Presentation on theme: "Cells – Chapter 1. Cell The smallest unit that can perform all the processes necessary for life."— Presentation transcript:
Cells – Chapter 1
Cell The smallest unit that can perform all the processes necessary for life.
The Cell Theory All organisms are made of one or more cells. The cell is the basic unit of all living things. All cells come from existing cells.
Why are cells so small? There volume is limited by how much material can to get into the cell to keep it alive. This is referred to as the “surface area to volume ratio”.
Types of cells Prokaryotic Cells – Cells that do not have their DNA contained in a nucleus. Eukaryotic cells – Cells that have their DNA contained in a nucleus.
An Organism is… … a complete living thing. Unicellular organism – A complete living thing made of only one cell. Multi-cellular organism – A complete living thing made of more than one cell.
Types of organisms Prokaryote – An organism that is made of a cell whose DNA is not contained in a nucleus. Eukaryote – An organism that is made of cells whose DNA is contained in a nucleus.
Cell Membrane A protective barrier that encloses a cell and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cells environment.
Cytoplasm The jelly-like fluid found inside of cells that the organelles “float” in.
Organelles Small bodies in a cell’s cytoplasm that are specialized to perform specific functions.
Nucleus The Organelle that contains the cells DNA (the genetic material) and is the control center of the cell.
Ribosome The organelle in which amino acids are hooked together to make proteins.
Endoplasmic Reticulum The organelle that makes lipids, breaks down drugs and other substances, and packages proteins for Golgi complex. They also help to transport things throughout the cell. (serve as a delivery system)
Mitochondria The organelle that breaks down food molecules to make ATP (energy) needed to power the various processes in the cell.
Chloroplast The organelle that uses the energy of sunlight to make food in a process called photosynthesis. The food is called glucose. Found in plant cells.
Golgi Complex The organelle that processes and transports proteins and other materials out of the cell.
Vesicle A small sac that surrounds material to be moved into or out of a cell.
Vacuole The organelle that stores water and other materials.
Lysosome The organelle that digests food particles, waste, cell parts, and foreign invaders.
Cell Wall A rigid/stiff structure that surrounds the cell membrane of plants, algae and prokaryotic cells and provides support.
The Organization of (multi-cellular) Living Things Cells – The smallest unit that can perform all life processes. (The building blocks of life) Tissue – A group of similar cells that can perform a common function. Organ – a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body. Organ System – A group of organs that work together to perform body functions Organism – A complete living thing
The Organization of living things
Structure and Function Structure – The arrangement of parts of an organism (what it is made up of and how it is put together) Function – the special, normal, or proper activity of an organ or part (it’s job or purpose)
UnicellularMulti-cellular Unicellular –vs- Multi-cellular organisms Unicellular Organisms are made up of only one cell Multi-cellular Organisms are made of many cells
Benefits of being Multicellular Larger Size – Large organisms are prey for fewer predators Longer Life – Life span is not limited to the life span of a single cell Specialization – Each type of cell has a particular job so the organism is more efficient.