Presentation on theme: "Aspects of Intergenerational Solidarity for Advanced World Security İlhan Dülger Member of Board of Directors, TÜRYAK Buck Institute Advisory Council Meeting."— Presentation transcript:
Aspects of Intergenerational Solidarity for Advanced World Security İlhan Dülger Member of Board of Directors, TÜRYAK Buck Institute Advisory Council Meeting October 12, 2014 Bodrum, Türkiye
Turkey is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) European Council (EC) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) Turkey is at the same time a candidate for EU full membership.
Presentation Topics 1. TÜRYAK International Activities on Aging 2. Dimensions of Intergenerational Solidarity for Advanced World Security and A Few Proposals for a System’s Approach 3. Present Aging Situation in Turkey from an Intergenerational Solidarity Perspective
TÜRYAK Turkey Seniors Council Association a non-profit NGO founded in 2003, Ankara, an advocacy initiative
TÜRYAK’s Major National Contributions Other than routine scheduled and non-scheduled activities such as organizing and attending conferences in and outside Turkey: 2003+ Active - Aging Awareness programs 2005+ Awards to Distinguished Senior Citizens for their prominent contributions after the age of 60 (by search and selection taking place every year) 2007: Initiation of the Aged Councils in Political Parties 12 Sept. 2010 Constitutional Amendment by Popular Vote: we supported the inclusion of «Positive Discrimination» for the aged. Turkey is one of the first to carry aging policy issue to constitutional level. 2012: contributed to the Specialized Commission on Aging Policies for the 10 th Five- Year Development Plan of Turkey
Main International Congresses – TÜRYAK 2009: October 9 – 12, First International Istanbul Congress of the Distinguished Senior Citizens of the World on “Bridging the Gap in Between Cultures.” 2010: December 4-5, Second International Istanbul Congress in TURKEY on Wholesome Solution to the World Crisis by Senior Citizens of the World with an aim show the way for Living Together with Wisdom on Our Planet. 2013: October 4-6, Third Congress in IFA & TÜRYAK partnership - International Istanbul Initiative on Aging: Intergenerational Solidarity. 2014: Establishment of the Istanbul International Center of Excellence on Aging (ICEA) 2015: March 13-14, Istanbul International Congress on Longevity (fortcoming)
Dimensions of Intergenerational Solidarity for Advanced World Security and A Few Proposals for a System’s Approach
LONGEVITY: A CELEBRATION AND CHALLENGE 21st Century will be known as an Era of Aging There never was a time in human history, when mankind had to design and plan for long lives. LONGEVITY: MEDICINE'S NEXT FRONTIER Medical sciences, gerontology and geriatrics are being highly succesful in facilitating means for longevity of human life. However, the social organization of our time is lagging behind in cooping with these changes and integrating «population aging» into world agenda, also in translating scientific advancements into general welfare services for the aged.
Global Aging in Medium and Long Term Laborforce is entering middle age The retired are in their active aging years (65 – 80/85) By 2025, world population increase rate will fall to 0.86 % By 2050, world population increase rate will fall to 0.30 % -----------, the proportion of 60+ ages will be 21.1 % -----------, world population over 60+ will be 2 billions -----------, world population over 80+ will be ½ billion From 2050 + total world population will start to fall
Modern Social Set-Up Out One reason: the concept of modern society rests on production and active laborforce. At the age of 65 people become obsolete. In such a system only the individual’s own effort can make a difference. Whereas, at the age of 65, 15-20 more years of active aging, plus approximately another 5-10 years of old-age living is ahead of us. Another reason: Pace of change – provoked by electronics and globalization – consumes most of the energies, which process change, and modify and reinvigorate the social systems. Currently, the societies do not respond enough. - as a result of social entropy - as a result of political entropy - If increases, there is the danger of anomie
The OLDER PERSON’s MICRO-SYSTEM : FAMILY MEMBERS, FRIENS, NEIGHBORS MESO-SYSTEM: DAILY CARE SERVICES, PRIMARY HEALTH SERVICES, HOSPITALS, NGO, VOLUNTARY SERVICES MACRO-SYSTEM : PHILOSOPHY, NORMS, WORLD INTERGENERATIONAL SOLIDARITY ORDER, ECONOMIC MODIFICATION, CULTURE, PUBLIC SECTOR POLICY, PRIVATE SECTOR Note: the outer circle is lagging behind most
New Social Challanges “ Social exclusion ” is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities, or due to discrimination. This distances them from jobs, income, education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. They have little access to power and decision-making bodies and thus often feeling powerless and unable to take control over the decisions that affect their day-to-day lives. (the aged are a most vulnerable group) “ Social inclusion ” is the process which ensures that those at risk of poverty and social exclusion gain the opportunities and resources necessary to participate fully in economic, social and cultural life and to enjoy a standard of living and well-being that is considered normal in the society in which they live.” (EU Commission policy)
The Dilemma of the 21st Century Supply Side: since 1980 «The Social Welfare State» is disintegrating – cannot raise enough revenue for the sustainability of social policies. Demand Side: Needs of the growing old population heap up; and putting new technology into service requires extra funds Responsibility and burden is falling on the «middle age groups»: - socially: need for frequent intergenerational contact - personally: increasing service and care for their elderly - economically: financing by their premium payments the deficit in the ever growing social security budget Necessary Change of Perspective: Make the Demanders Suppliers 1. Make the 65-85 actively aging people suppliers, providers, producers 2.Supply wide-reaching geriatric services through specified centers to keep the elderly active and productive as long as possible.
Rethinking the System 3 areas seem critical for introducing dynamizing energy to the systems’ entropy: have «philosophy of aging» in a graying global society make «informed modifications» in social organization take up «standard bearer policy» making
1991 UN Declaration: Principles for the Rights of Old-Age People Independence Inclusion / Participation Access to Care Self- Actualization Dignity Therefore, OUR TARGET IS: A society embracing all ages: The New World Social Order
«Intergenerational Solidarity» for Advanced World Security Intergenerational dialogue, exchanges and collaboration between researchers and policy makers is at the heart of reframing the agenda. Intergenerational World Security has a four-dimensional action area: 1) the rights of older individuals are human rights 2) solidarity among different ages in a family. 3)a national and global understanding and ethics for solidarity between world’s generations. 4) redistribution of the resources and functions of the societies and economies by inclusive approaches towards their aging populations. Especially, we must be aware from the start that we have to cope with relatively lower pensions and start to save ourselves as individuals from young ages on. (Congress Declaration of 2013: Intergenerational Solidarity)
Proposal: Aspects of Meeting Seniors’ Needs Informed Planning: new financial instruments like - long-term care insurances - community based pension systems new facilities in the health systems - hospitals for treatment of chronic patients - care homes for those confined to bed training and certification for homecare, for disabled elderly homecare, and for patient or invalid elderly nursing urban planning with integrated habitat architecture, ergonomic design a stressed social inclusion movement more efficient government layout and more developed public services… (Congress Declaration of 2013: Intergenerational Solidarity)
Proposal: Economic Integration of the Active Seniors’ Potential For the retired: Actively aging persons are a valuable resource Alternative learning and reskilling opportunities for jobs Fair access arrangements to the job market Productive pass-time activity organization Jobs or activity organization for high experience and mentorship Flexible working hours, compensation, taxes, social security For «future planning» of the currently working people: Longer lives mean higher value and new benefits in our societies Postponement of the retirement age Alternative retirement age programs and premium payments Personal development resposibilities and permits
Proposal: Designing a Home Jobs Market Homes will also need to rent home professionals: 1) elderly homecarer, 2) disabled elderly homecarer, and 3) patient or invalid elderly nurse: Vocational standards (for training and practicing) Curricula (theory & application, emotional, social and employment relations) Selection of suitable care-giver or nurse candidates Training (+ apprenticeship or internship periods) Testing and certification Formal recognition and definition of these professions Registration requirements to employment market, organization rigths Rules for working conditions in homes, wages, taxes Social security, retirement rights of the home professionals Inspection and periodic recertification
Present Aging Situation in Turkey and Aging Policy with the hope of a responsive intergenerational solidarity solution
Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Overall Population, Census Results - Turkey (1935-2011)
Population Trends in Turkey Decline in fertility rate, Rapid decrease in infant and child death rates. (result of increase in the antenatal and postnatal care and vaccination rates.) Life expectancy recorded significant increase in all age groups. (result of advancements in healthcare, nutrition and education) Average life expectancy at birth is 76.7 (M: 75, F: 79) years in 2012.
Attachment among family members in Turkey can be considered as still strong. 2011 survey results indicate that 7 out of every 10 elderly persons live in the same house, building, street or neighborhood with their children, while no major distinctions exists between sexes in this respect. Such preference is advantageous socially and economically both for the elder people, their adult children and grandchildren. 3 out of every 10 are either well-off to buy services, or getting institutional help, or are village elderly who do not leave their land for different reasons. The Nature of Changing Family Ties in Turkey - I
The Nature of Changing Family Ties in Turkey - II Family is still seen as the main social unit to take care of the over aged elderly or/and the disabled. Unless hospitalization-like services are necessary, families – especially in towns and small cities – consider it a shame to leave their parents in the hands of institutional care. Traditionally, it is the duty of male children to provide for their parents. The family nucleus was the husband, socially and legally. Daughters- in-law used to look after their parents-in-law. Now, the head of the family is the husband-and-wife together, legally. Socially it is even much different.
The Nature of Changing Family Ties in Turkey - III Intergenerational Collaboration Turning to Solidarity: Nowadays, with or without old-age pension, the over aged parents are taken care of by their daughters. If the husband does not have sisters around, wives take care of the parents-in-law, also. So, in many families the center is moving towards the women. Presently, nearly %90 of the aged population have some pension. Life practices began to change. Though only 20 % think their retirement payment is sufficient, expectations from male children are reduced. 40 % of old-age parents provide regular monetary help to their adult children for their higher level purchasing needs. 49 % of grandparents look after their grandchildren.
The Nature of Changing Family Ties in Turkey - IV After 1960’s, elderly village poor (20 % of the old-age) group with no social security was created by the migration of working age children. Elderly go on dealing with agriculture on their own. Usually, active old-age villagers provide storable food supplies to their city dwelling children. Village elderly are generally supported by their children in the cities with pocket money, fuel or mending expenses. All elderly over 65 years of age with no pension income are entitled to a monthly old-age allowance from the government.
Institutional Care Services Are available for people, at and over the age of 55, who suffer from social and/or economic deprivation and need institutional care services, are settled in public, charity or private rest homes for elderly people. ( Note: number of places do not meet the demand in big cities.) T hose who are in need of special care are settled in nursing homes or long-term care facilities. ( Note: number of places do not meet the demand.)
Social Assistance Law 3294 for Encouraging Social Help and Solidarity’s target groups are the elderly in poverty and deprivation and the disabled, who are not tied to any social security institution, thus not entitled to a pension, allowance or any income. Social Solidarity Fund’s criteria is the dependency degree of the deprived. «Registered Home-Based Care» was introduced in 2010: A monthly allowance – measured with the standards of minimum wage and increased by the degree of deprivation – is paid to the caregiver – mostly a relative – who lives in the same house with the disabled and/or the elderly person. At present 430 000 beneficiaries, 160 000 are old-age people.
The Learning Society Smoking was a generel practice – even an addiction in some – among men and women of middle ages, especially among elders in Turkey. In the youth years of the seniors, smoking was a leisure activity which was taken up both by young boys and girls from very early ages on in cities and villages. As its damage for lungs was discovered, young ages were not allowed to smoke, but smoking imposed itself as a symbol of manliness for men and of emancipation among city women. In 2008, smoking in public places was forbidden by law. This was well-received than it was expected. Schools had it already in their curriculum. The response of the public – notably of the seniors, whose smoking years were obviously much longer – to non-formal education over the media and campaigns was positive. They did not argue from the individual rigths point of view but took it as an issue of public health. They demand identified «smoking coffee-houses.» Now, the seniors are a group who advise non-smoking to youngsters.
Don’t Make Retirement Policy Mistakes Mine workers were the group with early retirement privilege. Some day, some government thought of spreading this derogation to some other groups in order to easen the uneployment problem. In spite of opposition from the Parliament concessions were given and taken back at different dates – still continuing – left behind a huge early retired population. In a country where social security entitlements are wide, after the reserves of social security funds have melted down, financing from the budget started to cause the governmen to run a deficit every year. Officially the retirement age is 65, but premium payment clauses can pull down to different ages both for men and for women. Early retirement is not a solution to unemployment. Because the retirees are at working age, they can easily move to the informal market and earn a second income.
2011 Seniors’ Tendencies Survey – Turkey 96.7 % of the elders report they do not meet with social pressure 34 % work or are looking for work after retirement ( those that report ) 5% do voluntary service 46 % are happy in their old-age life course 75 % cherish optimistic hopes for the future for 88 % good health and staying active is their primary value for 74.6 % loving relationships is their second value 4 % value money only 0.4 % think they can have a successful career after this.