Presentation on theme: "Dr. Vivian Stith-Williams Virginia Department of Education"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Significance of Cultural Competence & Culturally Responsive Practices in Education Dr. Vivian Stith-WilliamsVirginia Department of EducationAugust 4, 2009
2 PRESENTATION OUTLINE Introductions Warm-up Activities Cultural Diversity BingoRationale for Cultural Competency TrainingDefinition of TermsCultural Competence ModelCultural Competence ContinuumPedersen’s Developmental ModelPrivilege Exercise statementsCulturally Responsive PracticesPolicies, Practices, and ProceduresChecklist for Success
3 Rationale for Cultural Competency Training Demographic Shifts in PopulationCulture Influences All Aspects of One’s EnvironmentTeacher vs. Student CompositionLimited Preparation in Educating a More Diverse Student Population
4 Deepen understanding and increased sensitivity Consideration as to what extent you perceive yourselvesto be culturally competentGain a Greater Appreciation of Diversity IssuesEthical Responsibility
5 DEFINITIONS OF TERMSCULTURE- Learned traditions, principles and guides of behavior that are shared among members of a particular group.Codes of behavior, values, and norms, beliefs, customs, communications or “the way we do things here”. Art, music, food, literature, and clothing are all visible aspects of culture.Ethnic groups have culturesBusinesses have culturesNeighborhoods have cultures.It is dynamic and changes over time.There is diversity within cultures.Each person is a member of many cultures!
6 CultureYou continually construct from history, circumstance, family and community…
8 CULTURAL COMPETENCY- It is the integration and transformation of knowledge about individuals and groups of people into specific standards, policies, practices and attitudes used in appropriate culturalsettings to increase the quality of services, thereby producing better outcomesIn the school setting, it involves the ability to acquireknowledge of education-related beliefs, attitudesand practices to improve student achievement.It is a developmental process occurring alonga continuum from cultural destructiveness tocultural incapacity to cultural blindness tocultural pre-competence to cultural competenceto cultural proficiency.
9 Definitions continued Cultural Proficiency – knowing how to learn and teach aboutdifferent groups in ways that acknowledge and honor all people and the groups they represent.Ethnicity – groups in which members share a cultural heritage from one generation to another; one’s geographical origin, group image and a sense of identity derived from contemporary cultural patterns and a sense of history. Many people are of multiple ethnicities.Race - a classification system based on physical characteristics and generalized conceptions of skin color. A political and social construct that is most often important in societies with a history of oppressingspecific groups.Racial Identity – one’s sense of group identity oraffiliation and association with others who possess the same racial heritage.
12 Many terms to describe the work and concept Culturally relevant Culturally awareCulturally & Linguistically CompetentCulturally Appropriate Cultural sensitivityCulturally Competent Culturally ProficiencyMulticultural CompetenceCulturally EffectiveCultural HumilityLinguistically Competent
13 Mason et al.’s Cultural Competence Model (1996) Cultural DestructivenessRefusal to acknowledge the presence or importance of cultural differences; Differences are punished and suppressed; Schools endorse the myth of universality.Cultural IncapacityThe individual or organization chooses to ignore cultural differences; No attention is devoted to supporting cultural differences; Emphasis may be on the cognitive growth and maturity of youngsters versus addressing the issues of cultural awareness.Cultural BlindnessIndividuals and organizations believe that cultural differences are of little importance; People are viewed through a western cultural mainstream lens; Messages are communicated to students that their culture is of little consequence to the learning experience.Cultural Pre-CompetenceThe individual or organization recognizes andresponds to cultural differences; There is an openacknowledgement of the need for culturalcompetence; Educators may seek out newinformation regarding diversity by attendingtraining sessions or interacting with those individualswho have insider cultural information.Cultural CompetenceThe individual and organization value and appreciatecultural differences; Exploration of issues related toequity, cultural history, knowledge, and social justice;Students’ cultural experiences are valued andintegrated into the learning process.
14 The Cultural Proficiency Continuum Cultural Destructiveness. See the difference, stomp it out. Negating, disparaging, or purging cultures that are different from your own.Cultural Incapacity. See the difference, make it wrong. Elevating the superiority of your own cultural values and beliefs and suppressing those of cultures that are different from your own.Cultural Blindness. See the difference, act as if you don’t. Acting as if the cultural differences you see do not matter, or not recognizing that there are differences among and between cultures.Cultural Pre-competence. See the differences, respondinadequately. Recognizing that lack of knowledge,experience, and understanding of other cultureslimits your ability to effectively interact with them.Competence. See the difference, understand the differencethat difference makes. Interacting with other culturalgroups in ways that recognize and value their differences.Cultural Proficiency. See the difference and respond.Honoring the differences among cultures, viewing diversityas a benefit, and interacting knowledgeably and respectfullyamong a variety of cultural groups.
15 Valuing Culture and Ethnicity “People’s religion, culture, and ethnicity often are not just facts about them, but are central to their self-definitions. People are not just persons who happen to be Christians, women, or African Americans. These characteristics are not possessions, like clothing, that can be shed or changed at will. Instead, people are Christians, women, or African Americans. If so, then one reason that can be given for respectingdiversity is that to fail to do so is to rejectwho people are. It is to deny their worth.It does an especially insidious kind ofviolence to them” (Strike, Haller & Soltis, 2005).
16 Pedersen’s Developmental Model Awareness – consciousness of one’s own attitudes and biases as well as the sociopolitical issues that confront culturally different youngstersKnowledge – accumulation of factual information about different cultural groupsSkills – integration of awareness competencies to positively impact children from culturally distinct groupsAttitude – belief that differences are valuable andchange is necessary and positive.Each domain builds successively on the previousone such that mastery of an earlier domain isnecessary before proceeding to subsequent domains.
17 KnowledgeUnderstands their own cultural heritage and acknowledges how it affects their values and assumptions.Understands other worldviews and perspectives.Understands how social change occurs.Is familiar with the nature of institutional oppression and power.Understands that there are unjust institutional barriers that exist for diverse groups.Demonstrates a realization and understanding ofinternalized oppression and its impact on identityand self-esteem.Understands how class, gender, race, etc.affect individuals and their experiences.Understands the ways that cultural differencesaffect verbal and nonverbal communication andthe notion of personal space.
18 SKILLS Identify and openly discuss cultural differences and issues. Gain respect of individuals who are culturally different themselves.Challenge oppressive systems and serve as an ally to those being oppressed.Use cultural knowledge and sensitivity to defend the rights and values of individuals and groups.Accurately assess one’s own multicultural skills, comfort level, growth, and development.Use verbal and non-verbal (body language) responses to communicate with diverse individuals and/or groups.Resolve conflicts in culturally appropriate manner.Use multiple viewpoints in problem-solving.Employ critical thinking skills.
19 Attitude/AwarenessBelieves that differences are valuable and that learning about others who are culturally different is necessary and rewarding.Is open to change, and believes that change is necessary and positive.Willing to self-examine and, when necessary, challenge and change their own values, worldview, assumptions and biases.Is personally committed to justice, social change and combating oppression.Accepts other worldviews and perspectives and are willing to acknowledge that, as individuals, they do not have all the answers.Believes that cultural differences do not have to interfere with effective communication or meaningful relationships.
20 Five essential elements contribute to a system’s ability to become more culturally competent: 1. Valuing diversity2. The capacity for cultural self-assessment3. Consciousness of the “dynamics” inherent when cultureinteract4. Institutionalization of cultural knowledge5. Developing adaptations to service deliveryreflecting and understanding between andwithin cultures.These five elements must be manifested in every level ofthe service delivery system as reflected in attitudes,policies, structures, and services.
21 Culturally Responsive Practices Provide services that acknowledges that culture is central to learning and encouraging students and others to learn by building on the experiences, knowledge, and skills they bring to the classroom, group, office or meeting.Service providers who are aware and respectful of the importance of the values, beliefs, traditions, customs, and parenting styles of the children and families they serve.Educators and other staff who are also awareof the impact of their own culture on theirinteractions with others and take all of thesefactors into account when planning anddelivering services to children and their families.
22 The Provision of Culturally Competent Services in the School Setting At the Policymaking LevelCulturally competent policymakers:appoint board members from the community so that voices from all groups of people within the community participate in decisionsactively recruit multiethnic and multiracial staffprovide ongoing staff training and supportdeveloping cultural competencedevelop, mandate, and promote standardsfor culturally competent servicesinsist on evidence of cultural competencywhen contracting for services
23 At the Policymaking Level Culturally competent policymakers:nurture and support new community-based multicultural programsengage in or support research on cultural competencysupport the inclusion of cultural competence on provider licensure and certification examinationssupport the development of culturally appropriateinterview guides and assessment instruments forpsychological tests
24 At the Administrative Level Culturally competent administrators:Include cultural competency requirements in staff job descriptions and discuss the importance of cultural awareness and competency with potential employeesEnsure that all staff participate in regular, in-service cultural competency trainingPromote programs that respect and incorporate cultural differencesConsider whether the facility’s physical plant, hours, and staffing are accessible and whether its physical appearance is respectful of different cultural groups.
25 At the Service Level Educators and related service personnel who are culturally competent:learn as much as they can about a student’s or family’s culture, whilerecognizing the influence of their own background on their responses to cultural differencesinclude neighborhood and community outreach efforts and involve community cultural leaders if possible
26 At the Service Level continued work within each student’s family structure, which may include grandparents, other relatives and friendsrecognize, accept, and when appropriate, incorporate the role of community volunteersunderstand the different expectations people may have about the way services are offered (for example, a period of social conversation may be necessary before each contact with a person; or access to a family may be gained only through an elderadhere to traditions relating to gender and age that may play a part in certain cultures.
27 Cultural Competence Checklist for Success Make the setting and environment more welcoming and attractive based on families’ cultural mores.Avoid stereotyping and misapplication of scientific knowledge.Include community input at the planning and development stage of projects.Use educational approaches and materials that will capture the attention of your intended audience.Find ways to partner with the community.
28 Cultural Competence Checklist for Success continued Understand there is no recipe.Hire staff that reflect the client population.Understand cultural competency is continuallyevolving.Be creative in finding ways to communicatewith population groups that have limitedEnglish-speaking proficiency.
29 Six Domains of Culturally Competent Service Delivery (Lopez, Rogers et al., 1999) 1.Legal and Ethical IssuesKnowledge of local, state and federal laws and regulations, awareness of litigation, and understanding of ethicsAdvocate for public policy and educational law2. School Culture, Educational Policy, and Institutional AdvocacyKnowledge of aspects of organizational culture that promote achievement and mental health forculturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) studentsAbility to play a leadership role in the implementationof supportive interventions for CLD students andtheir families
30 3. Psychoeducational Assessment Knowledge of and skills in assessing CLD students, including consideration of variables such as environment, social issues, language development, racism, second language acquisition, acculturation, educational history, quality of educational program, and SESUnderstanding that normed tests may not be a valid measure for English Language Learners (ELLs) due to inappropriateness of norms, scores reflecting English proficiency, product as opposed to process orientation, fairness of content, and differences in educational background, acculturation and economic situation
31 4. Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions Skills in multicultural counseling and cross-culturalconsultationKnowledge of multicultural education, ELL programs,and school culture/culture of staff and students5. Working with InterpretersKnowledge of recommended systemic practices,including guidelines from professional organizations andnational and state policies, and plans for hiring,training and managing interpreters
32 Domains continued 6. Research Knowledge of research related to culture and language issues and ability to conduct research that is sensitive to cross-cultural issuesAwareness of Emic-Etic distinctions (Emic: behaviors or views that are common to an ethnic or minority group; Etic: aspects of human functioning that are more universal to people across cultures).
33 Integration of Cultural Knowledge The knowledge developed regarding culture and culturaldynamics, must be integrated into every facet of a school,program or agency. Staff must be trained, and effectivelyutilize the knowledge gained.Administrators should develop policies that areresponsive to cultural diversity. Programmaterials should reflect positive images ofall people, and be valid for use with eachgroup. Fully integrated cultural knowledgemay affect global changes in human servicedelivery.
34 For example, educational institutions and accreditation bodies might develop cultural competence standards toensure teacher and administrator preparation. Thenthese same professionals collaborate with families todevelop school policies that reinforce culturally familiarvalues to improve children’s behavior.Institutionalized cultural knowledge can enhance anorganization’s capacity.
35 The goal is to see cultural proficiency as a way to understand, embrace, and talk about differences thatrecognizes and respects individuals and their cultures.Becoming culturally proficient means raisingawareness of and closing the gap betweena person’s expressed values and how he orshe is actually perceived and experiencedby clients, colleagues, and the community.
36 Next Steps! GET STARTED! Shift your thinking! Focus on diversity and inclusion!Consider the needs of tomorrow!Define goals. Movement is not progress and progress isnot excellence!Identify the components in your systemthat are functioning well now!Start there!Have conversations about the issue, usingthe cultural proficiency continuum!Identify and Examine your barriers
37 “Cultural and linguistic competence is a life’s journey not a destination”!
38 REFERENCESCalifornia Tomorrow, Cultural Competency: What is it and Why it Matters, December, 2006.King, Mark A., Sims, Anthony, & Osher, David., How is Cultural Competence Integrated in Education?Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., & Isaacs, M., Towards a culturally competent system of care: A monograph on effective services from minority children who are severely emotionallydisturbed: Volume I.: Georgetown UniversityChild Development Center, 1989.Goode, T.D., Jones, W., Dunne, C., & Bronheim, S And the journey continues… Achieving cultural andlinguistic competence in systems serving children andyouth with special health care needs and their families.National Center for Cultural Competence, GeorgetownUniversity Center for Child and Human Development, 2007.
39 Lindsey, R. , Roberts, L. , & Campbell-Jones, F Lindsey, R., Roberts, L., & Campbell-Jones, F., The culturally proficient school: An implementation guide for school leaders. Corwin Press, 2005.Keyes, Marian, Burns, Rebecca, Kusimo, Patricia, It Takes A School: Closing Achievement Gaps Through Culturally Responsive Schools, 2006.Educational Leadership, Vol. 64, No.6, “Responding to Changing Demographics”, March 2007.McIntosh, P. White privilege: Unpacking the Invisible knapsack. In Peace and Freedom, 1989.National Association of School Psychologists,Provision of Culturally Competent Services inthe School Setting, 2004.Stiff-Williams, H.R., ”Increasing Teachers’ Cultural Competence to Promote Improved Student Performance, Conference Address, VDOE, 2006.Lindsay, R., Robins, K., & Terrell R., Cultural Proficiency: A Manual for School Learners, 2003.