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The Organization of the Human Body

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1 The Organization of the Human Body
Pages 1-18

2 Anatomy and Physiology Defined
Anatomy: science of structure and relationships among structures Physiology: science of how body structures function

3 Levels of Organization and Body Systems
Six levels in human body: Chemical Cellular Tissue Organ System Organismal

4 Chemical : Chapter 2 Cellular: Chapter 3
Atoms: smallest unit of matter that participate in chemical reactions Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, and a few others are essential to life Molecules: two or more atoms joined together DNA, hemoglobin, glucose, vitamins Cellular: Chapter 3 Formed from combined molecules  cells Basic structural and functional units of an organisms; smallest living units in human body

5 Tissue: Chapter 4 Consists of groups of cells and surrounding materials that work together to perform a specific function Epithelial tissue Connective tissue Muscle tissue Nervous tissue Epithelial: forms innermost and outermost surfaces of body structures and forms glands Connective: most abundant type; functions to bind and support (ground substance and fibers between cells) Muscle: specialized to produce motion in response to muscle action potentials via contractions, extensibility, elasticity, excitability. Types: skeletal, cardiac, smooth Nervous: contians neurons that initiate and conduct nerve impulses to coordinate homeostasis, and neuroglia that provides support and nutrition to neurons

6 Organ System: Chapters 5-24
Have recognizable shapes; composed of two or more types of tissue, and have specific functions System: Chapters 5-24 Consists of related organs that have a common function

ELEVEN PRINCIPLE SYSTEMS OF THE HUMAN BODY All summarized Table 1.1; pages 4-5 Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic and Immune Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Pass out handout informational sheet

8 Organismal Highest level of organization; combination of all systems
Systems work together to: Maintain health Protect against disease Allow reproduction

9 Life Processes of Humans
Metabolism: sum of all chemical processes anabolic reactions: breakdown of large, complex molecules catabolic reactions: building of body’s structural and functional components Responsiveness: ability to detect and respond to changes in the internal and external environment Homeostatic mechanisms Movement: whole body motion; organ, cell, and organelle motion; muscular and skeletal motion Growth: increase in body size Also cell size increase Differentiation: unspecialized cells become specialized Reproduction: cellular and organismal

10 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits
Maintaining stable internal environments within certain limits in response to disruptions from external or internal stimuli and from psychological stresses Mainly in interstitial fluids that surround all body cells Regulatory systems Nervous Detects body changes and sends nerve impulse signals Endocrine Secretes hormones

11 Control of Homeostasis: Feedback Systems
Receptors: monitor changes in a controlled condition and send input to a control center Control Center: sets the value at which a controlled condition should be maintained; evaluates input from receptors, and generates output to effectors Effectors: receive output from control center and produce a response that alters controlled condition to maintain homeostasis.

12 Homeostatic Mechanisms
ID receptor, control centrer, effector Receptor: nervous system Control center: brain; hypothalamus Effector: dermal blood vessels to sweat glands (endocrine system) NEGATIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEM: reverses original stimulus (temperature regulation) POSISTIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEM: enhances the original stimulus (childbirth)

13 Homeostasis and Disease
Disruptions to homeostasis can lead to disorders and/or diseases Disorder: any disturbance of structure and/or function Disease: illness characterized by recognizable set of signs and symptoms Signs: objective changes in body functions apparent to an observer Bleeding, swelling, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, rash, paralysis Symptoms: subjective changes in body functions not apparent to an observer Headache, nausea

14 Aging and Homeostasis Aging creates observable changes in structure and function; increase vulnerability to stress and disease Affects all body systems

15 Anatomical Terms Assume body standing erect and facing observer, head is level, eyes face forward, feet flat on floor and directed forward, arms are at the sides, with palms turned forward when using anatomical terms

16 Names of Body Regions Head (cephalic) Neck (cervical) Trunk
Upper limbs Lower limbs Head: skull (encloses brain) and face (eyes, nose, mouth, forehead, cheeks, chin) Neck: supports the head attaches it to the trunk Trunk: chest, abdomen, pelvis Upper limb: attached to the trunk; shoulder, armpit, arm (portion from shoulder to elbow), forearm (portion from elbow to wrist), wrist, and hand Lower limb: attached to the trunk; buttock, thigh (portion from hip to the knee), leg (portion from knee to ankle), ankle, and foot

17 Directional Terms Indicate the relationship of one
part of the body to another and aid in establishing location Superior (cephalic or cranial) Inferior (caudal) Anterior (ventral) Posterior (dorsal) Medial Lateral Proximal Distal Superficial Deep Superior: toward the head, or upper part of a structure Inferior: away from the head, or lower part of a structure Anterior: nearer to the front of the body Posterior: nearer to the back of the body Medial: nearer to the midline or midsagittal plane Lateral: farther from the midline or midsagittal plane Proximal: nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk, nearer to the point of origin or beginning Distal: farther from the attachment of a limb o the trunk, farther from the point of origin or beginning Superficial: toward or on the surface of the body Deep: away from the surface of the body

18 Planes and Sections Imaginary flat surfaces that divide the body or organs into parts Sagittal plane Midsagittal Parasagittal Frontal plane (coronal) Transverse plane Oblique plane Sections result from cuts through body structures; named according to the plane on which the cut is made: tranverse, frontal, or sagittal Sagittal: divides body or organ into right and left sides Midsagittal: passes through midline; equal right and left sides Parasagittal: unequal right and left sides Frontal: divides body or organ into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions Transverse: divides body or organ into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions Oblique: passes through body or organ at an angle between transverse plane and sagittal plane or between transverse and frontal CLICK for next slide to show organ view…

19 Planes and Sections Imaginary flat surfaces that divide the body or organs into parts Sagittal plane Midsagittal Parasagittal Frontal plane (coronal) Transverse plane Oblique plane Sections result from cuts through body structures; named according to the plane on which the cut is made: tranverse, frontal, or sagittal

20 Body Cavities Spaces in the body that contain, protect, separate, and support internal organs

21 Dorsal Body Cavity Located near back (dorsal) surface of the body
Cranial cavity Skull; contains brain Vertebral cavity Backbone; contains spinal cord

22 Ventral Body Cavity Located near front (ventral) surface of the body; contains organs collectively called viscera Thoracic cavity; chest area Pericardial Pleural Mediastinum Abdominopelvic cavity Abdomen Stomach Spleen Liver Gallbladder small intestine most of large intestine Pelvis Urinary bladder Portions of large intestine Internal reproductive organs Pericardial: fluid-filled space around the heart Pleural: each surround one lung and contain a small amount of fluid Mediastinum: mass of tissues between the pleural cavities and extending from the sternum (breastbone) to the vertebral column (backbone) and from neck to the diaphragm includes: heart, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels Note: diaphragm is a large dome-shaped muscle that powers lung expansion during breathing; forms floor of thoracic cavity and roof of abdominopelvic cavity

23 Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants
1st Method: two horizontal and two vertical lines divide the abdominopelvic cavity into nine regions Right hypochondriac Epigastric Left hypochondriac Right lumbar Umbilical Left lumbar Right iliac Hypogastric Left iliac This method is more commonly used for anatomical studies

24 Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants
2nd Method: one horizontal and one vetical line pass through the umbilicus (navel) dividing the abdominopelvic cavity into quadrants Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) This method is more commonly used by clinicians to describe the site of abdominopelvic pain, mass, or other abnormality

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