Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Pages 1-18.  Anatomy: science of structure and relationships among structures  Physiology: science of how body structures function.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Pages 1-18.  Anatomy: science of structure and relationships among structures  Physiology: science of how body structures function."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pages 1-18

2  Anatomy: science of structure and relationships among structures  Physiology: science of how body structures function

3  Six levels in human body:  Chemical  Cellular  Tissue  Organ  System  Organismal

4  Atoms: smallest unit of matter that participate in chemical reactions  Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, and a few others are essential to life  Molecules: two or more atoms joined together  DNA, hemoglobin, glucose, vitamins  Formed from combined molecules  cells  Basic structural and functional units of an organisms; smallest living units in human body

5  Consists of groups of cells and surrounding materials that work together to perform a specific function  Epithelial tissue  Connective tissue  Muscle tissue  Nervous tissue

6  Have recognizable shapes; composed of two or more types of tissue, and have specific functions  Consists of related organs that have a common function

7  Integumentary  Skeletal  Muscular  Nervous  Endocrine  Cardiovascular  Lymphatic and Immune  Respiratory  Digestive  Urinary  Reproductive

8  Highest level of organization; combination of all systems  Systems work together to:  Maintain health  Protect against disease  Allow reproduction

9  Metabolism: sum of all chemical processes  anabolic reactions: breakdown of large, complex molecules  catabolic reactions: building of body’s structural and functional components  Responsiveness: ability to detect and respond to changes in the internal and external environment  Homeostatic mechanisms  Movement: whole body motion; organ, cell, and organelle motion; muscular and skeletal motion  Growth: increase in body size  Also cell size increase  Differentiation: unspecialized cells become specialized  Reproduction: cellular and organismal

10  Maintaining stable internal environments within certain limits in response to disruptions from external or internal stimuli and from psychological stresses  Mainly in interstitial fluids that surround all body cells  Regulatory systems  Nervous  Detects body changes and sends nerve impulse signals  Endocrine  Secretes hormones

11  Receptors: monitor changes in a controlled condition and send input to a control center  Control Center: sets the value at which a controlled condition should be maintained; evaluates input from receptors, and generates output to effectors  Effectors: receive output from control center and produce a response that alters controlled condition to maintain homeostasis.

12

13  Disruptions to homeostasis can lead to disorders and/or diseases  Disorder: any disturbance of structure and/or function  Disease: illness characterized by recognizable set of signs and symptoms  Signs: objective changes in body functions apparent to an observer  Bleeding, swelling, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, rash, paralysis  Symptoms: subjective changes in body functions not apparent to an observer  Headache, nausea

14  Aging creates observable changes in structure and function; increase vulnerability to stress and disease  Affects all body systems

15  Assume body standing erect and facing observer, head is level, eyes face forward, feet flat on floor and directed forward, arms are at the sides, with palms turned forward when using anatomical terms

16  Head (cephalic)  Neck (cervical)  Trunk  Upper limbs  Lower limbs

17  Indicate the relationship of one part of the body to another and aid in establishing location  Superior (cephalic or cranial)  Inferior (caudal)  Anterior (ventral)  Posterior (dorsal)  Medial  Lateral  Proximal  Distal  Superficial  Deep

18  Imaginary flat surfaces that divide the body or organs into parts  Sagittal plane  Midsagittal  Parasagittal  Frontal plane (coronal)  Transverse plane  Oblique plane  Sections result from cuts through body structures; named according to the plane on which the cut is made: tranverse, frontal, or sagittal

19  Imaginary flat surfaces that divide the body or organs into parts  Sagittal plane  Midsagittal  Parasagittal  Frontal plane (coronal)  Transverse plane  Oblique plane  Sections result from cuts through body structures; named according to the plane on which the cut is made: tranverse, frontal, or sagittal

20  Spaces in the body that contain, protect, separate, and support internal organs

21  Located near back (dorsal) surface of the body  Cranial cavity  Skull; contains brain  Vertebral cavity  Backbone; contains spinal cord

22  Located near front (ventral) surface of the body; contains organs collectively called viscera  Thoracic cavity; chest area  Pericardial  Pleural  Mediastinum  Abdominopelvic cavity  Abdomen  Stomach  Spleen  Liver  Gallbladder  small intestine  most of large intestine  Pelvis  Urinary bladder  Portions of large intestine  Internal reproductive organs

23  1 st Method: two horizontal and two vertical lines divide the abdominopelvic cavity into nine regions  Right hypochondriac  Epigastric  Left hypochondriac  Right lumbar  Umbilical  Left lumbar  Right iliac  Hypogastric  Left iliac  This method is more commonly used for anatomical studies

24  2 nd Method: one horizontal and one vetical line pass through the umbilicus (navel) dividing the abdominopelvic cavity into quadrants  Right upper quadrant (RUQ)  Left upper quadrant (LUQ)  Right lower quadrant (RLQ)  Left lower quadrant (LLQ)  This method is more commonly used by clinicians to describe the site of abdominopelvic pain, mass, or other abnormality


Download ppt "Pages 1-18.  Anatomy: science of structure and relationships among structures  Physiology: science of how body structures function."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google