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Chapter 21 The Muslim Empires. THE OTTOMANS The Beginning 1258 CE: Mongol invasion disrupts Seljuk Turk government – Death of the last Abbasid caliph.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 The Muslim Empires. THE OTTOMANS The Beginning 1258 CE: Mongol invasion disrupts Seljuk Turk government – Death of the last Abbasid caliph."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21 The Muslim Empires




5 The Beginning 1258 CE: Mongol invasion disrupts Seljuk Turk government – Death of the last Abbasid caliph Ottomans fill power vacuum under leadership of Osman I (Sunni Muslims) 1453 CE: Control majority of eastern Mediterranean and capture Constantinople A warrior aristocracy develops – Central Bureaucracy  Sultan The warrior aristocracy competed with one another for power: Not a stable situation

6 Sultans Absolute rulers – With the use of the Warrior Aristocracy Played them off one another to maintain his own power – Allowed for people of other beliefs as advisors – Like the Caliphate, the Sultans will grow more corrupt over time Inherited Islamic Principle of Political Succession: – Vague and easily contested – Death of the Sultan = Warfare between sons

7 So let’s talk succession warfare among his sons = claimants Uncertainty of succession caused so many new and worse problems – Early Sultans would kill all their brothers: fratricide As well as other family members who could be seen as potential rivals for the throne. – After 1600 They just confined the rivals to palaces and harems

8 Vizier head of the Ottoman central bureaucracy Dealt with the Day to Day activities of the empire Often had more power than the sultan

9 Janissaries Infantry divisions Soldiers taken from conquered regions and forcibly converted to Islam – Boys sent to the army Legally slaves by given schooling for the time and converted to Islam Become the cornerstone of the army and a political power in their own right

10 Constantinople Constantinople is the culmination of an Empire of diverse cultures – Mehmed II took it in 1453 – Restored to in former glory with great achievements in architecture – Grand Bazaar with stuff from everywhere

11 The fall Empire begins a gradual decline that would last until its eventual death in 1920 (end of WWI) – Lasted 600 years – Held off the combined efforts of Russia, Eastern/Western Europeans and Safavids to conquer them – Extent of the empire probably made it impossible to govern Compounding issues – Corruption developed from the inside – Problems with succession: a series of weak leaders – Lavish lifestyle – Unwillingness to adapt to changes in technology – Inherit a contempt for all things western – Impact of Portuguese trade (loss of wealth) and Spanish Silver

12 Suleyman the Magnificent (r.1520- 1566) Height of power and control in the Middle East Video



15 The Beginning Came from the struggles of rival Turkic nomadic groups in the wake of Mongol invasion – Persia and present day Iran Safavids were Shi’a – The struggle between Sunni Ottomans and Shi’a Safavids will be a pivotal part of Islamic History Began with a Mystic Sufi Family – Sail al-Din: started to reform Islam and spread it through the tribes – Red Heads: Safavid’s followers because of the head gear

16 The Good Times Shah Abbas I (Great) – Under his leadership was the height of the Safavid Empire – Created a slave army similar to the Janissaries – Wanted to create an Empire at the center of International trade and Islamic Culture Roads and rest houses were built Isfahan: the capital

17 Fight Met Ottomans at battle at Chaldiran in northwest Persia – (demonstrated importance of muskets and field cannon in the gunpowder age) Ismail’s cavalry was no match for the strong Ottomans. Outcome determined that Shi’ism would be confined to Persia

18 Religion Persian influence in language and religion Claimed descent from one of the Shi’a imams (successors to Ali) as status of rulers increased Faith became a major pillar of dynasty and empire. Mullahs (local mosque officials and prayer leaders) supervised by the state and supported by the state Bulk of population converted to Shi’ism Shi’ism became integral part of Iranian identity

19 The Fall Rapid decline Abbas so paranoid he killed all potential successors Ottomans and Mughals were taking territory March 1722: Afghani tribes besieged Isfahan

20 Like the Ottomans, they... Gain power after departure of Mongols Are warriors of Islam Fall victim to a lavish lifestyle once they have gained power Make use of a feudal system Lose political power to foreign advisors Adopt foreign slaves as soldiers Use religion as a political tool – Practices of the “mullahs” Promoted the arts and global trade Suffer from internal problems that cause their collapse Women were socially limited – Harem and veil Developed a paranoia of their heirs

21 Unlike the Ottomans, they... Were Shi’a rather than Sunni Were founded by religious leaders (Sufis) Leaders are referred to as “shahs” rather than “sultans” Lacked the military power to establish a vast empire Were willing to acknowledge and make use of Western ideas (weapons and tactics) Adopted the use of Persian, which the Ottomans discard Were unable to maintain their empire, ultimately falling in 1722.



24 The Beginning Babur: founder of the Mughal Dynasty – Descendant of Mongol Khans and Turkic Warriors – 1498, after father’s death, Babur (16 yrs old) struggles to fight for control of homeland. Went to India for booty. Did not intend conquest at the beginning – Babur better conqueror than leader- despite a highly refined taste for the arts. Little to do with religion

25 The Good times Grandson of Babur Akbar greatest ruler of the Mughals – Great military commander and expanded the empire – Brilliant Administration system to bring together the Muslims and Hindus so they could share the region Reconciliation and cooperation with Hindu princes Encouraged intermarriage Ordered Muslims to respect cows

26 A new faith Akbar did many things to bring the two religions together Din-i-Ilahi – Tried to combine Islam and Hindu to create something new – Did not work so well

27 Excess After Akbar’s death Two Shah’s were consumed by Art and Pleasure – Jahangir and Shah Jahan – Spent lavishly in art, music, architecture, gardens, women, etc – Left the running of the empire to subordinates



30 The Fall Years of excess leaves the Empire struggling Shah Jahan’s successor inherited – Empire in decay from the inside – Growing danger from external enemies – Years of the Shah’s ignoring reform – Corrupt Bureaucracy and backward army – Awful conditions for the poor Rebellion in the West: Marattas A new Sect in the Northwest: Sikhs

31 Like the Ottomans/Safavids, they... Succeed through the use of gunpowder (artillery/muskets) Shared an Islam heritage Made use of a feudal system Had a significant gap between upper and lower classes Unwillingness to adopt Western advances and innovations Support the arts Fall victim to a lavish lifestyle that results in the fall of the empire Decline as a result of their addiction to military conquest

32 Unlike the Ottomans/Safavids they... Claimed to be descendents of Mongols Had no desire for religious conquest…motivated by desire for territory Promoted/protected Hinduism over Islam, and attempted adoption of new religion (Din-i-Ilahi) Attempted to improve status of women Were economically dominant, even with the West Have a series of upper class women that are able to achieve a significant degree of political power – nur Jahan and Mumtax mahal Gave fewer rights to average women – Practice of sati Also declined because of religious division

33 WOMEN In both the Ottoman and Safavid Empires – Women faced legal and social disadvantages – Subordinated to fathers and husbands – Little outlets for artistic expression – Seclusion and veiling continued Especially elites For the Mughals – Akbar Encouraged widows to marry and discouraged child marriages Waned to end Sati and give women more freedom outside the home – After Akbar's death many of these practices go back full force if not even worse.

34 Good stuff to keep in mind Stuff from this chapter that goes with the APWH Themes

35 Key Concept 2. New forms of social organization and modes of production

36 As new social and political elites changed, they also restructured new ethnic, racial and gender hierarchies – The power of existing political and economic elites (such as the zarnidars in the Mughal Empire, the nobility in Europe or the daimyo in Japan) fluctuated as they confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders

37 Key Concept 3: State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion

38 Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their power – Visual displays of political power (such as monumental architecture, urban plans, courtly literature or the visual arts) helped legitimize and support rulers – Rulers used religious ideas (such as European notions of divine right, the Safavid use of Shiism, the Mexican or Aztec practice of human sacrifice, the Songhai promotion of Islam or the Chinese emperors’ public performance of Confucian rituals) to legitimize their rule – States treated different ethnic and religious groups in ways that utilized their economic contributions while limiting their ability to challenge the authority of the state (such as the Ottoman treatment of non-Muslim subjects, Manchu policies toward Chinese or the Spanish creation of a separate “Republica de Indios”) – Recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites, as well as the development of military professionals (such as the Ottoman devshime, Chinese examination system or salaried samurai), became more common among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their populations and resources

39 Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres – Land empires, including the Manchu's, Mughals, Ottomans and Russians expanded dramatically in size

40 Competition over trade routes (such as Omani-European rivalry in the Indian Ocean or piracy in the Caribbean), state rivalries (such as the Thirty Years War, and the Ottoman- Safavid conflict) and local resistance (such as bread riots) all provided significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion

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