimated fetal dose per examination (rad)1st Trimester2nd Trimester3rd Trimester2.5 mm slice–.00202
18Helical CT Scans Single Slice (5 mm thick) Multi-Slice (4) Detector Abdomen1.25 – 3.5 radPelvis
19Nuclear medicine and pregnant patients… Most diagnostic procedures are done with short-lived radionuclides (such as technetium-99m) that do not cause large fetal dosesOften, fetal dose can be reduced through maternal hydration and encouraging voiding of urineSome radionuclides do cross the placenta and can pose fetal risks (such as iodine-131)
20Nuclear medicine and pregnant patient (cont’d) The fetal thyroid accumulates iodine after about 10 weeks gestational ageHigh fetal thyroid doses from radioiodine can result in permanent hypothyroidismIf pregnancy is discovered within 12 hours of radio-iodine administration, prompt oral administration of stable potassium iodine ( mg) to the mother can reduce fetal thyroid dose. This may need to be repeated several times
21Approximate whole body fetal dose (rad) from common nuclear medicine procedures Activity (MBq)Early pregnancy9 monthsTc-99mBone scanLung scanLiver colloid scanThyroid scanRenal DTPARed blood cell7502403004009300.470.090.060.440.90.60.180.110.370.350.25I123 thyroid uptake300.03I131 thyroid uptake0.550.0040.015
22Nuclear medicine and breast feeding A number of radionuclides are excreted in breast milk. It is recommended that breast feeding is suspended as follows:Completely after I131 therapy3 weeks after I131, I125, Ga67, Na22, and Tl20112 h after I131 hippurate and all 99mTc compounds except as below4 h after 99mTc red cells, DTPA, and phosphonates
23Conversions for Absorbed Dose 0.001 rad = 1 mrad = 0.01 mGy0.01 rad = 10 mrad = 0.1 mGy0.1 rad = 100 mrad = 1 mGy = Gy1 rad = 1000 mrad =10 mGy = 0.01 Gy10 rad = 100 mGy = 0.1 Gy100 rad= 1000 mGy = 1 Gy (Gray)1000 rad = 10 Gy
24Termination of pregnancy… High fetal doses ( mGy, rad) during late pregnancy are not likely to result in malformations or birth defects since all the organs have been formedAt fetal doses in excess of 500 mGy (50 rad), there can be significant fetal damage, the magnitude and type of which is a function of dose and stage of pregnancyAt fetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy (10 and 50 rad), decisions should be based upon individual circumstances
25Reference ListICRP Publication 84, Task Group: R. Brent, F. Mettler, L. Wagner, M. Berry, S. He, T. KusamaSafety of Radiographic Imaging during pregnancy. Kevin S. Toppenberg, M.D., Ashley Hill, M.D. and David Miller M.S. Florida Hospital Medical Center. Orlando, Florida.Policy for Handling Pregnant Patients. Georges Y. El-Khoury, M.D. and Mark Madsen, Ph.D., The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology.Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnant Patients: Fetal Radiation Dose with Helical CT, Helen T. Winer-Muram, M.D. et al, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Radiology.
26Web sites for additional information on radiation sources and effects European Commission (radiological protection pages): europa.eu.int/comm/environment/radprotInternational Atomic Energy Agency:International Commission on Radiological Protection:United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation:World Health Organization: