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INTRODUCTION Cataloguing and classification is simply a way of organizing library materials in such a way that the retrieval will not be difficult for.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION Cataloguing and classification is simply a way of organizing library materials in such a way that the retrieval will not be difficult for."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION Cataloguing and classification is simply a way of organizing library materials in such a way that the retrieval will not be difficult for library users. Therefore, there is strong need to organize library collections for easy access for users because if the collections are not organized the resources will be useless. The acceptable way of organizing collections is what librarians describe as cataloguing and classification.

2 The purpose of organizing library materials are: - to make location of library materials easy - to save time and space - to facilitate easy accessibility to the materials - to enhance effective utilization of the materials - to make the library attractive to its users

3 The University of Ilorin Library, like most university libraries in Nigeria, uses LC Scheme and operates the dictionary catalogue. If the user knows only the author of a book, he would use the surname to locate the book in the Author / Title catalogue. The same applies if the user knows only the title of the book. The user may not know the author or title, but has a subject he wants to work on. In this case he would use the subject catalogue. Whatever approach the user takes when using the library catalogues, the information needed to locate the material would be found in the catalogues.

4 {HD HATTERSLEY, Michael E 30.3 Management communication principles and practice / H36 by Michael E. Hattersley and Linda McJannet. – 3rd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2008 xiii, 288p. :ill Includes bibliographical references ISBN Communication in management Case Studies I. McJannet, Linda. jt author II. Title

5 Nigerian Journal of Agronomy S1.N572 V. 1. No. 1, 1986 Ile Ife; Dept. of Plant Science Obafemi Awolowo University Nigeria. Library has V.1. No. 1 (1986)

6 It is only in the case of government documents that libraries devise home-made scheme with very simple notations for their cataloguing and classification. For example, at the University of Ilorin library: AZ: stands for Nigerian Federal Publications KW: for Kwara publications Doc: for International and publications from other countries, e.g. Doc/Gh: for Publications from Ghana

7 Apart from the card catalogues, online searching is also available in many libraries. To use the on-line Public Access Catalogue (OPAC), the user can use any of the known information about the document, e.g. title, author, subject, ISBN, series, accession number, or class mark, to get the document because all the entries will appear on the same template.

8 In conclusion, Cataloguing and Classification have remained essential activities in traditional and electronic information retrieval environments. The activities involved in the organization of information resources in the libraries have the overall intention of facilitating easy access to and retrieval of the resources in the library.

9 A research paper involves the assimilation of prior scholarship and entails the responsibility to give proper acknowledgement whenever one is indebted to another for either words or ideas” (Turabian 1996:74). Scholars must acknowledge their intellectual debts to predecessors, teachers and colleagues by meticuously documenting the origins of each and every discrete idea in their

10 As Joseph Gibaldi (1998:151) has usefully noted, “[w]henever you draw on another’s work you must specify what you borrowed—whether facts, opinions, or quotations—and where you borrowed it from.” Failure to give due credit to all “facts, opinions, or quotations” borrowed from others constitutes plagiarism, a serious violation of professional ethics.

11 Proper citation and referencing is not just a crucial concern in the writing of term papers, research papers and theses. Rather, careful and meticulous acknowledgement of your sources should characterize all of your academic work, and should begin in the earliest stages of research.

12 In this way, it can be argued that diligent note taking and organized file keeping, coupled with scrupulous academic honesty, are your best defense against wasteful reduplication of previous effort, accidental misappropriation of another’s intellectual property, and tedious hunting for a fact remembered in a source unrecalled. Simply put, it is never too early to begin making careful and detailed notes.

13 There are several reasons for including a reference: - it is ethical to credit others for their contributions to your writing; - it may be a legal obligation in the case of copyright; - to protect you in the case of questionable allegations; - to reflect your prior reading effort; - to show the sequence of events involved in the resolution of a scientific problem, as part of your argument.

14 DOCUMENTATION/CITATION/REFERENCING STYLES APA Style Sponsored by the American Psychological Association. MLA Style Sponsored by The Modern Language Association. CM/Turabian Style endorsed by The University of Chicago Press. CSE Style endorsed by The Council of Science Editors. COS Style – Columbia Online Style for Electronic Sources.

15 Reference Citations in the Text: Single author: Use the author's last name, year. (Morse, 1996) OR Morse (1996) showed that... Two authors: Use both authors' last names, separated by an ampersand if in parentheses. (Ringsven & Bond, 1996) OR In their study, Ringsven and Bond (1996) Three to five authors: Use all authors' names and year, the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the first author followed by "et al." and the year.

16 First citation: (Johnson, Brunn, & Platt, 2002) OR Johnson, Brunn and Platt (2002) Subsequent citations: (Johnson et al., 2002). Omit the year if the subsequent citation is in the same paragraph. Six or more authors: Use only the first author followed by et al. and the year. (Arpin et al., 2001) OR Arpin et al. (2001) If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the name of the first authors and as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al.

17 Groups as authors: Corporation, association, and government names are given in full in the first citation, and may be abbreviated thereafter if the name is long. (The Michener Institute, 2002) OR The Michener Institute (2002) reported that... Personal communication used as a citation should be avoided, unless it provides essential information not available from a public source. Do not include it in the reference list; instead cite the last name and initials of the person and date of communication in parentheses in the text. (T. K. Lutes, personal communication, September 28, 1998) OR T.K. Lutes (personal communication, September 28, 1998)

18 Internet sources may, in time, be deleted, changed, or moved, so it is a good idea to keep a hard copy for your records. Also, take care to critically evaluate the reliability and scholarly relevance of the information. Direct quotes are to be used very sparingly. Incorporate short quotes of fewer than 40 words into the text and place quotation marks around the quote. Quote 40 or more words in a double-spaced block of text indented 5 spaces from the left margin, without quotation marks. Give specific page numbers. "quote" (Miele, 1993, p. 276) OR Miele (1993) found that "quote" (p. 276).

19 On the References Page The last page of your paper is entitled References. Order of entries: List all references in alphabetical order. Each reference is listed only once. Authors: List the author's last name, followed by a comma and initials separated by periods and spaces. When listing two to six authors, place commas between them and use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name. If the number of authors exceeds six, list the first six followed by "et al." (see the Senden example). For edited books with chapters written by individual authors, list the authors of the chapter first, then the year, and the chapter title, followed by "In", the editors' names, then (Eds.), and the book title (see the Phillips example).

20 Date: The year goes after the authors, in parentheses and followed by a period, for example (2003). If no year is identified, use (n.d.). Title: Capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title, and the first word in the subtitle. The rest of the title is in lower-case, with the exception of proper names. The title is italicized or underlined. Book references: Give the title, edition, city of publication, and publisher. If there is an edition it appears after the title, abbreviated, in parentheses, and followed by a period, for example (3rd ed.).

21 Journal references: Give the journal title written in full, a comma, volume number [all italicized or underlined], issue number in parentheses if available, comma, and the page range, followed by a period. For example: Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 38(10), Pages: For journal articles, give the entire page range of an article, not the specific page on which the information was found. For books, no page numbers are given, with two exceptions: the page number of a dictionary entry is included (see the Dorland's example), as well as the page range of a chapter with its own author in an edited book (see the Phillips example).

22 Parenthetical References Parenthetical documentation allows you to acknowledge a source within your text by providing a reference to exactly where in that source you found the information. The reader can then follow up on the complete reference listed on the Works Cited page at the end of your paper.  In most cases, providing the author's last name and a page number are sufficient: In response to rapid metropolitan expansion

23  If there are two or three authors, include the last name of each: (Winks and Kaiser 176) (Choko, Bourassa, and Baril )  If there are more than three authors, include the last name of the first author followed by "et al." without any intervening punctuation: (Baldwin et al. 306)

24  If the author is mentioned in the text, only the page reference needs to be inserted: According to Postman, broadcast news influences the decision-making process (51-63).  If there is no author, as is the case with some web pages, include either the whole title of the work in the text or use a shortened form of the title in parentheses, using the first words of the title. Italicize the titles of books and place the titles of articles in quotation marks: Voice of the Shuttle has many electronic sources.

25  If there are no page numbers in your source, as is the case with some web pages, you can indicate the section or paragraph number in your parenthetical reference. If there are no such reference marks, do not include them in your reference. Do not count unnumbered paragraphs: Winston argues that "Rourke has lowered his defenses" (par. 29).  When citing a quotation which is cited in another source, indicate the source you actually consulted in your parenthetical reference and in your works cited. Use the abbreviation qtd. in to indicate that the information has been quoted in another source: Landow admitted that there was "work to be done" (qtd. in Rogers 333).

26 Works cited - General guidelines The alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of your paper contains more information about all of the sources you've cited allowing readers to refer to them, as needed. The main characteristics are: - The list of Works Cited must be on a new page at the end of your text - Entries are arranged alphabetically by the author's last name or by the title if there is no author - Titles are italicized (not underlined) and all important words should be capitalized - Entries are double-spaced (for the purposes of this page, single-spacing is used) - Each entry must include the publication medium. Examples include: Print, Web, DVD, and Television.

27 The CM/Turabian Style uses bibliographic note system giving information about each source in a footnote or an endnote, and if required, in a Bibliography at the end of the research paper. It also uses the author-date in text citation like APA and ending of Works cited or References.

28 In CM. place your notes at the end of a paper (endnotes) or at the foot of the page on which you refer to a source (footnotes). Use Bibliography for your list of sources at the end of your research paper. Number notes sequentially throughout your paper whether endnotes or footnotes. In endnotes and footnotes, give author’s name as given in the original source (first name first). In the Bibliography, invert the name (last name first). If your source has four to ten authors, give all the names. If it has eleven or more authors list only the first seven and use et al. for the rest.

29 N = Footnote or Endnote entry PR = Parenthetical Reference entry B = Bibliographic list entry RL = Reference List entry

30 Standard Format (example only): N 1. Author first name Author last name, Title (Location of Press: Press Name,Year Published), page number. B Author last name, Author first name. Title. Location of Press: Press Name,Year Published. PR (Author last name Year Published, page number) RL Author last name, Author first name. Year Published. Title (with only first word capitalized). Location of Press: Press Name.

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