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Iowa Workforce and Demographic Changes: Implications for the Organizational Culture of Iowa State Extension and Outreach Lyn Brodersen, Ph.D. Annual ISUEO.

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Presentation on theme: "Iowa Workforce and Demographic Changes: Implications for the Organizational Culture of Iowa State Extension and Outreach Lyn Brodersen, Ph.D. Annual ISUEO."— Presentation transcript:

1 Iowa Workforce and Demographic Changes: Implications for the Organizational Culture of Iowa State Extension and Outreach Lyn Brodersen, Ph.D. Annual ISUEO Conference March 2014

2 Questions for the Future: 1963 C.A. Vines, Director, Agricultural Extension Service, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, posed alternatives for the future of Extension in a talk at Colorado State University in Fort Collins on June 18, 1963.

3 How will Extension Adapt? According to Vines, Watts, and Parks (1963): It is apparent that problems are becoming more complex as changes take place in the economic and social structures of the nation. Many problems facing farm people are outside agriculture. We must involve competencies that go beyond those in the college of agriculture because of the interrelationships in present day society. (p. 241- 242)

4 Three Alternatives 1.Provide informal education in forestry, families, agriculture, and related fields in both urban and rural areas without responsibility for development of additional resources or the community. 2.Provide the aforementioned informal education and provide leadership for resource and community development in rural areas.

5 Three Alternatives 3. Broaden Extension’s role to include all informal educational efforts, from all colleges housed within the University, in both rural and urban areas (Vines, Watts, & Parks, 1963).

6 Where Do We Fit? Consider the alternatives Vines posed fifty years ago. How do those alternatives fit the nature of our work with the citizens of Iowa today?

7 Iowa Poverty Rates by Age 2007-2011 State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa small area poverty rates 2007-2011 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/http://www.iowadatacenter.org/

8 Median Earnings of Males 16+ 2008-2012 State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa sex by class of worker and median income 2008-2012 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/http://www.iowadatacenter.org/

9 Median Earnings of Females 16+ 2008-2012 State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa sex by class of worker and median income 2008-2012 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/http://www.iowadatacenter.org/

10 Iowa Educational Attainment by Place of Birth 2007-2011 State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa educational attainment by place of birth 2007-2011 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/http://www.iowadatacenter.org/

11 2000-2010 U.S. population grew 9.7%; Iowa’s grew 4.1% State metropolitan centers accounted for 10.1% population growth, while the rural areas of Iowa accounted for a decline of 5.4% (Swenson, 2013)

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13 2000-2010 Changes in young adult population According to Swenson (2013), nationally, the group of adults aged 35-44 declined by about 9%. This was due to a decline in the birth rate after 1969. In Iowa, the group of adults aged 35-44 declined by over 18%. In rural areas, the decline was 30.4%. The number of adults aged 24-34 in Iowa grew by 5.4%. The decline in rural areas was 5.3%.

14 Outmigration The adults who left the State are in age categories that make them among the most productive, skilled, and educated Iowans. Many of the adults who left the state had children as well. Iowa will feel the echo of this loss in about 20 years.

15 Outmigraton Workers aged 35-44 who departed would have composed most of the State’s leadership in social, political, and cultural efforts.

16 What is to come? 2012-2020 Nationally, the labor force over age 55 will grow by over 11 million. Workers aged 25-54 will increase by only 1.7 million compared to 2010. Workers aged 16-24 will contract by 2.6 million (Swenson, 2013).

17 Projected Iowa population changes 2010-2020 Swenson (2013) projects that workers age 45 to 64 will suffer a loss of 117,203. The number of workers age 16-64 will decline by 74,142. The population of Iowa over age 65 will grow by 106,740. The State’s population over the age of 16 will grow, collectively, by 32,598.

18 Citizens over 60 The Iowa Department on Aging indicates that, as of December 2012, Iowa ranks 11 th of the 50 states in percentage of population over age 60, at 21.2%. Iowa Department on Aging. (2013). States ranked by age group as % of the total population: Population estimates July 1, 2012 [Data file]. Retrieved from https://www.iowaaging.gov/sites/files/aging/documents/States%20Ranked%20by%20Age%20Group%20_2012%20Estimates.pdfhttps://www.iowaaging.gov/sites/files/aging/documents/States%20Ranked%20by%20Age%20Group%20_2012%20Estimates.pdf

19 Citizens over 75 Iowa ranks 4 th of 50 states in the percentage of total population over age 75. In 2012, 7.5% of the State’s population, a total of 229,761, were in this category. Iowa Department on Aging. (2013). States ranked by age group as % of the total population: Population estimates July 1, 2012 [Data file]. Retrieved from https://www.iowaaging.gov/sites/files/aging/documents/States%20Ranked%20by%20Age%20Group%20_2012%20Estimates.pdfhttps://www.iowaaging.gov/sites/files/aging/documents/States%20Ranked%20by%20Age%20Group%20_2012%20Estimates.pdf

20 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2011 Woods & Poole Economics, Inc.2013 Iowa Population over 65

21 The Aging of Iowa 44.6% The percent of total population in Wahpeton who were age 65 and over in 2010. Other Iowa cities with high percentages in this age group were Beaconsfield (40.0%),Ledyard (36.9%), Clio (36.3%) and Diagonal (36.1%). 17.8% The percent of the total population age 65 and over in 2010 who lived in Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, Davenport, Sioux City, Waterloo, and Dubuque. State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Older Iowans: 2013 [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdfhttp://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdf

22 The Aging of Iowa 43 The number of Iowa counties with a decrease in the population age 65 and over between 2010 and 2011. 83 The number of Iowa counties in 2040 in which at least 20% of the residents will be age 65 and over, according to Woods & Pool Economics, Inc. In 2000, that number was 30. 22,318 The number of people age 65 and over in Des Moines, making it the largest population of this age group in any Iowa city in 2010. State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Older Iowans: 2013 [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdfhttp://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdf

23 The Aging of Iowa 47,984 The number of people age 65 and over in Polk County, making it the largest population of this age group in any county in 2011. 23.8% The percent of total population in Calhoun county who are age 65 and over in 2011. Other Iowa counties with a high percentage in this age group are Monona (23.6%); Ringgold (23.6%), Audubon (23.4%), Dickinson (22.4%), and Sac (22.3%). 37.0% Over a quarter of Iowans age 65 and over in 2011 lived in Polk, Linn, Scott, Black Hawk, Dubuque, Pottawattamie, Woodbury, and Johnson counties. State Data Center of Ioaa. (2013). Older Iowans: 2013 [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdfhttp://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdf

24 Iowa Population Over 65 U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2011 Woods & Poole Economics, Inc.2013

25 Implications for our work Economic stagnation Workforce shortages Population shifts to Iowa’s urban centers Stress on families Poverty-related issues

26 Implications for our work Decreased and aging populations in rural areas, resulting in more pronounced effects on economics and lifestyle Economic and demographic patterns may provide increased incentives for outmigration

27 How do these implications affect Extension and Outreach? The shift in population to urban centers will change who we serve and the ways in which we work. Rural economics and lifestyle will undergo rapid and significant changes. Outmigration will change the nature of research, content, and delivery methods.

28 How do Vines’ alternatives look today? Consider Vines’ suggestion that we serve both rural and urban areas, and offer programs from all colleges housed in the University. Given our discussion of workforce and demographics, how might we shape the culture of our organization to meet the challenges of educational leadership, as well as economic and community development?

29 What is Organizational Culture? Artifacts Underlying Assumptions Espoused Values (Schein, 1992)

30 C Renando. (2010, November 21). Organisational culture defined, courtesy of Edgar Schein. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.sidewaysthoughts.com/blog/2010/11/

31 Organizational Culture Defined Berrio (2003) defines contemporary organizational culture (OC) as “inclusive of that which is valued, the dominant leadership style, the language and symbols, the procedures and routines, and the definitions of success” that distinguish one organization from another. OC represents the underlying assumptions, values, expectations, collective histories, and definitions present in an organization (Schein, 1992; Cameron & Quinn, 1999).

32 Dimensions of Organizational Culture Z Liu. (2009, October 6). Organizational culture and environment: The constraints- dimensions of organizational culture. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://healthymethod.blogspot.com/2009/12/organizations-culture.html

33 Competing Values Framework According to Berrio (2003), Cameron and Quinn (1999) developed an organizational culture framework built upon a theoretical model called the "Competing Values Framework." This Framework refers to whether an organization has a predominant internal or external focus and whether it strives for flexibility and individuality or stability and control. The Framework is based on six organizational culture dimensions and four dominant culture types (i.e., clan, adhocracy, market, and hierarchy).

34 Competing Values Framework Cameron and Quinn (1999) created an Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) that is used to profile distinct organizational cultures. This identification is based on the core values, assumptions, interpretations, and approaches that characterize a specific organization.

35 Dominant Culture Types Berrio (2003) asserts that the Competing Values Framework can be used in constructing an organizational culture profile. Through the use of the OCAI, an organization’s cultural profile can be extrapolated by identifying the organization's dominant culture type characteristics. The wider cultural profile of an organization can be identified as:

36 Dominant Culture Types Clan: an organization focused on internal maintenance with emphases on flexibility, people, and heightened sensitivity toward those the organization serves. Hierarchy: an organization rooted in internal maintenance, with control and stability as priorities. Adhocracy: an organization driven by external positioning and forces. An adhocracy is characterized by high degrees of individuality and flexibility. Market: an organization that emphasizes external maintenance, with control and stability as priorities.

37 D Ronfeldt. (2009, May 13). Organizational forms compared: My evolving TIMN table vs. other analysts’ tables. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://twotheories.blogspot.com/2009/05

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39 A Guberman. Organizational health. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from www.primarygoals.net

40 CREATE Cultural Change CLARIFY organizational values; create connections between leader values and organizational values REINFORCE the vision; ensure that everyone in the organization is clear about vision and values EMPOWER behaviors aligned to values and vision; remove obstacles ALIGN conversations up and down the organization TARGET effort on high impact areas EMPHASIZE success; reward change M Lanier. (2012, April 11). 6 steps to change your organizational culture. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://hroutsider.com/2012/04/11/6-steps-to-change-your-organizational-culture/

41 References Berrio, A. A. (2003). An organizational culture assessment using the competing values framework: A profile of Ohio State University Extension. Journal of Extension, 41 (2). Retrieved from http://www.joe.org/joe/2003april/a3.php http://www.joe.org/joe/2003april/a3.php Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Diagnosing and changing organizational culture. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Guberman, A. Organizational health. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from www.primarygoals.netwww.primarygoals.net Iowa Department on Aging. (2013). States ranked by age group as % of the total population: Population estimates July 1, 2012 [Data file]. Retrieved from https://www.iowaaging.gov/sites/files/aging/documents/States%20Ranked%20by%20Age%20Group%202 12%20Estimates.pdf https://www.iowaaging.gov/sites/files/aging/documents/States%20Ranked%20by%20Age%20Group%202 12%20Estimates.pdf Lanier, M. (2012, April 11). 6 steps to change your organizational culture. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://hroutsider.com/2012/04/11/6-steps-to-change-your-organizational culture/ http://hroutsider.com/2012/04/11/6-steps-to-change-your-organizational culture/ Liu, Z. (2009, October 6). Organizational culture and environment: The constraints-dimensions of organizational culture. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://healthymethod.blogspot.com/2009/12/organizations-culture.html

42 References Renando, C. (2010, November 21). Organisational culture defined, courtesy of Edgar Schein. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.sidewaysthoughts.com/blog/2010/11/ Ronfeldt, D. (2009, May 13). Organizational forms compared: My evolving TIMN table vs. other analysts’ tables. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://twotheories.blogspot.com/2009/05http://twotheories.blogspot.com/2009/05 Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa educational attainment by place of birth 2007-2011 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/ http://www.iowadatacenter.org/ State Data Center of Iowa (2013). Iowa metropolitan areas (2003 definition) [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/ http://www.iowadatacenter.org/ State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa sex by class of worker and median income 2008-2012 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/http://www.iowadatacenter.org/

43 References State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Iowa small area poverty rates 2007-2011 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/ http://www.iowadatacenter.org/ State Data Center of Iowa. (2013). Older Iowans: 2013 [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdf http://www.iowadatacenter.org/Publications/older2013.pdf Swenson, D.A. (2013). Factors constraining Iowa labor force growth through 2020. Department of Economics Staff Report, Iowa State University. U.S. Census Bureau. (2013). American Community Survey, 2011, Woods & Poole Economics, Inc., 2013 [Data file]. Available from http://www.iowadatacenter.org/http://www.iowadatacenter.org/ Vines, C.A., Watts, L.H., & Parks, W.R. (1963). Extension’s future. Journal of Cooperative Extension, 1 (4), 239-246.


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