Background National Science Foundation RERC 2005-2006National Science Foundation RERC 2005-2006 Aim: Versatile, low-cost, easy-to-adjust patient positioning aid that works with a range of examination tables…and meets the customer needs below. Fictional PatientsFictional Patients BruceRenal failure, manual wheelchair JoanHeart failure, old, weak, hard of hearing LloydType II Diabetes, overweight SophiaOn heparin, limited right arm function, uses a cane Arnold Parkinson’s, Diabetes, suffers from slight to moderate tremors DaveLimited use to right arm and leg, may use a scooter.
Current Methods Extremely basic; crudeExtremely basic; crude Not patient specific.Not patient specific. System fails = movement of patient = re-administering the imaging technologySystem fails = movement of patient = re-administering the imaging technology
Engineering Analysis Design CriteriaDesign Criteria Material Selection
Engineering Analysis: Air Star ROHO CushionStar ROHO Cushion Major problem: not fixed positioning
Engineering Analysis: Foam Foam Selection: Types of Foams 1.Open cellular interconnected pores or cells and are suitable for filtration applicationsinterconnected pores or cells and are suitable for filtration applications 2.Closed cellular Closed cellular foams do not have interconnected pores or cells, but are useful for buoyancy or flotation applicationsClosed cellular foams do not have interconnected pores or cells, but are useful for buoyancy or flotation applications 3.Flexible Flexible foams can bend, flex or absorb impacts without cracking or delaminatingFlexible foams can bend, flex or absorb impacts without cracking or delaminating 4.Rigid Rigid foams feature a matrix with very little or no flexibilityRigid foams feature a matrix with very little or no flexibility 5.Reticular Reticular foams have a very open structure with a matrix consisting of an interconnecting network of thin material strandsReticular foams have a very open structure with a matrix consisting of an interconnecting network of thin material strands 6.Syntactic Syntactic foams consist of rigid microspheres or glass micro-balloons held together by a plastic or resin matrixSyntactic foams consist of rigid microspheres or glass micro-balloons held together by a plastic or resin matrix
Engineering Analysis: Coverings NaugahydeNaugahyde –A vinyl-coated, waterproof and durable fabric. Nylon / SailclothNylon / Sailcloth –Also known as para-pak. A smooth, silky nylon material. KnitKnit –A stretchy woven materialóused. Lycra / Neoprene / RubatexLycra / Neoprene / Rubatex –Similar to double-knit material; however, it has a laminated rubber backing; similar to wetsuit material. ShelteriteShelterite –A vinyl-coated fabric, waterproof and durable; similar to naugahyde except that it has a ridge texture. CorduraCordura –A woven-like nylon material with breathability. Darlex / Dartex / DarflexDarlex / Dartex / Darflex –A four way stretch fabric that is water resistant and breathable.
Design Solution Final Solution:Final Solution: –A patient specific positioning aid that incorporates the engineering principles of encapsulating laminar foam in a controlled air inflow/outflow environment. Four major components:Four major components: –Laminar foam, polyurethane encapsulation, air inflow/outflow mechanism, and rubatex covering.
Design Solution How does it work?How does it work? 1.Air valves are open (allowing air in the system) 2.Patient positions oneself on top; causing air to escape. 3.Open cell foam contours; close air valves when no additional air is escaping. 4.Foam maintains contour; patient specific. 5.Patient is done; patient gets up; open air valves. 6.Air enters the system; open cell foam goes back to original shape. 7.Ready for next patient.
Reasoning But…why?But…why? –NSF RERC 2005-2006 –Fictional Patients Is there marketability ?Is there marketability ? –The prototype is small…the concept is broad. Material is environmentally friendly for all imaging technologiesMaterial is environmentally friendly for all imaging technologies High level of flexibility in the dimensionsHigh level of flexibility in the dimensions High level of flexibility in the material selectionHigh level of flexibility in the material selection
Is there marketability? Think about it…Think about it… –Have you ever felt pain, or discomfort from sitting down in a certain position for an extended period of time? –Have you ever woken up in the morning with pain because you didn’t sleep “right”? Which one is more comfortable?Which one is more comfortable?