Earth orbits the Sun (revolves) once every year: at an average distance of 1 AU ≈ 150 million km. with Earth’s axis tilted by 23.5º (pointing to Polaris) and rotating in the same direction it orbits, counter- clockwise as viewed from above the North Pole.
We can recognize solstices and equinoxes by Sun’s path across sky: Summer solstice: Highest path, rise and set at most extreme north of due east. Winter solstice: Lowest path, rise and set at most extreme south of due east. Equinoxes: Sun rises precisely due east and sets precisely due west.
What determines the strength of gravity? The Universal Law of Gravitation: 1.Every mass attracts every other mass. 2.Attraction is directly proportional to the product of their masses. 3.Attraction is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
Conservation of Energy Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can change form or be exchanged between objects. The total energy content of the Universe was determined in the Big Bang and remains the same today.
Sunspots Are cooler than other parts of the Sun’s surface (4000 K) Are regions with strong magnetic fields
The brightness of a star depends on both distance and luminosity
Inverse Square Law for Light Luminosity passing through each sphere is the same Area of sphere = 4π (radius) 2 Divide luminosity by area to get apparent brightness Brightness is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from thr observor luminosity Apparent brightness = -------------------------- 4 π x distance 2
The relationship between apparent brightness and luminosity depends on distance: Luminosity Brightness = 4π (distance) 2 We can determine a star’s luminosity if we can measure its distance and apparent brightness: Luminosity = 4π (distance) 2 x (Brightness)
Temperature Luminosity H-R diagram depicts: Luminosity Temperature Color Spectral type Radius
We see our galaxy edge-on. Primary features: disk, bulge, halo, globular clusters
Background radiation from the Big Bang has been freely streaming across the universe since atoms formed at temperature ~3000 K: visible/IR. BIG BANG
VELOCITY Velocity = (the speed) + (direction) of the motion of mass. Expressed as a VECTOR QUANTITY MAGNITUDE expressed as distance/time (10km/hr) DIRECTION expressed in a direction (west) 30 km/hr west
Gravity is a force of attraction that exists between any two masses, any two bodies, any two particles. What is Gravity?
What have we learned? What is the Sun’s structure? —From inside out, the layers are Core Radiation zone Convection zone Photosphere Chromosphere Corona Solar wind
Most massive stars: 100M Sun Least massive stars: 0.08M Sun (M Sun is the mass of the Sun.)
What happens to a star is determined by the amount of mass a star has. Low Mass (sun) High mass (Betelgeuse)
Three Basic Types of Galaxies Spiral Variations exist within these three types. Elliptical Irregular
Five Habits of a Critical Thinker Critical thinking skills don't just "happen." Just like brushing your teeth, those skills need to be practiced on a regular basis before they can become a more natural part of your learning processes. In her book FOCUS on College Success, Constance Staley offers students five tips for honing their critical-thinking skills. Encourage your students to reflect on these points, and they will reap the benefits! 1. If you don't know something, admit it. Then, endeavor to learn more. 2. Acknowledge your "hot buttons." It's normal to have strong feelings about particular issues. When you know which issues those are, you can make a point to understand why they affect you as they do. In turn, this helps you better articulate your thoughts to others. 3. Seek to understand other peoples' points of view. In addition to gaining a well-rounded perspective on a topic, this will enable you to better respond to others' arguments. 4. "Trust and verify." Don't blindly accept what you hear or read — yet don't feel the need to maintain a skeptical attitude towards everything. 5. Always remember the importance of critical thinking as it relates to your education. The more value you place on critical thinking, the more likely you'll put its principles into practice — and the efforts will pay off in all aspects of your life