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1 Management of blood glucose and diabetes in critically ill patient receiving enteral feeding. Pamela Charney, et al. Nutrition in Clinical practice 19:129-136,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Management of blood glucose and diabetes in critically ill patient receiving enteral feeding. Pamela Charney, et al. Nutrition in Clinical practice 19:129-136,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Management of blood glucose and diabetes in critically ill patient receiving enteral feeding. Pamela Charney, et al. Nutrition in Clinical practice 19: , April 報告者 : 賴美足

2 2 Management of blood glucose and diabetes in critically ill patient receiving enteral feeding. ˇ1.Mechanics of glucose regulation 2.Evaluation of energy source 2.Evaluation of energy source 3.Selection of enteral formulas and 3.Selection of enteral formulas and infusion routes infusion routes 4.Glycemic control in patients receiving 4.Glycemic control in patients receiving tube feeding tube feeding

3 3 Insulin The β-cells secrete 40 to 50 units of insulin daily. The β-cells secrete 40 to 50 units of insulin daily. Endocrine sensors located in the GI tract signal the pancreas. Endocrine sensors located in the GI tract signal the pancreas. Parenteral nutrition dose not stimulate the early insulin secretion. ( ∵ dextrose bypasses the GI tract) Parenteral nutrition dose not stimulate the early insulin secretion. ( ∵ dextrose bypasses the GI tract)

4 4 Table 1 Metabolic effects of insulin and its action on specific enzymes or proteins Metabolic effect Target enzyme or protein Increase glucose uptake (muscle) (muscle) Increase glucose transporter Increase glucose uptake (liver) (liver) Increase glucokinase Increase glycogen synthesis (liver, muscle) (liver, muscle) Increase glycogen synthase Decrease glycogen breakdown (liver, muscle) (liver, muscle) Decrease glycogen phosphorylase Increase glycolysis, acetyl CoA production (liver, muscle) Increase phosphofructokinase-1 Increase fatty acid production (liver) (liver) Increase acetyl CoA carboxylase Increase triacylglycerol synthesis (adipose tissue) (adipose tissue) Increase lipoprotein lipase

5 5 Glucagon The liver is the main site of glucagon action. The liver is the main site of glucagon action. In the fasting, blood glucose is maintained via hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. In the fasting, blood glucose is maintained via hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Lipolysis and ketogenesis are also stimulated by glucagon. Lipolysis and ketogenesis are also stimulated by glucagon.

6 6 Catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine Catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine act in the periphery to stimulate muscle glycogenolysis. Catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine act in the periphery to stimulate muscle glycogenolysis.

7 7 During stress or illness, hyperglycemia may cause by: Stress 、 illness ↓ Cytokines 、 Inflammatory mediators ↓ Increased gluconeogenesis 、 Insulin resistance ↓hyperglycemia

8 8 Management of blood glucose and diabetes in critically ill patient receiving enteral feeding. 1.Mechanics of glucose regulation 1.Mechanics of glucose regulation ˇ2.Evaluation of energy source 3.Selection of enteral formulas and 3.Selection of enteral formulas and infusion routes infusion routes 4.Glycemic control in patients receiving 4.Glycemic control in patients receiving tube feeding tube feeding

9 9 Diet and diabetes: the energy substrate controversy Monounsaturated fatty acids Monounsaturated fatty acids Alternate carbohydrate sources Alternate carbohydrate sources

10 10 Monounsaturated fatty acids 30% of total calories as MUFA have improvement in lipoprotein and glycemic control in DM patients. 30% of total calories as MUFA have improvement in lipoprotein and glycemic control in DM patients. High MUFA diet and low GI diet had similar impact on PC glucose in IGT patients. High MUFA diet and low GI diet had similar impact on PC glucose in IGT patients.

11 11 Alternate carbohydrate sources Fructose Fructose Modifying starch Modifying starch Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) Induced-viscosity complexes Induced-viscosity complexes Natural glucose-lowering agents Natural glucose-lowering agents

12 12 Fructose (GI of fructose=19) Small dose (5~10g) : eg, a piece of fruit Small dose (5~10g) : eg, a piece of fruit beneficial for reducing the acute. postprandial glycemic response. (fig 1.) beneficial for reducing the acute. postprandial glycemic response. (fig 1.) Large dose (50g) : Large dose (50g) : increase serum TG. increase serum TG. malabsorptive diarrhea and intolerance. malabsorptive diarrhea and intolerance. only small dose had the effect of lower glucose level. only small dose had the effect of lower glucose level.

13 13 Figure 1. The effect of fructose on the release of glucokinase from its regulatory protein in the hepatocyte. GKRP, glucokinase regulatory protein. Fructose Fructokinase Fructose-1-phosphate Inactive glucokinase Active glucokinase Fructose-6- phosphate Nucleus Cytosol Glucose Glucose-6- phosphate Glucose Fructose-6- phosphate Glycolysis GKRP

14 14 Modifying starch Slowly digested Slowly digested Raw corn starch: cannot be added to liquid formulas. ( ∵ high temp.  gelatinization, increase digestibility) Raw corn starch: cannot be added to liquid formulas. ( ∵ high temp.  gelatinization, increase digestibility) OSA-esrerified starch (1-octenyl succinic anhydride-esterified starch): reduced PC glucose. (heat stable, slowly digested) OSA-esrerified starch (1-octenyl succinic anhydride-esterified starch): reduced PC glucose. (heat stable, slowly digested)

15 15 FOS (Fructooligosaccharides) Not absorbed from the small intestine  no increase in PC glucose. Not absorbed from the small intestine  no increase in PC glucose. As a prebiotic for healthy bacteria in the large intestine. As a prebiotic for healthy bacteria in the large intestine.

16 16 Induced-viscosity complexes Lower glycemia similar to soluble dietary fibers. Lower glycemia similar to soluble dietary fibers. Outside the body: free-flowing, low- viscosity solution Outside the body: free-flowing, low- viscosity solution In the GI tract: increase viscosity. ( ∵ acid and amylase) In the GI tract: increase viscosity. ( ∵ acid and amylase) Can reduce the tube clogging that occurs with fiber-containing formulas. Can reduce the tube clogging that occurs with fiber-containing formulas.

17 17 Natural glucose-lowering agents American ginseng American ginseng Organic acid (lactic and acetic acids) Organic acid (lactic and acetic acids) Fenugreek seeds Fenugreek seeds Clausena anisata extract Clausena anisata extract

18 18 Management of blood glucose and diabetes in critically ill patient receiving enteral feeding. 1.Mechanics of glucose regulation 1.Mechanics of glucose regulation 2.Evaluation of energy source 2.Evaluation of energy source ˇ3.Selection of enteral formulas and infusion routes infusion routes 4.Glycemic control in patients receiving 4.Glycemic control in patients receiving tube feeding tube feeding

19 19 Enteral formula selection Most “ standard ” polymeric formulas can be used. Most “ standard ” polymeric formulas can be used. For critically ill patients, total calorie may be more importance. For critically ill patients, total calorie may be more importance. Overfeeding should be avoid. ( ↑ insulin requirement) Overfeeding should be avoid. ( ↑ insulin requirement) Special formulas specific for DM patients. ( ↑ MUFA, ↓ CHO) Special formulas specific for DM patients. ( ↑ MUFA, ↓ CHO) Most formulas do not contain >15g fiber per liter. (viscosity ↑ ) Most formulas do not contain >15g fiber per liter. (viscosity ↑ )

20 20 Polymeric formulas PT %of calories Fat CHO Fructose g/L (%of calories) MUFA %of calories D.Fiberg/L Othe r Jevity Glucerna (6.3) Glucerna SR (11) Resista nt starch, FOS Resource diabetic (10) Guar gum

21 21 Enteral formula infusion: continuous vs intermittent feeding Continuous feeding allows for improved blood glucose control. Continuous feeding allows for improved blood glucose control. Postpyloric feeding be used in patient who have a history of gastroparesis or are at risk for developing delayed gastric emptying. Postpyloric feeding be used in patient who have a history of gastroparesis or are at risk for developing delayed gastric emptying. Postpyloric feedings should be initiated on a continuous basis. Postpyloric feedings should be initiated on a continuous basis.

22 22 Management of blood glucose and diabetes in critically ill patient receiving enteral feeding. 1.Mechanics of glucose regulation 1.Mechanics of glucose regulation 2.Evaluation of energy source 2.Evaluation of energy source 3.Selection of enteral formulas and 3.Selection of enteral formulas and infusion routes infusion routes ˇ4.Glycemic control in patients receiving tube feeding tube feeding

23 23 Goals for glycemic control during enteral feeding As close to normal as possible. As close to normal as possible. Hyperglycemia  ↑ risk of infection. Hyperglycemia  ↑ risk of infection. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing standard care vs tight blood glucose control in surgical ICU patients showed that morbidity and mortality were significantly reduced if blood glucose goals were set at 110 mg/dL or lower. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing standard care vs tight blood glucose control in surgical ICU patients showed that morbidity and mortality were significantly reduced if blood glucose goals were set at 110 mg/dL or lower. Avoidance of hypoglycemia is important. Avoidance of hypoglycemia is important.

24 24 Serum glucose goals Critically ill patients : 80~120 mg/dl Critically ill patients : 80~120 mg/dl Non-critically ill patients: 100~150 mg/dl Non-critically ill patients: 100~150 mg/dl

25 25 Effects of hypoglycemia( ≦ 60mg/dl) Adrenergic: Adrenergic: sweating, palpitations, anxiety, tachycardia, hunger. sweating, palpitations, anxiety, tachycardia, hunger. Neuroglycopenic: Neuroglycopenic: headache, visual change, seizures, confusion. headache, visual change, seizures, confusion.

26 26 Treatment of hypoglycemia in hospitalized adult patients treated with insulin or oral diabetic agents I. Presumed symptomatic hypoglycemia should be treated without waiting to check plasma or blood glucose level. A. if the patient is able to swallow safely, administer ~15g of A. if the patient is able to swallow safely, administer ~15g of CHO in one of the following forms: CHO in one of the following forms: 1. 5 sugar packets dissolved in 4 ounces (1/2cup) of water sugar packets dissolved in 4 ounces (1/2cup) of water ounces (1/2cup) of fruit juice ounces (1/2cup) of fruit juice. 3. glucose oral gel (glucose 15) 15g orally must be used for 3. glucose oral gel (glucose 15) 15g orally must be used for those receiving Acarbose (Precose) or Miglitol (Glyset). those receiving Acarbose (Precose) or Miglitol (Glyset). B. if the patient has a functioning feeding tube, administer one B. if the patient has a functioning feeding tube, administer one of the following by feeding tube: of the following by feeding tube: 1. 4 ounces (1/2cup) of fruit juice. (not orange juice or 1. 4 ounces (1/2cup) of fruit juice. (not orange juice or other pulp-containing juice) other pulp-containing juice) 2. 5 sugar packets dissolved in 4 ounces (1/2cup) of water sugar packets dissolved in 4 ounces (1/2cup) of water.

27 27 Treatment of hypoglycemia in hospitalized adult patients treated with insulin or oral diabetic agents ( 續 ) C. if the patient is not able to take oral feeding or is NPO: C. if the patient is not able to take oral feeding or is NPO: 1. if IV access is available, administer D50W 25ml (12.5g). 1. if IV access is available, administer D50W 25ml (12.5g). 2. if no IV access is present, administer Glucagon 1mg by 2. if no IV access is present, administer Glucagon 1mg by subcutaneous injection. After glucogen treatment, for subcutaneous injection. After glucogen treatment, for those patients who are not NPO, provide a snack in those patients who are not NPO, provide a snack in order to prevent subsequent hypoglycemia. order to prevent subsequent hypoglycemia. D. contact either the primary service or the diabetes consulting service, whichever is responsible for the patient ’ s diabetes management. D. contact either the primary service or the diabetes consulting service, whichever is responsible for the patient ’ s diabetes management.

28 28 Treatment of hypoglycemia in hospitalized adult patients treated with insulin or oral diabetic agents ( 續 ) II. For treatment of asympomatic hypoglycemia (glucose ≦ 60mg/dl), follow steps A through C above. III. Glucose monitoring after treatment: measure reflectance meter glucose in 15 minutes. If glucose level is not > 80mg/dl, repeat the treatment outlined above. Recheck the glucose level in 15 minutes. Repeat further treatment (and glucose checks at 15 minutes intervals) until the glucose level is > 80mg/dl. measure reflectance meter glucose in 15 minutes. If glucose level is not > 80mg/dl, repeat the treatment outlined above. Recheck the glucose level in 15 minutes. Repeat further treatment (and glucose checks at 15 minutes intervals) until the glucose level is > 80mg/dl.

29 29 hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia: common causes Hyperglycemia: Hyperglycemia: Illness/infection, Overfeeding, Medications, Insufficient insulin, Volume depletion Illness/infection, Overfeeding, Medications, Insufficient insulin, Volume depletion Hypoglycemia: Hypoglycemia: excess insulin dose, severe stress, renal dysfunction, severe hepatitis, sepsis, diabetic gastroparesis excess insulin dose, severe stress, renal dysfunction, severe hepatitis, sepsis, diabetic gastroparesis

30 30 Glycemic management during enteral feeding Type 1 DM patient: Basal insulin should be provided with CHO, even during periods of no oral intake. Type 1 DM patient: Basal insulin should be provided with CHO, even during periods of no oral intake. Renal dysfunction patients: OHA may be contraindicated in critical. Renal dysfunction patients: OHA may be contraindicated in critical. 50% of preillness insulin requirements during initiation of feeding. 50% of preillness insulin requirements during initiation of feeding. “ Sliding scale ” + basal insulin “ Sliding scale ” + basal insulin

31 31 Insulin preparation pharmacokinetics InsulinRouteOnsetPeak Effective duration, h Rapid-actingSQ Lispro Lispro 5-15 min min 5 Aspart Aspart 5-15 min min 5 Short-acting Regular RegularSQIV min 2-3 h 0.5 h Intermediate- acting SQ NPH NPH 2-4 h 4-10 h Lente Lente 2-4 h 4-10 h Long-actingSQ Ultralente Ultralente 6-10 h h Glargine Glargine 2-4 h No peak SQ, subcutaneous

32 32 Conclusion Special formulas for DM have not shown improved outcomes when compared with standard formulas. Special formulas for DM have not shown improved outcomes when compared with standard formulas. Close monitoring and judicious use of insulin are keys to maintaining control and avoiding complications. Close monitoring and judicious use of insulin are keys to maintaining control and avoiding complications.

33 33 Reference M. Molly McMahon. M. Molly McMahon. Management of parenteral nutrition in acutely ill patients with hyperglycemia. Management of parenteral nutrition in acutely ill patients with hyperglycemia. Nutrition in Clinical practice 19: , April Nutrition in Clinical practice 19: , April 2004.


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