Presentation on theme: " Prof.Dr: Mohamed Assal Information system. System transfers inputs to outputs to achieve certain objective. Process (to achieve objectives) Inputs."— Presentation transcript:
Prof.Dr: Mohamed Assal Information system
System transfers inputs to outputs to achieve certain objective. Process (to achieve objectives) Inputs Outputs
1.Systems are interdisciplinary o Systems are not isolated from one another. o The development in certain field benefits other fields.
2.Systems are Holistic o The proper functioning of a system is a result of the interdependence of its part. o A system must be viewed as a whole, with all parts considered o This emphasis on the whole is known as holism.
3.Systems are differentiated o Systems are consists of different parts. o The components of the CBIS are computers, input and output devices, data storage facilities, personnel to manage and operate the computers, and its associated equipments, programs and of course managers who use the output.
4.Systems are synergistic o Synergistic means a measure of quality level. o CBIS that combines information needs and satisfies several with one set of data exhibits greater synergism than the CBIS that duplicates data for each application or worse ignores additional use for data.
5.Systems are hierarchical
6.Systems must be regulated
7.Systems are goal oriented o A system is a set of related parts together to achieve certain goal or objective. o The CBIS is designed to satisfy the needs of variety of users in the field of information technology.
There are three major approaches for CBIS: System Design. System Analysis. System Improvement.
The system design steps are: o Define the problem. o Identify system boundaries. o Establish system objectives. o Search for and generate alternatives. o Identify outputs of the alternatives. o Evaluate alternatives by comparing outputs with objectives. o Choose the best alternative. o Implement the decision.
The system analysis is mainly applied the systems being replaced ( not under development).the analysis focuses on information needs of managers served by the CBIS, both needs satisfied by the existing system and those unfulfilled needs that must also be satisfied by the new system.
System design is future oriented and it is an attempt predict what will happen, system improvement looks to the past in order remedy deviations from system objectives. The steps for the system improvement are: o Define the problem. o Define the subsystems. o Observe the behavior of the subsystem. o Compare the observed behavior with the objective. o Reduce the problems to sub-problems. o Restore the system by correcting the sub-problems.
The term “Levels of Management’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and work force increases and vice versa. The level of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position
Top Managers Middle Managers Knowledge & Data workers Operational Managers Management Levels S_ Level MM_ Level K_ Level O_ Level Sales & Marketing Human Resources AccountingFinanceManufacturing Functional Areas
1. Transaction processing system(TPS). 2. Knowledge work system(KWS). 3. Office automation system(OAS). 4. Management information system(MIS). 5. Decision support systems(DSS). 6. Executive support systems(ESS).
In the operational level, the served group is the operational manager. This group uses operational level systems which are called TPS. This group is tasked oriented, they perform operational control.
The main purposes of Transaction Processing System (TPS) at that level o Keeping track on elementary activities and transaction of an organization.( e.g. sales, receipts payroll, flow of material in a factory) o Answering routine questions (e.g. How many parts in the inventory? What happened to Mr. Ali’s payment?). TPS includes basic operations such as (Storing, Retrieving, Updating, and Sorting ).
In this level the served groups are: Knowledge workers (engineers, technical staff, scientists & professors). Data workers (secretaries & book keepers). These group use knowledge level systems.
These system are classified according to their users as follows: 1. Knowledge workers use knowledge work system (KWS) to carry out engineering and technical tasks. The purpose of these systems is to help organization to integrate new knowledge into business( e.g. AutoCAD, CAD, CAL systems)
2. Data workers use office automation systems (OAS) to help the organization to prepare and control the flow of paper work. Also, to perform all the clerical tasks of the organization into an electronic way ( , word processing systems). 22
In MML the served groups are middle managers. Middle managers use middle management systems into two main functions: o Resource control (money, labor, equipment…). o Tactical planning.
MIS handles routine problems with predefined solution procedures (i.e. fully structured). MIS helps managers in decision making (not support). MIS usually serve managers in weekly, monthly, and yearly results (i.e. not day-to-day activities as TPS). MIS summarize data by using ( totals, means, variances). MIS present outputs using pie, bar charts and tables.
For tactical planning middle managers use decision support system. DSS handles routine problems but with predefined solution procedure(i.e. semi or unstructured problems). DSS addresses certain problems and uses highly sophisticated mathematical models to analyze the problems. DSS are highly interactive and give their users the chance to change the solution assumptions.DSS use more internal and external data than ESS.
Serve strategic and planning top managers. Unlike other types of information systems, Executive Support Systems (ESS) are not designed mainly to solve specific problems instead, ESS provide a generalized computing and telecommunications capacity that can be applied to a changing array of problems.
Because ESSs are designed to be used by top managers who may have little direct contact or experience with CBIS. They have easy-to use graphic interface (i.e. highly user friendly interface). ESSs are designed to use filter compress and track critical data reducing time and effort required to obtain information useful to top managers.
ESS data are obtained from: o External sources and events (large volume). o Internal (historical) from MIS& DSS. ESS answer questions like: o What business should we be in? o What are the competitors doing?
Operational control: is a task oriented and it ensures that work be performed according to accepted standards. Higher level managers impose standards, at the operational level. Standards such as: o Quality and resource utilization. o Minimum volume of output. o Maximum number of defective parts. o Final completion date.
The information systems (IS) department also called the information technology (IT) department is responsible for developing, running, and maintaining the computers and information systems in an organization, as well as processing the vast amount of data that passes through the organization to keep its critical systems (such as transaction processing systems) running smoothly. 31
IS team supports all workers in a business, and supports the business' mission, as well. An IS department's tasks include designing, planning, installing, and maintaining systems; generating reports; and cost control. Roles Players in an IS Department 32 ManagersNetwork Administrators Computer ScientistsHardware maintenance Technicians Systems AnalystsPurchasing Agents Database SpecialistsTrainers
The Systems development life cycle (SDLC), or Software development process in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering, is a process of creating or altering information systems, and the models and methodologies that people use to develop these systems. In software engineering, the SDLC concept underpins many kinds of software development methodologies. 33
Mention system concept. Explain System are differentiated. Explain System are hierarchical. Mention three major approaches for CBIS. Explain system improvement. Explain the managerial activities. Explain the management levels supporting system. Mention major types of information systems. Mention the role of IS department. 34