Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Derek A.T. Cummings University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Models of New Vaccines.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Derek A.T. Cummings University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Models of New Vaccines."— Presentation transcript:

1 Derek A.T. Cummings University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Models of New Vaccines for Measles

2 Measles Virus Major cause of child morbidity and mortality Causes ~500,000 deaths each year

3 Distribution of Global Mortality Region Africa South Asia East Asia and Pacific Other Total , ,000 77,000 14, , , ,000 57,000 8, ,000 MMWR, 2005

4 Current measles vaccine Current vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine derived from passage in chick embryo cells Targeted age of delivery is 9-12 months Induces immunity in 85% of recipients at 9 months of age and 90-95% of recipients at 12 months of age Immunogenicity in early infancy is limited by relative immaturity of the immune system and the presence of maternal antibodies

5 Can we eliminate/eradicate measles using this vaccine? The experience in the Americas suggests we can

6 Some of the Largest Challenges lie ahead for Measles Control Strebel, Nature, 2001

7 Vaccine Candidates Several candidates are under development –Aerosol delivered vaccines that could minimize interference with maternal antibody and ease delivery –DNA vaccines encoding particular measles virus proteins with the potential to be immunogenic at ages as early as 2 months –One design goal is to be able to target earlier ages in the EPI schedule

8 Data (red circles) and Model (blue line) of weekly measles incidence in London, Grenfell et al, 2001 Long history of work in measles on disease dynamics

9 RAS model of measles transmission MiMi SiSi EiEi IiIi RiRi i denotes age cohorts

10 Cohorts age together Schenzle’s approach used to reduce system of partial differential equations to a system of ordinary differential equations Age groups all age at the same time

11

12 Force of Infection As a first step, I’ve used age specific forces of infection from the literature estimated using age stratified serological data in the UK and in Senegal

13 WAIFW Matrix β 1 β 1 β 1 β 2 β 2 β 2 β 1 β 2 β 3 β 3 β 1 β 2 β 3 β 4 β 1 β 1 β 1 β 2 β 1 β 1 β 1 β 1 β 3 β 1 β 1 β 1 β 1 β 4 … … … …

14 Age Structure of the Population Need to incorporate younger age groups than previous models (0-1 months, 1-2 months,2-3 months, 3-4 months, 4-5 months, 5-6 months,6-9 months, 9-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years…, 5-10 years, 10 and older Uniformly distribute age specific force of infection of larger age classes to smaller age classes Used data on the age structure of the population in Cameroon from a Demographics and Health Survey Set derivatives with respect to time to zero and solved for birth rate and age specific deaths rates that would match age distribution

15 Comparing different age cohort structures (red, 13 age classes, agregatedyellow, 7 age classes,

16 Vaccination Vaccination moves some portion of susceptible or those with maternal immunity into the removed class Vaccination is done during the age cohort transitions into targeted age groups As simplest case I assume new vaccine is delivered at 4 th month (third dose of DPT) Vaccination rates are higher at 4 months than 9 months

17 Results using a vaccine given at 4 months w/ 65% efficacy (irrespective of presence of maternal immunity compared to current vaccine delivered at 9 months with reduced efficacy in those with maternal immunity Equivalent vaccine efficacy is 78% With extreme empirical estimate of increase in vaccination, 71%

18 Extensions Multiphase strategy Incorporate vaccine efficacy at three doses Incorporate empirical data on association of timeliness of vaccines on age of delivery Create analogous stochastic model to explore elimination

19 Is the birth cohort large enough in these cities so that the number of children not targeted by the vaccine is greater than the critical community size

20 Monthly measles incidence in Cameroon, Cummings et al, IJID, 2006

21 Incidence in Northern Region Incidence in Southern Region

22 An aside: one lesson from Cameroon experience The number of cases is not the best indicator of the state of population immunity. Susceptible fractions can slowly increase and lead to large outbreaks. Public health systems should anticipate post-honeymoon outbreaks

23

24

25 The experience in the Americas is the standard. Would models predict the elimination of measles transmission in this region given the vaccination coverage attained The experience in the Americas suggests we can

26 Number of reported cases of measles in the urban community of Niamey, 1 November 2003 to 6 June Estimates of transmissibility of measles from Africa are rare Grais, Trans. Roy. Soc. of Trop. Med. and Hyg. (2006)

27 Estimates of R0 from Niger (Grais et al) Recent data suggest R0 is slightly lower in some parts of Africa than historic estimates from the UK and the US

28 Question for the audience- How many think the elimination campaign in southern Africa will maintain low numbers of cases? Do you think we can eliminate measles with the current vaccine?


Download ppt "Derek A.T. Cummings University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Models of New Vaccines."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google