# Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 8.1 - 1 Lecture Slides Elementary Statistics Eleventh Edition and the Triola Statistics Series by.

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Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 8.1 - 1 Lecture Slides Elementary Statistics Eleventh Edition and the Triola Statistics Series by Mario F. Triola

Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 8.1 - 2 Chapter 8 Hypothesis Testing 8-1 Review and Preview 8-2 Basics of Hypothesis Testing 8-3 Testing a Claim about a Proportion 8-4 Testing a Claim About a Mean: σ Known 8-5 Testing a Claim About a Mean: σ Not Known 8-6 Testing a Claim About a Standard Deviation or Variance

Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 8.1 - 3 Section 8-1 Review and Preview

Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 8.1 - 4 Review In Chapters 2 and 3 we used “descriptive statistics” when we summarized data using tools such as graphs, and statistics such as the mean and standard deviation. Methods of inferential statistics use sample data to make an inference or conclusion about a population. The two main activities of inferential statistics are using sample data to (1) estimate a population parameter (such as estimating a population parameter with a confidence interval), and (2) test a hypothesis or claim about a population parameter. In Chapter 7 we presented methods for estimating a population parameter with a confidence interval, and in this chapter we present the method of hypothesis testing.

Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 8.1 - 5 Definitions In statistics, a hypothesis is a claim or statement about a property of a population. A hypothesis test (or test of significance) is a standard procedure for testing a claim about a property of a population.

Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 8.1 - 6 Main Objective The main objective of this chapter is to develop the ability to conduct hypothesis tests for claims made about a population proportion p, a population mean , or a population standard deviation .

Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 8.1 - 7 Examples of Hypotheses that can be Tested Genetics: The Genetics & IVF Institute claims that its XSORT method allows couples to increase the probability of having a baby girl. Business: A newspaper headline makes the claim that most workers get their jobs through networking. Medicine: Medical researchers claim that when people with colds are treated with echinacea, the treatment has no effect.

Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 8.1 - 8 Examples of Hypotheses that can be Tested Aircraft Safety: The Federal Aviation Administration claims that the mean weight of an airline passenger (including carry-on baggage) is greater than 185 lb, which it was 20 years ago. Quality Control: When new equipment is used to manufacture aircraft altimeters, the new altimeters are better because the variation in the errors is reduced so that the readings are more consistent. (In many industries, the quality of goods and services can often be improved by reducing variation.)

Copyright © 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 8.1 - 9 Caution When conducting hypothesis tests as described in this chapter and the following chapters, instead of jumping directly to procedures and calculations, be sure to consider the context of the data, the source of the data, and the sampling method used to obtain the sample data.

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