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MA 1128: Lecture /30/14 Order of Operations And Real Number Operations (Click Left Mouse button or Enter to Continue)

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2 How these slides work Each new element of this presentation will appear when you click your left mouse button or hit enter. The green buttons will take you to the previous slide, the next slide, the last slide, or out of PowerPoint. The first few lectures should be review, and we’ll use them to help you get used to these lectures. You should read through the lectures, do the practice problems as you come across them, and when you’re comfortable with these, you should be ready to take the quiz. If you can do the quiz problems easily, you should have no problems with the tests. And there is nothing wrong with doing the same problem more than once. Practice will make you faster and more accurate. Next Slide Quit

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3 Order of Operations In algebra, we manipulate groups of mathematical symbols called expressions. Like x or 4. You’re probably familiar with what the individual symbols mean. For example, + means add. Adding, subtracting, and raising to an exponent are operations. What an expression means depends heavily on the order in which the operations are performed. So that we’re all talking about the same thing, we must agree on a standard set of ordering rules. The rules we’ll use are standard (everyone uses them), but arbitrary (there is no obvious reason why these were the rules we chose). While our notation will encourage you to use the correct order of operations, you still need to know them Next Slide Quit

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4 The Order of Operations 1.Grouping Symbols 2.Exponents and Radicals 3.Multiplication and Division 4.Addition and Subtraction 5.If there is a tie –Go from left to right In an expression, the highest priority operation should be done first. The next highest priority operation is done second. Continue this process until there are no operations left to perform. Next Slide Quit

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5 Example (2 3 – 4) 3 Inside the ( ), the exponent is the highest priority operation. = (8 – 4) 3 Inside the ( ), subtraction is the highest priority (and only) operation. = 4 3 The exponent is the only operation left. = 64 Next Slide Consider the expression below. It has only numbers, so we can simplify it into a single number. The highest priority operations are inside the parentheses ( ). So we look inside the ( ) first. Quit

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6 The left-to-right rule matters when we mix division and multiplication. For example … 30 3 5 Division and multiplication have the same priority, and the division is furthest left, so we do the division first. = 10 5 Now we do the multiplication. = 3 5 If we ignore the left-to-right rule, and do the multiplication first, we’ll get a different answer. = 30 15 Now the division. = 2 Next Slide Quit

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7 The left-to-right rule is really bad. -3x 2 + 6x + 5 The highest priority operation is the exponent, and this is emphasized by the 2 being really close to the x. The next highest priorities are the two multiplications. You can see that the –3 and x 2 are close together, as are the 6 and x. Finally, the additions have the three terms somewhat spread out. If we substitute x = 2 into the above expression, we don’t really have to think about left-to-right. Next slide -3(2) 2 + 6(2) + 5= -3(4) + 6(2) + 5= = 5 Quit As much as is possible, mathematics is supposed to take care of itself. In fact, most of our notation encourages our order of operations. If you look at

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8 Example 30___ 3 () (5) = (10)(5) = 50 If we want the multiplication to go first, then we could write 30________ (3) (5) 30 ____ 15 == 2 Next Slide We can indicate our intended order of operations more naturally without using the division and multiplication symbols. Consider 30 3 5. If we want the division to go first, then we could write The and are hardly ever used in algebra and higher level math, because it’s easier to indicate what we want using this notation. Quit

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9 Practice Order of Operations Problems Simplify each of the following expressions as much as you can using the order of operations. 1.(3) 2(We’ll talk more about this later, but (3) 2 is the same as 3 2 = (3)(3) = 9.) 2.8 5 3(You have to use the left-to-right rule here. We’ll have a better way later.) (2)(3) + (5)(2) Click for answers. 1) 13; 2) 0; 3) 21; 4) 14; 5) 6. Next Slide Quit __20__ (2)(5) (3)

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10 Real Number Operations The optional text covers real number operations in section 1.2. I’ll look at the two most important ones here. Operations with plus and minus signs. The distributive properties. Next Slide Quit

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11 Addition and Subtraction of Signed Numbers Addition and subtraction are basically the same thing. You should think of subtracting as the same as adding a negative number. For example, 4 – 6 is the same as 4 + ( 6) In terms of the number line, you should think 4 to the right and 6 to the left. Since the 6 is bigger, you end up to the left of zero, so the answer is negative, 2. Hopefully, each of the following makes sense = 10 4 – 6 = 4 + ( 6) = 2 = ( 4) + 6 = 2 4 – 6 = ( 4) + ( 6) = 10 Next Slide Quit

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12 Double Negatives We’ll also see things like 4 – ( 6) You’ll want to think of this as 4 + ( 1)( 1)(6). In either case, negative of a negative is positive, and negative times negative is positive. Two negatives are positive Three negatives are negative Four negatives are positive again, etc. Whenever we see a double negative, we’ll generally write, or at least think to ourselves 4 – (-6) = = 10 Next Slide Quit

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13 Also, look out for the following. Exponents mean repeated multiplication, and the number of negatives being multiplied determines whether the end result is positive or negative. Consider ( 2) 4 Our order of operation rules make the “ ” go with the “2”. = ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) = 16, Since four negatives is positive. Compare this to 2424 Here, the exponent is a higher priority than the negative sign (which is like multiplication by 1). = (2)(2)(2)(2) = 16 Next Slide Quit

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14 Simplify each of the following expressions as much as you can using the order of operations ( 8) ( 3) 3.3 ( 8) 4.( 2)( 3)( 5) 5.(5)( 2)( 2) 6.( 1) 3 7.( 2) 2 8. 2 2 Click for answers. 1) 5; 2) 5; 3) 11; 4) 30; 5) 20; 6) 1; 7) 4; 8) 4. Practice Signed Number Problems Next Slide Quit

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15 The Distributive Property The distributive property is central to many of the things we’ll do. Since we’ll be working with variables and unknowns, we often won’t be able to simplify using the order of operations. For example, in 3x + 2x, we want to multiply the 3 times the x and the 2 times the x before the addition. But we can’t, because we don’t know what number x represents. As you may already know, however, 3x + 2x = 5x. This is a manifestation of the distributive property. The distributive property is a rule that allows us to implement the order of operations, without actually following the same steps. In other words, using the distributive property gives us the same result as we would get using the order of operations. Next Slide Quit

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16 What does the Distributive Property Say? Example: Consider the following expression 3(2 + 5 – 3) = 3(4) = 12. The Distributive Property states that we will get the same result, if we multiply the 3 times the 2, the 5, and the 3 first. 3(2 + 5 – 3) = 3(2) + 3(5) – 3(3) = – 9 = 12. If we multiply times a bunch of things added (or subtracted) together, the distributive property says that that’s equivalent to multiplying times every one of those things. And using the distributive property is consistent with the order of operations. Next Slide Quit

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17 ___ Division Distributes Also – 3___________ 3 = 12____ 3 = 4 We get the same result, if we distribute the division by 3. = – 1 = 4 Remember! If you divide into a bunch of things added together, Then you have to divide into every one of those things. Next Slide Quit It is convenient to think of division as a special kind of multiplication. Division, therefore, should distribute also, and it does. Consider the following example. First we’ll simplify using the order of operations – + ___

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18 ____ And Exponents Distribute over Multiplication/Division Example 2___ 3 () 3 = = 8____ 27 Example ( (3) (2) ) 4 = ( 3 4 ) ( 2 4 ) = (81) (16) = 1296 Next Slide Quit In general, exponents/radicals are higher level operations than multiplication/division, which are higher level operations than addition/subtraction. Each level of operation distributes over the next lower level.

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19 Simplify each of the following expressions as much as you can using the order of operations. 1.3(2 + 5) 2.( )(7) 3.8(1 3 + 2) ( (2)(3) ) 3 7. Click for answers. 1) (3)(2) + (3)(5); 2) (1)(7) + (1)(7) + (1)(7); 3) (8)(1) (8)(3) + (8)(2); 4) 2/2 + 8/2 – 6/2 (with the bars horizontal) ; 5) 5/5 10/5 + 25/5; 6) (2 3 )(3 3 ); 7) 2 2 /3 2. Practice Distributive Property Problems Next Slide Quit ________ 6 __________ 5 ( ) 2 3 __2

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20 Last Slide You should review your practice problems. When you’re comfortable with those, work through the quiz problems. You’ll find the link for Quiz 01 right next to the link for this lecture. All the quizzes are in PDF format. You’ll need Adobe Reader for that. Write your answers on a piece of paper. You may ask someone else about the stuff in this lecture, but you shouldn’t discuss the quiz in any specific way. Check through your work on the quiz, and when you’re ready, go into Desire2Learn and enter your answers. You may take the quizzes as many times as you’d like, but make sure that you understand what you got wrong on the ones you missed. End Lecture

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