2Energy Slide 2 – Energy Overview Energy. It’s in you, your home, your environment - it’s in everyone and it’s everywhere. Energy is what moves us, what makes life happen. Thanks to energy we can: surf the net, chat with friends and do homework on a computer, watch a movie, play videogames, listen to music, cook dinner, or just turn on a light.Question to students:What are some things you did or used today that required energy?(Sample Answer: Everything requires energy! Even sleeping!)Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 1Optional Discussion Question:Is it possible to do anything that does not require energy?
3Energy – The Ability To Do Work Slide 3 - What is Energy?Energy is defined as the ability to do work. Energy comes in different forms and each form offers a unique ability to do work. Forms of energy that people are familiar with include…light energyheat energysound energychemical energyand the energy of motion.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 2
4Classifications of Energy Slide 4 – Classifications of Energy - Potential and Kinetic EnergyAll forms of energy can be classified into two categories: potential or kinetic.Potential energy is stored energy or the energy of position. Think of a rock sitting at the top of a hill…it has energy, but none of it is in use at the moment.Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Think of that same rock, but rolling down a hill!Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 3, 4Optional Discussion Question:What other examples of potential and kinetic energy can people think of?Going from potential energy… to kinetic energy!(stored energy; the energy of position)(energy of motion)
5Energy Transformations Energy can change forms…Slide 5 – Energy Transformations - Energy Can Change FormsA very important and amazing thing about energy is that IT CAN CHANGE FORMS! Here is an example: When you eat breakfast in the morning, you are eating a form of chemical potential energy (we measure chemical potential energy in calories). Our bodies can transform the chemical energy into mechanical energy that allows us to move and do work like riding a bike to get to school. Have you ever felt like you had “no energy”? You feel better when you eat something! That’s because humans get energy from the foods we eat.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 5Chemical energy becomesmechanical energy when…We pedal a bike!
6Energy Transformations Slide 6: Energy Transformations – Electrical to Radiant and ThermalElectrical energy changes to radiant and thermal energy when we turn on a light bulb.Question to students:What are some other ways you can think of that energy changes forms? Be sure to write at least 1 of those on your worksheet.(Some sample answers include: food energy (chemical) turns into potential chemical energy in our bodies when we eat, gas burned in a car (chemical) turns into kinetic energy (the car moves), electrical energy in a phone turns into sound energy when we hear the person on the other end)Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 6Optional Discussion Question:When energy changes forms, does all of the energy transfer? Is there any energy lost? Why does a light bulb heat up when we turn it on?Electrical energy becomesthermal and radiantenergy when…We turn on a light bulb!
7Electricity Slide 7 - Electricity Electricity! Electrical energy, or electricity, is the flow of electrons. It is a uniquely versatile form of energy. It can be easily transformed into other forms of energy, such as heat, light, or mechanical energy. Because of its ability to easily change forms, we use electricity to do many things for us – we put it to work! But how do we get electricity? What things must we start with and what must we do to them? These are important questions to consider.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 7Optional Discussion Question:What are some vital ways that we use electricity in our lives? Can you imagine life without electricity? What would that be like?
8How do we begin with an energy source and end up with electricity? Energy TransformationsHow do we begin with an energy source and end up with electricity?Slide 8 – Energy TransformationThere are a lot of steps that go into getting that electricity to turn on a light bulb! First, we need to start with an energy source. For this example, we’ll use coal. The coal is burned to generate heat. Then we take that heat and boil water to create steam. The steam, which, remember, has energy in it, is then aimed at turbines. The energy in the steam spins the turbines. The turbine spins magnets inside of copper wires, which generates electricity (more on that in one moment!)… That’s a lot of energy transformations! The transformations involved chemical to thermal, thermal to mechanical, and finally mechanical to electrical. And remember, if we do something with that electricity, like power a light bulb, we’ll need yet more energy transformations.
9Energy Transformations Slide 9 – Energy TransformationsThis is what all of those energy transformations looks like in a power plant. Power plants are large, complicated places. But all they’re doing is starting with an energy source (coal in this example) and transforming it again and again until we can use the resulting mechanical energy to spin magnets inside of copper wires…Question to students:What is the “goal” of all the different energy transformations in a power plant?(Note: This is a very important concept that carries powerfully into the on-site presentation, so it’s important for students to understand that the “goal” in a coal-fired power plant, as with every power plant besides photovoltaic farms, is to spin magnets inside of copper wires.)Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 8Optional Discussion Question:What are some other energy sources power plants could use?
10The Electromagnetic Effect Slide 10 – The Electromagnetic EffectThe turbine generator is where the “magic” happens. Except it’s not magic – it’s a physical phenomenon! All generators use something called the “electromagnetic effect”. The electromagnetic effect occurs when magnets spin inside of copper wires causing electrons to flow, which, as we learned earlier, is called (have students respond: ELECTRICITY!)Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 9
11Another Source?There is one energy source that can generate electricity WITHOUT using the electromagnetic effect; it uses a different effect entirely… Can anyone guess what that energy source is?Slide 11 – Another Source?There is one energy source that can generate electricity WITHOUT using the electromagnetic effect; it uses a different physical phenomenon entirely…Can anyone guess what that energy source is?Question to students:What is the energy source that can generate electricity without using the electromagnetic effect?
12Solar Energy Slide 12 – Solar Energy Solar energy! That’s right! Especially here in the Phoenix-area, we are blessed with an abundance of clean, bright sunshine! Let’s learn more about solar energy by watching this short video.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 10
13The Photovoltaic Effect Slide 13 – The Photovoltaic EffectThe photovoltaic effect is similar to the electromagnetic effect in that it is also a way to generate electricity. However, the photovoltaic effect occurs when particles of light called photons hit a solar panel made of special substances (usually silicon). These photons then “push” electrons across the positive/negative divide in the panel, thus creating a flow of electrons…electricity!Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 11Optional Discussion Question:Where in your lives have you seen solar panels?
14Who can name the two different types of energy sources? RenewableSlide 14 – Energy SourcesIt should now be clear that in order to generate electricity, there must be an energy source to start with. There are lots of different kinds of energy sources, but they can all be classified into two groups. Who can name the two different types of energy sources?Question to students:What are the two different types of energy sources?Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 12Non-Renewable
15Non-Renewable Energy Sources Formed in the Earth over hundreds of millions of yearsMust be extracted from the Earth, often involving mining or drillingBy definition, they are limited. They will run out!Slide 15 – Non-Renewable Energy SourcesA non-renewable energy source is an energy source that cannot be replaced or replenished. Non-renewable energy sources, such as coal from our earlier power plant example, all share certain characteristics. They are formed over millions and millions of years in the Earth. The coal we use in power plants is anywhere from million years old! Non-renewable energy sources are found within the Earth, sometimes miles down, and must be extracted by humans. And, finally, they are, by definition, limited. They will not “renew” themselves. Once we use a non-renewable energy source, it’s gone. Forever. Let’s keep all these non-renewable energy source characteristics in mind as we continue to go through this presentation.Question to students:To review, what are some characteristics of non-renewable energy sources? Make sure you get this down on your worksheet.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 13
16Examples of Non-Renewables Slide 16 – Examples of Non-RenewablesCoal and natural are the two most common non-renewable energy sources used to generate electricity. In Arizona, 39% of all electricity is generated from coal, and 27% of all electricity is generated from natural gas.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 14Optional Discussion Question:Has anyone ever seen coal? What’s it like? What is another common use of natural gas in our everyday lives?CoalNatural Gas
17Examples of Non-Renewables Slide 17Petroleum (better known as oil) and uranium (the energy source for nuclear power) are also non-renewable energy sources. While there are some parts of the world that use petroleum to generate electricity, it is not a common energy source for electricity in the United States. Petroleum’s main use in the United States is to fuel cars, buses, trucks, ships, trains, and airplanes. Uranium is the special element necessary for nuclear power. In a nuclear power plant, special types of uranium atoms are broken apart. When the nucleus of those uranium atoms breaks apart, a tremendous amount of heat is released, which is used to heat water to generate steam which is used power turbine generators.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 14Optional Discussion Question:What other uses does petroleum have? In what other ways do humans use nuclear power? How are these two energy sources portrayed in the news?PetroleumUranium
18Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy sources Slide 18 - Fossil FuelsCoal, natural gas, and oil are also termed “fossil fuels” because they developed from decomposition of plants and animals that lived hundreds of millions of years ago.The fossilized remains of the dead plants and animals were buried and compressed under many layers of sediment. The increased pressure and temperature over hundreds of millions of years transformed the remains into carbon-rich pockets of potential energy. Thus they are called fossil fuels and, once used, are gone – and not renewed.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 15Optional Discussion Question:Where in your lives have you heard “fossil fuels” before?
19Infrastructure in place Non-Renewable BenefitsInexpensiveInfrastructure in placeAbundantEfficient fuel source✔✔✔✔Slide 18 – Non-Renewable BenefitsThere are some real benefits to using non-renewable energy sources to generate electricity:Coal is inexpensive for power plants to purchase, and much of the world’s coal supply is here in the United States.Natural gas has become much easier to access with the new technology called hydraulic fracturing, also known as “fracking”.Both coal and natural gas are still relatively abundant compared to other non-renewables.Because our country has depended on non-renewable energy sources for electricity for over 100 years, all of the infrastructure (the coal mines, the railroad tracks to move the coal, the natural gas pipes, etc.) are in place and ready to be used.And, while nuclear power is expensive and there is not an abundance of uranium, nuclear power is a very efficient fuel source; we can generate a tremendous amount of electricity from nuclear power.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 16Optional Discussion Question:Can you think of any other benefits that non-renewables have?
20✔ Non-Renewable Costs Pollution and mining damage the environment Contributes to climate changeLimited supply✔Slide 20 – Non-Renewable CostsThere are, however, some serious costs to relying on non-renewable energy sources for electricity:Coal and natural gas both emit various types of pollutants when burned, which can cause acid rain and contribute to health problems like asthma.Nuclear power does not emit any pollutants, but there is a serious problem with the nuclear waste. The spent fuel rods from nuclear power plants are dangerous and last for thousands and thousands of year. And, you may remember the tsunami that hit Japan in 2011 and caused a meltdown at a nuclear power plant there, which released dangerous radiation into the environment.All fossil fuels, especially coal, emit CO2 and other greenhouse gases that contribute to global climate change.And, while some non-renewables like coal and natural gas are relatively abundant compared to petroleum, all non-renewables are limited in supply and will become harder and harder to access until they are eventually gone.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 17Optional Discussion Question:Can you think of any other costs that non-renewables have?
21Renewable Energy Sources Come in many different formsHave been used by humans for thousands of yearsBy definition, naturally replenish themselves…They will NEVER run out!Much cleaner than non-renewablesSlide 21 – Renewable Energy SourcesRenewable energy sources offer tremendous promise for confronting many of the problematic costs associated with non-renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are energy sources that can be replaced or replenished and, therefore, used over and over again.Renewables come in many different forms, which we’ll learn about in just a moment.They have been used by humans for thousands of years. In fact, you use some of them everyday! When you’re cold and go stand in the sun to warm up, you are literally using a renewable energy source!And, most importantly, renewable energy sources by definition renew themselves. They will never run out!Finally, another characteristic of renewable energy that makes it so promising for the future is that they are much cleaner than non-renewables. Many renewables have zero emissions: that is, they don’t pollute and don’t contribute to global climate change!Question to students:In review, what are some characteristics of renewable energy sources? Make sure to write this down on your worksheet.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 18Optional Discussion Question:Where in your lives have you heard of renewables? What do you think of them?
22Examples of Renewables Slide 22 – Examples of RenewablesThe sun and wind are two very common sources of renewable energy. Solar and wind power will become much more commonly used as energy sources in the future. While we may think that solar is “king” among renewables here in Phoenix, SRP currently gets more electricity from wind farms than it does from solar power.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 19SolarWind
23Examples of Renewables Slide 23 – Examples of RenewablesHydropower and geothermal power are also important renewable energy sources. In fact, SRP gets more energy from hydropower, from the Roosevelt, Horse Mesa, Mormon Flat, Stewart Mountain, and C.C. Cragin dams than from any other renewable energy source! There are literally thousands of hydroelectric dams across the United States and hydroelectric power is the most commonly used renewable energy source around the world. Geothermal power is becoming a more commonly used form of renewable energy as we learn how to better access and take advantage the vast amount of heat energy from within the Earth itself. SRP has recently agreed to buy power from two geothermal plants in California.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 19Optional Discussion Question:What places on Earth do you know of that might have a lot of geothermal power potential?(The country of Iceland generates over 80% of it’s total electricity from geothermal power!)HydropowerGeothermal Power
24Might damage environment Renewable CostsWon’t always workMight damage environmentCan’t use everywhereInefficient✔Slide 24 – Renewable CostsRenewable energy sources are exciting and promising, but they’re certainly not perfect. Currently, some common issues or “costs” of renewables include the following:Solar power won’t work when it’s cloudy, and at best will only work half the time because of nighttimeWind power obviously won’t work when the wind is not blowing.Wind turbines have been responsible for the deaths of millions of birds that collide with the spinning wind turbines.Hydropower can seriously disturb and damage natural river ecosystems. For example, in states like Washington, salmon are now unable to swim upstream to spawn because enormous hydroelectric dams now stand in their way.Solar panels will work virtually anywhere across the globe, but other renewables are only available in certain places. For example, a big geothermal plant in the middle of Phoenix wouldn‘t work because that kind of energy doesn’t occur here.Finally, both solar power and wind power have been criticized for being inefficient…the best solar panels only turn 30% of the sun’s energy that hits it into electricity.Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 20Optional Discussion Question:Can you think of any other costs that renewables have?
25Don’t contribute to climate change Renewable BenefitsClean - no pollutionDon’t contribute to climate changeSmall, modularQuiet✔Slide 25 – Renewable BenefitsAs I mentioned earlier, there are some really important benefits associated with renewable energy sources.Renewables are clean: they DON’T pollute! That stuff pouring out of a geothermal plant is just water vapor!Renewables don’t contribute to global climate change: there is no CO2 released in energy production.Solar and wind power offers the exciting option to be small and modular. That is, you don’t need a huge solar farm or wind farm to generate electricity from these sources. People all over have solar panels on their own roofs, and in other parts of the world, people are experimenting with installing small wind turbines on their own houses, too!Most renewable energy sources are quiet, too. Have you ever heard a solar panel make noise? Pretty exciting!Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 21Optional Discussion Question:Can you think of any other benefits that renewables have?
26The SRP Powering Our Future Classroom Outreach Presentation! Remember this info, you’ll need it for the exciting SRP presentation coming soon!Slide 26 – The SRP Energy Bike PresentationGet ready for an exciting presentation with the SRP Energy Bike Presentation team tomorrow (or whenever the presentation is)!Student Worksheet Question for this slide: 22