3OVERVIEW OF VARIUOS STANDARDS WITHIN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY Many organizations are implementing an Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) as part of their risk management strategy to address changing legislation and protect their workforce.An OHSMS promotes a safe and healthy working environment by providing a framework that allows your organization to consistently identify and control its health and safety risks, reduce the potential for accidents, aid legislative compliance and improve overall performance.OHSAS has been designed to be compatible with ISO 9001 and ISO 14001, to help your organization meet their health and safety obligations in an efficient mannerOHSAS can be adopted by any organization wishing to implement a formal procedure to reduce the risks associated with health and safety in the working environment for employees, customers and the general public.
4HOW TO MANAGE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN YOUR COMPANY HOW TO MANAGE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN YOUR COMPANY. (OHS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM MODEL)Continual ImprovementOH&S PolicyPlanningImplementationand OperationChecking andCorrectiveActionManagementReview
5 Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle and continual improvement
6HOW TO MANAGE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN YOUR COMPANY You need to put in place Risk assessment process.Establish the contextIdentify the riskAnalyse the riskEvaluate the riskTreat the riskAll the time communicate and consult, and as well as monitoring and reviewing.You need to have management and staff commitment for the Health and safety to succeed.Have a health and safety team which should be multidisciplinaryNeed to put a Occupational Healthy and safety policy and which should be understood by all.
7HOW TO MANAGE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN YOUR COMPANY Need to describe the process and techniques used for the assessment of risk and significance of these in all OHS management system.Interpreted the requirement of the legal requirement or OHS management system standard.Effectively plan and conduct an audit of the management and operation of the organization in accordance with legal requirement and OHSReport the audit including valid factual and value adding non conformity reports.Undertake audit follow up actions, including evaluating the effectiveness of corrective and preventive action
8OHAS 18001 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT STANDARD. The OHSAS Standards covering OH&S management are intended to provide organizations with the elements of an effective OH&S management system that can be integrated with other management requirements and help organizations achieve OH&S and economic objectives. These standards, like other International Standards, are not intended to be used to create non-tariff trade barriers or to increase or change an organization’s legal obligationsThis OHSAS Standard specifies requirements for an OH&S management system to enable an organization to develop and implement a policy and objectives which take into account legal requirements and information about OH&S risks. It is intended to apply to all types and sizes of organizations and to accommodate diverse geographical, cultural and social conditions.The success of the system depends on commitment from all levels and functions of the organization, and especially from top management. A system of this kind enables an organization to develop an OH&S policy, establish objectives and processes to achieve the policy commitments, take action as needed to improve its performance and demonstrate the conformity of the system to the requirements of this OHSAS Standard. The overall aim of this OHSAS Standard is to support and promote good OH&S practices, in balance with socio-economic needs. It should be noted that many of the requirements can be addressed concurrently or revisited at any time.
9BENEFITS OF OHS. The system should enable an organisation to; establish an appropriate health OH&S policy;identify health and safety hazards arising from existing or planned activities and to determine the OH&S significant risks; identify priorities and set appropriate OH&S objectives; establish a structure and a programme or programmes to implement the policy and achieve objectives; enables objective audits of the system to be conducted; facilitate planning, control, monitoring, corrective action, auditing and review activities to ensure compliance to the health and safety policy and that the OH&S MS remains appropriate; be capable of adapting to changing circumstances.
10DOCUMENTATION AND INDICATORS. The OH&S management system documentation must include:the OH&S policy and objectives;description of the scope of the OH&S management system;description of the main elements of the OH&S management system and their interaction, and reference to related documents;documents, including records, required by the Standard and documents, including records, determined by the organization to be necessary to ensure the effective planning, operation and control of processes that relate to the management of its OH&S risks.
11CONTROL OF DOCUMENTSDocuments required by the OH&S management system and by this OHSAS Standard must be controlled. To this end, the organization must establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) to:approve documents for adequacy prior to issue; review and update as necessary and re-approve documents; ensure that changes and the current revision status of documents are identified;ensure that relevant versions of applicable documents are available at points of use;ensure that documents remain legible and readily identifiable; ensure that documents of external origin determined by the organization to be necessary for the planning and operation of the OH&S management system are identified and their distribution controlled; and relvent the unintended use of obsolete documents and apply suitable identification to them if they are retained for any purpose.
12HOW TO MANAGE EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE Create a system approach to emergency preparedness.Design organization wide plans that define: Authorities, Procedures and criteria for activation, incident command structures and external agencies and resources.Develop integrated policy frame work.Establish leadership teamPlan response for many kinds of emergenciesAccount for support functions and resourcesEnhance communicationFoster buy-in and support from communityPrepare through practiceDocument, document, document.
13HOW TO MANAGE EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE cont.... Establish priorities for the research enterprise.Crate infrastructure to enable outreach to the regional national and Global community.
14FIRST AID PREPAREDNESS. First aid is the assistance given to an injured or sick person in need of urgent medical assistance.First aid applies to a broad range of medical situations and consists both of specific knowledge and skills (for example, what to do for each type of injury or illness) and the ability to assess a situation and make appropriate decisions (such as when to call for emergency medical assistance).Preparedness is a key element of first aid. While every workplace, vehicles, homes, and boat should be equipped with a basic emergency kit; that includes first aid supplies and a first aid manual, special circumstances may necessitate more advanced or specific degrees of preparation for an emergency.For example, different work places will should provide the relevant items in the kit. (Mechanical section, office section and production section). The is a legal requirement of the items that should be contained in the first aid kit.
15FIRE SAFETY.Fire safety refers to precaution that are taken to prevent or reduce the likelihood of a fire that may result in death, injury, or property damage, alert those in a structure to the presence of an uncontrolled fire in the event one occurs, better enable those threatened by fire to survive, or to reduce the damage caused by a fire.Fire safety measures include those that are planned during the construction of a building or implemented in structures that are already standing, and those that are taught to occupants of the building.Threats to fire safety are referred to as fire hazards.The fire hazard may include a situation that increases the likelihood a fire may start orImede escape in the event a fire occurs.
16FIRE SAFETY contFire safety is always a component of building safety.Key elements of fire safety Safety.Building a facility in accordance with the version of the local building code.Maintain the facility and conducting yourself in accordance with provision of the fire code. (being aware of the applicable regulations)Not exceeding the maximum occupancy within any part of the building.Maintaining proper fire exits and proper exit signage (e.g. Exit signs pointing to the direction of exit and having an illuminating light which should be battery operated to function during power failure)
17FIRE SAFETY contCompliance with electrical codes to prevent overheating and ignition from electrical faults or problems such as poor wire insulation or overloading wiring, conductors, or other fixtures with more electric current than they are rated for.Placing and maintaining the correct type of fire extinguishers in easily accessible places.
18MOCK DRILLS.Mock drills are essential to prepare workers and visitors and even local community to best respond during an emergency and are key instruments for testing the workability of any emergency response plan.Exploring the prospects of mock drills, these drills ensure better and coordinated response during a disaster by making everyone aware of their role and responsibilities.These drills help reinforce the Incident Command System coming up under Disaster Management or safety team (fire marshals) and clarify their roles and responsibilities.Mock drills also help in preparing responding agencies determine what resources would be required and help them carry out a capacity assessment
19MOCK DRILLS cont........ Before the drills Conducting different drills for different emergencies based on the vulnerability so the community can find out gaps in their preparation and response and take the necessary stepsMaking available "do's and don’ts" lists for various emergencies to stakeholders before planning a drillInvolving the community and using local resources and knowledge, so they are able to relate to the drill processKeeping the District Administration, local hospital, fire brigade and police station informed of any planned drillPreparing a detailed event chart with time and activities (i.e. information of the event, warning dissemination, place of occurrence, effect/impact of disaster, de-warning and de-briefing)Preparing a safety plan before the drill (Route Chart, First Aid box at the site, proper search and rescue equipment/information for any emergency contract number, police, fire, health system, revenue control room, and the skilled manpower immediately available in case of a real emergency)Ensuring “manageable” community participation, to prevent a real time disaster
20MOCK DRILLS cont.......... DURING THE DRILL Bringing in the media as part of the mock drill team to disseminate messages on the purpose of the drillMonitoring response time, to enable the community to learn how to minimize lossEnsuring proper coordination among various stakeholders during the drillHaving a skilled safety team on standby for any emergency supportEnsuring proper security arrangements are in place at the mock drill locationFinally, careful planning and implementation of mock drills can ensure no accidents and Most excellent results.