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Innovative Techniques for Physicians to Improve Safety Tammy Lundstrom, MD Detroit Medical Center-Wayne State University VP, Chief Quality and Safety Officer.

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Presentation on theme: "Innovative Techniques for Physicians to Improve Safety Tammy Lundstrom, MD Detroit Medical Center-Wayne State University VP, Chief Quality and Safety Officer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Innovative Techniques for Physicians to Improve Safety Tammy Lundstrom, MD Detroit Medical Center-Wayne State University VP, Chief Quality and Safety Officer

2 Improving Patient Safety means... Reducing medical errors. Reducing patient harm.

3 Patient Safety Terminology StructureProcessOutcome Root causesProximate causeSentinel event Blunt endSharp endPatient HazardsFailuresHarm Latent conditionsActive failureAdverse event

4 Overview of a Comprehensive Program

5 Detroit Medical Center  13,000 employees  3000 physicians  1000 Graduate Medical Residents  1000 Medical Students  Nursing Students  Pharmacy Students  PA Students

6 Demonstration of Leadership Support  Name of System Quality Council changed to System Quality-Medical Safety Council  Chief Medical Safety Officer named  Medical Safety Committee Established  Monthly reports to the Board  Medical Safety Plan Developed

7 Value of a Comprehensive Program  Reduce fear of reporting errors/near misses, gather more data  Reduce errors through tracking, trending,analysis, and targeted improvement projects  Reduce errors through prevention

8 Comprehensive Program

9 First Steps  Common definitions agreed upon  Common database to enter events  Information flows through each site Leadership and Performance Improvement Committee  Information flows from site to system  Critical aspects of safety agreed upon

10 What is a Safety Culture And how is it achieved?

11 Lessons from a Leader “Safety is not a priority, it’s a way of life” Paul O’Neill CEO Alcoa Steel Treasury Secretary

12 Safety Culture Involves Paradigm Shift OLD Who did it? Focus on bad event -Root Cause Top down Punish bad behavior NEW What happened? Focus on Near Miss -FMEA Bottom up Fix broken processes

13 Advantage to Focus on near Misses  No patient harm, therefore no blame  No guilt  Focus on prevention  No fear of litigation

14 Disclosure of Unanticipated Outcomes to Patients and Families

15 What is an Unanticipated Outcome?  A negative or unexpected result stemming from –A diagnostic test, medical judgment or treatment, surgical intervention, or (commission) –The failure to perform a necessary test, treatment, or intervention (omission)

16 Why Disclosure?  We are our patient’s advocates  Literature shows that after an unanticipated outcome, the patient and family want to know honestly what happened, and how the hospital is going to prevent future events  Rebuilds trust  Caregiver/Doctor relationship

17 Advocating Disclosure  American Society for Healthcare Risk Managers  JCAHO  AHA  AMA

18 JCAHO Standard RI.1.2.2 Patients and, when appropriate, their families are informed about the outcomes of care, including unanticipated outcomes.

19 AHA  Develop an institutional policy or position statement on disclosure of unanticipated outcomes  Differentiate between disclosure of an unanticipated outcome and an admission of liability  Determine who will be responsible for informing the patient, and, where appropriate, the family and/or legal representative, about the unanticipated outcome.  Educate caregivers and staff about your organization’s policies and procedures covering this issue, and consider communications training for those charged with disclosing unanticipated outcomes  Specify documentation requirements regarding disclosure

20 ASHRM  Each Healthcare institution must develop it’s own policy on management of unanticipated outcomes  Disclosure of such information to patients and families must reflect the requirements of applicable law  Differentiate between unanticipated outcome and admission of liability

21 For additional detail on implementation of a policy on disclosure of outcomes, consistent with the requirements of this standard:

22 AMA AMA Professional Code of Ethics

23 Steps to Follow After Event  Care for immediate needs of patient  Preserve evidence (Medical equipment)  Document in the medical record  Report (Risk Management)  Disclose

24 Documentation  Document only the facts of what occurred and treatment rendered  NOT –Blame –Subjective feelings, opinions –Speculation –Reference to “Incident report”

25 Incident Report  Complete and submit  Notify Risk Management  FDA notification if Medical Device or Medication  Begin Root Cause/Intensive analysis to examine process changes that may prevent future events

26 Who Will Inform the patient?  The attending physician  May need pre-disclosure conference with Nursing, Risk Management  All patient questions should be referred to the attending physician

27 When Should Disclosure Occur?  As soon as possible after immediate needs of patient addressed  Gather facts FIRST  May not have all the facts yet, in which case DON’T SPECULATE! Offer to speak again as facts become known

28 How?  Convey compassion –“I am sorry for your…..” “I am sorry that you…”  Known facts  Privacy  No BLAME on any member of healthcare team  Avoid defensive posture/reaction  Respond to patient complaints (provide forms, contact patient advocates/ombudsman)

29 Health Care Worker Involved in Error  AVOID BLAME  Provide counseling, if needed  Remember: No one goes to work intending to make a mistake  HCW feel tremendous guilt after event that harms patient

30 Examples from the Front Lines Physician Leadership is Key

31 Medication Safety Why physicians?

32 Medication Safety  Large % medication errors due to prescribing (20-49%)  For the most part- physicians prescribe  DMC Medication Safety Committee –Physician Chair –Review all events –Review ISMP alerts/External incidents –Chemotherapy Administration Policy

33 Medication Safety- Physician Lead PI  Look-alike Sound-alike Posters and alerts  Define safe medication order writing policy/pocket card  Promote physician incident entry  Develop delineation of privileges form related to chemotherapy administration

34 Dangerous Abbreviation Intended MeaningMisinterpretationRecommendation UUnitsMistaken as a zero or a four when poorly written, resulting in overdose. (4U seen as "40" or 4U seen as "44") Use units gg MicrogramsMistaken for "mg" when handwritten, resulting in overdose Use mcg q.o.d. or Q.O.D. Every other dayMisinterpreted as qd or qid if the "o" is poorly written. Use every other day or q 48 hours and time/day to begin therapy TIWThree times a weekMisinterpreted as "three times a day" or "twice a week" Use three times a week ccCubic centimetersMisread as "u" (units)Use mL AU AS AD Both ears Left ear Right ear Misinterpreted as "OU", "OS", and "OD".Use both ears, left ear or right ear OU OS OD Both eyes Left eye Right eye Misinterpreted as "AU", "AS', and "AD"Use both eyes, left eye or right eye

35 Physician Education Physician Led

36 Board Support  All physicians and trainees will have 3 hours of mandated compliance and safety education each credentialing cycle  Failure to complete required education will be deemed voluntary resignation  Web-based  Continuing Medical Education credits  Required for all new applications to the Medical Staff  Physician experts develop and approve education modules

37 Physician Education Modules  Sexual Harassment  Code of Conduct  Pain Management  Medical Safety and Incident Reporting  Restraint Use  Conscious Sedation  Infection Control  Life Safety

38 Moderate Sedation for Physicians and Licensed Independent Practitioners

39 Moderate Sedation  Moderate sedation/analgesia describes a drug- induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation is adequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.

40 Moderate Sedation Patient Evaluation Standards  History and Physical includes: –abnormalities of major organ systems with specific focus on the cardiopulmonary history –pregnancy status –previous adverse experiences with sedation/analgesia, as well as anesthetic techniques –current medications and drug allergies/adverse reactions –time and nature of last oral intake of foods, fluids, etc. –history of tobacco, alcohol, or substance use or abuse

41 Moderate Sedation Patient Evaluation Standards  Focused physical exam that minimally includes an evaluation of the airway and auscultation of the heart and lungs.  Assignment of ASA Classification of Physical Status  Pre-procedure laboratory and diagnositic testing guided by the patient’s underlying medical condition.  History and physical examination are valid up to 30 days prior to the scheduled procedure. Verification and review of this information is necessary immediately prior to the provision of moderate sedation.

42 Moderate Sedation Monitoring Standards  Level of consciousness –Monitoring the patient’s response to verbal and/or tactile stimuli should be routine (unless contraindicated by procedure).  Pulmonary Ventilation –Ventilatory function is continually monitored by observation and/or auscultation during the procedure.  Oxygenation –Continuously monitored by pulse oximetry with appropriate low limit alarms.  Hemodynamics –Baseline blood pressure established; measured at regular intervals intra and post-procedure. Electrocardiograph continuously monitored.

43 Moderate Sedation Emergency Equipment  Pharmacologic Antagonists and resuscitation drugs  Intravenous access  Supplemental oxygen  Advanced airway equipment  Cardiac defibrillator

44 Moderate Sedation Discharge Criteria  Following the provision of moderate sedation, patients are monitored until they are suitable for discharge: –Level of consciousness and hemodynamic/respiratory variables evaluated and no longer at risk for sedation and cardiorespiratory depression. –For patients who received pharmacologic antagonists, post- procedure monitoring should continue for a sufficient period of time to detect and appropriately treat its recurrence.  Discharge criteria that pertain to the patient population and specific procedures is developed: –A qualified physician or registered nurse should be in attendance until discharge criteria are fulfilled.

45 Sharps Safety Why Physicians?

46 Physician-Performed Testing Requirements  Dfn: Test personally performed by a physician in conjunction with the physical examination or treatment of a patient

47 PPT  Amniotic fluid pH  Cervical mucous smears for ferning  Fecal leukocytes  Gastric biopsy urease  Nasal smears for eosinophilia  Occult blood, fecal and gastric  Pinworm exam

48 PPT  Post-coital mucous exam  Potassium hydroxide preparations  Semen analysis, qualitative  Synovial fluid for crystals  Urine dipstick  Urine sediment microscopy  Vaginal wet mount microscopy

49 What’s required?  Policy- scope of testing for physicians  Procedure manual- specimen handling  QI program –Quality control, reagents –Instrument maintenance –Corrective action equipment/reagent failure  Documented training- test specific  Competency assessment-credentialing  System for reporting results

50 How will you comply?  Training and documentation  Reagent control –No bottles in pockets!!  House staff? Other trainees?

51 Sharps Safety  Physicians perform many procedures –Forgotten “frontline worker”  Physician sharps injuries under-reported  HIV conversions –57 documented conversions –6 physicians  Many Safety devices used primarily by physicians –Safety Scalpels –Blunted suture needles

52 Physician Peer review and Patient Safety

53 Incident Reports Incident Occurs Root Cause -Process Peer Review -Physician specific practice as it relates to care of this patient

54 Goal of Peer Review  Monitor and improve physician care of patients  Accomplish by: –Open, non-punitive discussion –Review and discuss alternatives –Disseminate to ALL physicians Monthly Vignettes

55 Code Blue  Get away from “monitoring Code”  Move towards: review previous 48 hour record –Could this event have been prevented? –Were signs of deterioration missed? Elevated BP, dropping BP Elevated HR, dropping HR Elevated RR

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