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INFM 700: Session 3 Organization and Navigation (cont’d) Paul Jacobs The iSchool University of Maryland Wednesday, Feb. 8, 2012 This work is licensed under.

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Presentation on theme: "INFM 700: Session 3 Organization and Navigation (cont’d) Paul Jacobs The iSchool University of Maryland Wednesday, Feb. 8, 2012 This work is licensed under."— Presentation transcript:

1 INFM 700: Session 3 Organization and Navigation (cont’d) Paul Jacobs The iSchool University of Maryland Wednesday, Feb. 8, 2012 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States See for detailshttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/

2 iSchool Today’s Topics Finish organization discussion Segue from organization into navigation Aspects of navigation Tools for navigation Basics of page layout and design Organization Navigation Page Layout

3 iSchool Organization and Navigation Organization: “How we categorize Information” (can be by subject, task, code number, alphabet, etc.) Navigation: “How we browse or move through information” (can fit with organization, or can be sequential, or much more haphazard) Navigational tools can match organization (e.g., top-level menus, breadcrumbs) or not (e.g., hyperlinks, cross-references, suggestions) Even where navigational tools reflect organization, the user’s navigation may not (think of breadcrumbs)

4 iSchool Analogy: Printed Book Organization System: Chapters Sections Paragraphs Navigation System: Table of contents Index Page numbers Cross-references … Established over 500 years… Not all present at the dawn of printing Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

5 iSchool Organization Site organization Content organization Different organization methods/tools Expressing organization/blueprints Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

6 iSchool Hierarchical Organization Systems of organization are mostly hierarchical Represents a specific mode of thinking: reductionistic, decompositional, general-to-specific Why? “Natural order” Convention and familiarity Physical limitations Cognitive limitations Hierarchies are everywhere: Human organizations Computer file systems Physical file systems Biological organisms Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

7 iSchool Depth vs. Breadth “shallow but wide” “narrow but deep” What are the tradeoffs? Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

8 iSchool Non-Hierarchical Systems Hypertext Direct links between different information segments Pre-dates the Web Social tagging “Wisdom of the mob” Shows what everyone else likes Web 2.0 (hype?) Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

9 iSchool “Exact” Systems Alphabetical Chronological Geographical Organizational (for Intranets) Any inherent attribute of entities Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

10 iSchool “Inexact” Systems Topic Task User Metaphors Hybrid Organizational (in general) Process Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

11 iSchool Hypertext Diana Philip Elizabeth Charles Balmoral Tony Elizabeth Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

12 iSchool Social Tagging del.icio.us flickr YouTube del.icio.us Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

13 iSchool Other Organizational Tools Relational databases/tables Wizards Hybrids... Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

14 iSchool Ideas in Tension Does a hierarchical organization system defeat the entire point of hypertext? Does a hierarchical organization system decrease emphasis on users? Does social tagging eliminate the need for organization systems? Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

15 iSchool Organization and Behavior Bookmarks Arrangement of tabs and windows Social tagging Personal homepage Blogs Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

16 iSchool So what do we do? Type of task/contentType of organization system User generated content (e.g. blogs)Structured database/form Overall site content/task Hierarchy (e.g. “buy a book”, “contact us”)Chapter/section Local site content/taskUser Tags (e.g. “cars for sale”, “product specs”) Local site content/taskHypertext (e.g., “today’s news”)Calendars/maps Frequently consulted contentTask/User/Organization Related/required content Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

17 iSchool Blueprints Blueprints are diagrams outlining the organization system of an information space Can provide overview at different levels Conceptual level Physical level (i.e., how pages are actually linked) Keep it simple and uncluttered! Choose the appropriate level of detail Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

18 iSchool Blueprint: Conceptual Main Homepage TeachingResearch Other Activities LBSC 690 INFM 718R INFM 700 Ph.D. Students Publications Projects IR Colloquium TREC Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

19 iSchool Blueprint: Physical Index Page “other”“teaching”“research” “teaching”“research”“other” Users’ Needs Architecture Components Organization Systems

20 iSchool Blueprint: Conceptual Main Homepage TeachingResearch Other Activities LBSC 690 INFM 718R INFM 700 Ph.D. Students Publications Projects IR Colloquium TREC Organization Navigation Page Layout

21 iSchool Fitting the Pieces Together See Organization Navigation Page Layout

22 iSchool Design Navigation Systems Chess analogy: a few simple rules that disguise an infinitely complex game The three-part structure Openings: many strategies, lots of books about this End game: well-defined, well-understood Middle game: nebulous, hard to describe Information navigation has a similar structure! Middle game is underserved Organization Navigation Page Layout

23 iSchool Opening Moves Organization Navigation Page Layout

24 iSchool Opening Moves Organization Navigation Page Layout

25 iSchool Opening Moves Organization Navigation Page Layout

26 iSchool Opening Moves Organization Navigation Page Layout

27 iSchool End Game Organization Navigation Page Layout

28 iSchool Middle Game Organization Navigation Page Layout

29 iSchool Middle Game Organization Navigation Page Layout

30 iSchool Middle Game Organization Navigation Page Layout

31 iSchool Supporting the “Middle Game” Navigation systems must support moves through the information space Analogy: User views a projection of the information space Information Space Possibly Relevant Information What the user sees Organization Navigation Page Layout

32 iSchool Possible “Moves” n1n1 n2n2 b2b2 b1b1 s1s1 s2s2 j1j1 j2j2 narrow broaden shift jump Organization Navigation Page Layout

33 iSchool Navigation Patterns Movement in the organization hierarchy Move up a level Move down a level Move to sister Move to next (natural sequences) Move to sister of parent Drive to content Drive to advertisement Jump to related Jump to recommendations Organization Navigation Page Layout

34 iSchool Navigation Patterns $$ Mostly navigationMostly content Organization Navigation Page Layout

35 iSchool Types of Navigation Systems Global Shown everywhere Tells the user “what’s important” Local Shown in specific parts of the site Tells the user “what’s nearby” Contextual Shown only in specific situations Tells the user “what’s related” Organization Navigation Page Layout

36 iSchool You are here Remind users “where they are” Not everyone starts from the front page Don’t assume that the “back button” is meaningful Example from AmazonExample from IBM Organization Navigation Page Layout

37 iSchool Designing CRAPy Pages Contrast: make different things different to bring out dominant elements to mute lesser elements Repetition: repeat design throughout the interface to create consistency to foster familiarity Alignment: visually connect elements to create flow to convey organization Proximity: make effective use of spacing to group related elements to separate unrelated elements From: Saul Greenberg Organization Navigation Page Layout

38 iSchool CRAPy Pages: Contrast Important Less important Important Less important Important Less important Important Less important Organization Navigation Page Layout

39 iSchool CRAPy Pages: Repetition Block 1 My points You points Their points Block 2 Blah Argh Shrug Organization Navigation Page Layout

40 iSchool CRAPy Pages: Alignment Major Bullets Secondary bullet Major Bullet Secondary bullet Alignment denotes items “at the same level” Organization Navigation Page Layout

41 iSchool CRAPy Pages: Proximity Important Less important Important Less important Important Less important Important Less important Related Less Related Organization Navigation Page Layout

42 iSchool Page Layout: Conventions Navigation Content Navigation (Local) Navigation (Global) Navigation Content Navigation (Contextual) Organization Navigation Page Layout

43 iSchool It’s all about the grid! Natural correspondence to organization hierarchy Conveys structure Easy to implement in tables Easy to control alignment and proximity Organization Navigation Page Layout

44 iSchool Grid Layout: NY Times Organization Navigation Page Layout

45 iSchool Grid Layout: NY Times Navigation (Global) Banner Ad Another Ad Content Popular Articles Users’ Needs Organization Systems Navigation Systems Page Layout and Design

46 iSchool Grid Layout: ebay Organization Navigation Page Layout

47 iSchool Grid Layout: ebay Navigation (Global) Banner Ad Search Results Navigation (Local) Navigation (Search) Organization Navigation Page Layout

48 iSchool Grid Layout: Amazon Organization Navigation Page Layout

49 iSchool Grid Layout: Amazon Navigation (Global) Search Results Navigation (Contextual) Users’ Needs Organization Systems Navigation Systems Page Layout and Design

50 iSchool Navigation Overload Organization Navigation Page Layout

51 iSchool Beware: Navigation Overload Navigation Content More Navigation Even More Navigation Organization Navigation Page Layout

52 iSchool Recap of Today’s Topics Organization Systems Navigation Systems How users move through the information space Dynamic in nature Different tools/consideration at each level Reflect both user and organizational behavior Page layout and design Focus on content, repetition, alignment, proximity Use wireframes to express organization and content Organization Navigation Page Layout


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