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Review on initial conditions that allow for a successful description of the RHIC data on spectra, V2, (as)HBT, etc… Tom Humanic Ohio State University WPCF 08 Krakow

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Outline Brief description of model --> initial conditions and a few details Comparison of model calculations with RHIC experiments STAR, PHENIX, and PHOBOS Predictions for LHC Pb+Pb

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Simple superposition-rescattering model for A+A collision A j-th pp collision i-th particle * Superimpose f*A PYTHIA pp events, where f=overlap fraction for impact param. * Assume all particles have the same proper time for hadronization, , so that the hadronization space-time for each particle is given by “causality”, i.e. t i = E i /m i ; x i = x oi + p xi /p i ; y i = y oi + p yi /p i ; z i = p zi /p i * Perform hadronic rescattering using a full Monte Carlo rescattering calculation Initial p+p “thin disk” of radius r = 1 fm A

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Other details of the model…. Use PYTHIA v.6409 to generate hadrons for 200 GeV (and 5.5 TeV) p+p “minimum bias” (non-elastic and non- diffractive) events “final” hadrons from PYTHIA to use: K, N, , K* ’ Use mult > 20 (38 for LHC) cut on p+p events --> cuts out ~ 20-25% of events and helps dn/d agree better with PHOBOS 200 GeV/n Au+Au Monte Carlo hadronic rescattering calculation: Let hadrons undergo strong binary collisions until the system gets so dilute (since it is expanding) that all collisions cease. --> (i,j) from Prakash, etc.. Record the time, mass, position, and momentum of each hadron when it no longer scatters. freezout condition Take = 0.1 fm/c for all calculations --> found to agree with Tevatron HBT data (T.J.H., Phys.Rev.C76,2007)

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Advantages of this model Well-defined initial conditions: PYTHIA for kinematics and causality for geometry Jets are built into the model via PYTHIA so high-pt observables can be studied Initial conditions easily scalable to LHC energies for predictions there Simplicity -- hadrons+geometry+rescattering with a few well-defined parameters Disadvantages of this model Simplicity -- Surely leaves out some early-phase physics, e.g. quark and gluon degrees of freedom Therefore, will be satisfied to get a qualitative description of trends of at least some experimental observables

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Comparisons with RHIC experiments Made a 90K event 200 GeV/n Au+Au minimum bias run with model --> apply centrality cuts (via multiplicity cuts) and kinematic cuts to this run to make “absolute comparisons” with experiments Comparisons made with published 200 GeV/n Au+Au experimental results: - spectra with PHOBOS, PHENIX and STAR - V2 with STAR and PHOBOS - HBT and as-HBT with STAR - Raa with PHENIX - jet-suppression with STAR

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Spectra: Model vs PHOBOS, PHENIX, and STAR

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V2 vs. centrality, pt, and eta Model vs. STAR and PHOBOS

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V2 vs. pt --> large pt: Model vs. STAR

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V2 vs pt --> pi, K, p: Model vs. STAR

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HBT from Model: projections --> qout, qside, qlong

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Azimuthal HBT: Model vs. STAR

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HBT vs. kt: Model vs. STAR

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Raa vs. pt: Model vs. PHENIX

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Jet suppression --> dn/d , all charged particles, -0.7< <0.7 pt trigger>4 GeV/c, pt>2 GeV/c, 200 GeV/n Au+Au Model vs. STAR (minimum bias case) (lines are fits to model points)

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LHC Pb+Pb predictions from this model Use PYTHIA 5.5 TeV p+p collisions as input Make multiplicity cut on p+p collisions > 38, cuts out ~20% of p+p events (comparable to multiplicity cut used for RHIC Au+Au) Substitute 197 --> 208 Make a minimum bias run with model for 800 Pb+Pb events Show predictions for spectra, V2, and HBT

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Model predictions for spectra, 5.5 TeV/n Pb+Pb

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Model prediction for V2 vs. pt, 5.5 TeV/n Pb+Pb

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Model predictions for HBT, 5.5 TeV/n Pb+Pb

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Conclusions The present simple hadronic rescattering model qualitatively describes the trends for a range of experimental results for 200 GeV/n Au+Au collisions at RHIC This suggests that the hadronization proper time in these collisions is short, ~ 0.1 fm/c Predictions from this model for LHC Pb+Pb collisions suggest: - dn/d ~ 1400 for charged hadrons at mid-rapidity for central collisions - V2 may be comparable or somewhat less than that at RHIC - HBT may give ~ 20-30% higher radius parameters compared to RHIC

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