Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS RLST 212/Div/Rel 3162 TUESDAY Feb 14, 2012.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS RLST 212/Div/Rel 3162 TUESDAY Feb 14, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS RLST 212/Div/Rel 3162 TUESDAY Feb 14, 2012

2 Today’s Schedule  4:00 Lecture Review + Your readings in Gager/Patte  5:10 Rom 4:1-25 Roundtable  ZACHARY KING vs. Byrne  With Sarah Jane, Erica Geurts, Miladys Pérez  JILL DAVIS vs. Moo  With Jesse Reese and Jessica Cinefro as respondents  Daniel PATTE vs. Jewett  With Ben Taylor and Michael as respondents

3 PROPOSAL FOR RESEARCH PAPER: Due Tuesday February 22  Your proposal will include three parts:  1) a Step # 1 Report (as usual): Following the model of the weekly exercises (using Step # 1, Form), choose as a topic for your paper -- use your “overall/major problem  a) two passages from the Letter to the Romans  You will have signed up for a text in the last part of Romans ch. 8 – 16 ;

4 PROPOSAL FOR RESEARCH PAPER: Due Tuesday February 21  a) two passages from the Letter to the Romans  You will have signed up for a text in the last part of Romans ch. 8 – 16 ;  One or Two papers on some aspects of Romans 8:1-39  Two papers on some aspects of Romans 9:1—11:36  One or Two papers on some aspects of Romans 12:1—21  One or Two papers on some aspects of Romans 13:1-14  Two papers on some aspects of Romans  One papers on some aspects of Romans 16

5 Review.  When you read Paul… beware of the unknown. Instead of thinking: “I know what it means”  All key concepts are unknown  “faith” ????  “gospel”  Use pour web-page

6 Paul’s Algebra….  NRS Romans 4:16 For this reason it depends on [faith] = X, in order that the [promise] = Y may rest on [grace] = Z and be guaranteed to all his descendants, not only to the adherents of the [law] = W but also to those who share the [faith] = X of Abraham (for he is the father of all of us,  NIV Romans 4:16 Therefore, the [promise] = Y comes by [faith] = X, so that it may be by [grace] = Z and may be guaranteed to all Abraham's offspring-- not only to those who are of the [law] = W but also to those who are of the [faith] = X of Abraham. He is the father of us all.  KJV Romans 4:16 Therefore it is of [faith] = X, that it might be by [grace] = Z; to the end the [promise] = Y might be sure to all the seed; not to that only which is of the [law] = W, but to that also which is of the [faith] = X of Abraham; who is the father of us all,  NAB Romans 4:16 For this reason, it depends on [faith] = X, so that it may be a gift = Z, and the [promise] = Y may be guaranteed to all his descendants, not to those who only adhere to the [law] = W but to those who follow the [faith] = X of Abraham, who is the father of all of us,

7 Atonement (Rom 2 and 3) (Review) 1. Forensic/Theological: Propitiation = appeasing God’s righteous wrath against sinners (problem is with God)=God needs to be reconciled with us 1. Gospel: good news = Christ died instead of us; was punished instead of us; Vicarious Sacrifice 2. New Covenant/Pastoral: Expiation = expunging sins (problem is with humans) = Humans need to be reconciled with God (humans are angry against God) Gospel: good news of God’s love reaching to all, calling ALL to be part of God’s People. Cross = Covenantal sacrifice 3. APOCALYPTIC/MESSIANIC: Redemption = freeing from bondage (problem is with humans) = Humans are in bondage to powers of evil; they are under the dominion/power (part of the kingdom) of Death, Sin, evil Gospel: good news of God’s/ Christ saving people from powers of evil. Cross as Redemption sacrifice

8 Atonement (Rom 2 and 3) (Review) 1. FORENSIC/THEOLOGICAL: Propitiation = appeasing God’s righteous wrath against sinners (problem is with God) = God needs to be reconciled with humans Gospel: good news = Christ died instead of us; was punished instead of us; Vicarious Sacrifice 2. NEW COVENANT/PASTORAL: Expiation = expunging sins (problem is with humans) = Humans need to be reconciled with God (humans are angry against God) Gospel: good news of God’s love reaching to all, calling ALL to be part of God’s People. Cross = Covenantal sacrifice 3. APOCALYPTIC/MESSIANIC: Redemption = freeing from bondage (problem is with humans) = Humans are in bondage to powers of evil; they are under the dominion/power (part of the kingdom) of Death, Sin, evil Gospel: good news of God’s/ Christ saving people from powers of evil. Cross as Redemption sacrifice

9 Sin (Rom 2 and 3) (Review; differences between NC/P & A/M)  F/T Sin = Willing rebellion against God, = we are responsible for it, feel guilty, offense against God, & should be punished (to satisfy God); propitiation satisfies God  NC/P: Sin = impurity-shame (original sin) that makes us angry against God and destroy just relationship with others; from which we need to be cured-healed; reconciled with God (expiation)  A/M: Sin = A Power (“the power of sin”) which keeps humans in bondage; addiction, idolatry destructive for self and for others; from which we need to be freed (redemption)

10 Atonement (Rom 2 and 3) (Review; ) 1. F/T: Propitiation = appeasing God’s righteous wrath against sinners Gospel: Christ died instead of us; Vicarious Sacrifice 2. NC/P: Expiation = expunging sins = Humans need to be reconciled with God Gospel: God’s love calling ALL to be part of God’s People. Cross = Covenantal sacrifice 3. A/M: Redemption = freeing from bondage = Humans in bondage to powers of evil; Death, Sin Gospel: God’s/ Christ saving people from powers of evil. Cross = Redemption sacrifice

11 The Gospel, Power of God for Salvation 1:16 (Review Paul’s two tracks in NC/P an 1. Forensic/Theological: Gospel as message about Jesus Christ, the good news about salvation of anyone who believes it; a powerful news = frees believers from guilt/fear 2. New Covenant/Pastoral: Gospel as message about Jesus Christ that establishes a new (covenantal) relationship with God (= salvation), including both Jews and Gentiles; powerfully affects, transforms our relations with other people (honor and shame effects) 3. Apocalyptic/Messianic: Gospel as manifestation of God’s power, manifestation of the risen Christ with power that he does intervenes today saving people from powers of evil, as seen (recognized) through eyes of faith: Will Briggs’s question: Yes, Paul's letter does address a lack of ability if it is read as a PROMISE that God does intervene today, that one can see fulfilled today.

12 LAW AND ROMANS (Forensic/Theological)  Law of the Old Testament  Wrong View: Law as Canon expressing the will of God that righteous people should carry out to be saved through “work righteousness.”  But people always fail to carry it out … because it is a matter of the (circumcision of the) heart –motivation (root problem: WILL)  Right View: For Christians, justified by faith: faith comes to fruition in works of the Law [as Lamp to my feet],  it should be gladly and willingly followed when motivated by the Gospel;  then the Law functions, together with the Gospel, as the Good News (of God’s love)= instruction from the creator on how to put our life together

13 LAW AND ROMANS (NC/PNew Perspective; ) Law of the Hebrew Bible [[=TORAH]] as a part of the covenant between God and Israel that remains valid for Jews. Wrong View : when this Law is taken as Canon/Rule of the Community that excludes Gentiles. Right View : Book of the Covenant between God and Israel that remains valid for Jews. For Gentile Christians, now also in the (inclusive) Covenant with God through faith, the Law functions as Book of the Covenant for both Jews and Gentiles, though Gentile Christians can carry out their vocation in their own way, apart from the Law—though it is fulfilling the Law (summarized in the Law of love).

14 LAW AND ROMANS (New Covenant /Pastoral/New Perspective)  Galatian 5:13-14 (NRSV) For you were called to freedom, brothers and sisters; only do not use your freedom as an opportunity for self-indulgence, but through love become slaves to one another. 14 For the whole law [[=TORAH]] is summed up in a single commandment, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself."  Romans 13:8-10 the one who loves another has fulfilled the law [[=TORAH]]. 9 The commandments, "You shall not commit adultery; You shall not murder; You shall not steal; You shall not covet"; and any other commandment, are summed up in this word, "Love your neighbor as yourself." 10 Love does no wrong to a neighbor; therefore, love is the fulfilling of the law. [[=TORAH]]  Makes sense, acceptable to Jews? Not truly, unless they recognize Jesus as Messiah. So two distinct branches of the “people of God”. In the NC/P/New Perspective. (Erik is right) … except for Apocalyptically minded Jews.

15 LAW AND ROMANS (Apocalyptic/Messianic) But  Law = Torah = Promise fulfilled in Christ and in believers/church.  Right View: The Law is “ holy, just and good ” = a revelation from God. Yet it is not a complete and final revelation. It is promise (it promises life), Corrective Glasses (that reveals sins), Holy Scripture (that shatters our self-confidence by confronting us with the Holy).  Christ as fulfillment of the promise is “ the end of the Law ” (= what the Law points to) and other new revelations as on-going fulfillments of the promises.  Wrong View: But if the Law = Torah is taken as the complete and final revelation, then as an idol it becomes destructive. This is the problem Paul denounces.

16 Today: Shifting back and forth between F/T & NC/P Metaphorical Frames 1. FORENSIC/THEOLOGICAL Frame: = 1. God = a just judge, who is angry against sinners 2. Humans = sinners, offend God, should be punished 3. Jesus Christ is punished instead of sinners = cross as vicarious sacrifice = propitiation appeasing God’s wrath 4. By “believing in Jesus” = “believing that” if one puts oneself at the benefit of the cross then one is at peace with God

17 Today: Shifting back and forth between F/T & NC/P Metaphorical Frames NEW COVENANT/PASTORAL Frame: 1. God = a God who wants a covenant with ALL people, so that with God’s help God’s people will establish God’s kingdom, i.e. a society/world that will a) glorify God and b) be characterized by God’s justice = just interhuman relationship 2. Humans = sinners, reject God, need to be reconciled to God (and to each other) 3. Jesus Christ died for sinners = to reconcile us with God; covenantal sacrifice = expiation, expunging our sins, appeasing our anger against God by showing God’s faithfulness toward us 4. Jesus’ faithfulness calls humans to faithfulness

18 The gospel as the power of God for salvation to everyone who has faith  For Luther and Stuhlmacher:  “Salvation” = salvation from God’s condemnation at the final judgment  You cannot earn it: you cannot be saved from final condemnation by good works: works-righteousness = impossible. Thus, everyone is condemned  You can only be saved by “grace” = graciousness of God = forgiveness  That one must accept in “faith” = belief that Christ died instead of me (belief in truth of this statement)

19 Were Pharisees advocating “works-righteousness”? No!  E.P. Sanders: No! against this forensic interpretation. Impossible for Paul, the Jew who follows Christ “Covenantal nomism” (1975) Cf, Pam Eisenbaum, Paul Was Not a Christian: The Original Message of a Misunderstood Apostle (2009)  They may trust in God’s forgiveness when they repent, Yom Kippur, sacrifices.  James Dunn: “Ancient Judaism is not a religion of works-righteousness and boasting before God, but a religion of the prevenient grace of God” “It knows justification by faith and lives by it” (PS 39)  Paul’s new message as apostle: this justification by faith and grace is also for Gentiles

20 For Stuhlmacher: Sanders-Dunn give a one-sided view of Judaism  Many texts in Ancient Judaism (especially Qumran, and Apocalyptic texts) speaks about the coming final judgment  About the works of righteousness following someone at the final judgment  In order to be saved, one needs to have works of righteousness

21 BUT: Stuhlmacher also gives a one-sided view of Judaism  No distinction between Pharisaic Judaism (Paul the Pharisees), Sadducees, and the Qumran sect, and other Apocalyptic sects… Judaism is NOT monolithic  No clear research on Jewish “soteriology”  Ask a main-line (rabbinic, Pharisaic) faithful Jew: Do you need to be saved?  The answer: No. I am already saved.

22 Stuhlmacher’s reading of Paul’s Eschatology & Soteriology (53) 1. Mission, vicarious death, resurrection & exaltation of Jesus Christ New people of God is gathered by apostles 2. Second coming (parousia) of Christ in power Transformation and participation of believers in kingdom 3. The End = the Final Judgment Believers are justified and glorified Judgment of the cosmos (all people) & fallen angels The creation is redeemed the Kingdom is fully established

23 Stuhlmacher on process of justification  Atonement and reconciliation should not be distinguished: justification = atonement  Believers share in Jesus’ atoning death (key text is Rom 3:24-26) Vicarious understanding of Jesus’ death  Justification by faith alone = justification by virtue of the grace of God alone Opens the saving way of faith and power of the Spirit Salvation of Israel, when free from hardening & with faith

24 Answering your question, by reading Rom 1:16-18  Romans 1:16 For I am not ashamed (!) of the gospel; it is the power of God for salvation [from what? For what?] to/of everyone who has faith [?], to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 1:17 For in it the righteousness/justice of God is [present] revealed from faith to faith [NAB; evk pi,stewj eivj pi,stin NRSV through faith for faith; NIV, by faith from first to last]; as it is written, "The righteous [just] by faith will live.” 1:18 For the wrath of God is [present] revealed [?] from heaven against all ungodliness/impiety and wickedness/injustice of those who kateco,ntwn suppress/hold back/control/possess / the truth by/in [their] wickedness/injustice.

25 The righteousness/justice of God  Forensic. A) Characteristic of God as a righteous just judge, who condemns the unrighteous or justifies; B) the righteous moral life and right relationship to God we should have; given to believers through faith  “of God” Objective genitive. Righteousness/Justice=holiness which characterizes God (Cranfield; Schlier)  Pastoral/New Perspective. A) just, holy, loving act of God (God’s justice is manifested in history of Israel and of Jesus through the covenant and new covenant that he freely offered) that humans should emulate in their lives with others (manifesting the just, holy, loving rule of God)  “Of God” Subjective genitive: the justice which God performs as subject (includes Dunn, 166; Jewett, etc. since Schlatter)

26 The righteousness/justice of God  Forensic. A) Characteristic of God as a righteous just judge, who condemns the unrighteous or justifies; “of God” Objective genitive.  Pastoral/New Perspective. A just, holy, loving act of God (God’s justice manifested in history of Israel and of Jesus through the covenant and new covenant that he freely offered) “Of God” Subjective genitive: the justice which God performs  Messianic/Apocalyptic: Justice as the kind of right/just relationship that God wants to and does establish among people; believers, including oppressed powerless people, can experience it now; they are empowered by the gospel and can see through faith manifestations of God’s justice and kingdom.  “Of God” Subjective genitive: the justice which God performs

27  Caravaggio, 1600  Title?  Paul’s Conversion on the Way to Damascus?  Paul’s Commission on the Way to Damascus?  Paul’s transformative Experience of Mystery on the Way to Damascus?  An important choice?  Gager says YES, most important

28 Caravagio Paul’s Conversion

29 'Jesus is Messiah... and the Jews be damned'  "Is it possible to say 'Jesus is Messiah' without, implicitly or explicitly, saying at the same time, 'and the Jews be damned'?" Rosemary Radford Ruether Faith and Fratricide: The Theological Roots of Anti- Semitism. (1974; p. 246)  No it is not possible with a “traditional” = forensic reading of Paul  Affirming that Paul converted from Judaism, i.e., from work righteousness… then

30 A star … a tattoo

31 A camp… 6 million dead

32 John Gager Reinventing Paul (5-9) Apparent contradictions about Israel and the Law?  3:20 no one will be declared righteous in his sight by observing the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of sin.  3:1-2 Then what advantage has the Jew? Or what is  the value of circumcision? Much, in every way.  9:31 but Israel, who did strive for the righteousness that is based on the law, did not succeed in fulfilling that law.  3:31 Do we then overthrow the law by this faith?  By no means! On the contrary, we uphold the law.  7:7 What then should we say?  That the law is sin? By no means!  7:12 So the law is holy,  and the commandment is holy and just and good.

33 John Gager Reinventing Paul (5-9) Apparent contradictions about Israel and the Law? 11:28 As regards the gospel they are enemies of God for your sake;  11:1 I ask, then, has God rejected his people?  By no means! I  11:26 all Israel will be saved;  11:29 for the gifts and the calling of God  are irrevocable.

34 John Gager Reinventing Paul ( 11-15) How to resolve these tensions?  We are dealing with an enormous cultural artifact: adopted by Gnostics (Marcion) and the anti-Gnostic (catholic) church  If you miss Paul’s rhetorical strategies,  you will get it wrong  Recognize that preexisting interpretations are embedded in all translations, and dictionaries, even grammars  Always use several translations  (see 3:25)

35 John Gager Reinventing Paul How were these tensions resolved?  Suppressing the contradictions we perceive, by emphasizing one side (the anti-Israel side), and excluding the other (the pro-Israel side)  Sanders: Paul never argued that there is anything  wrong with Judaism (only superseded)  Paul’s Rejection-replacement of Judaism by the church (supersession)  Stendahl, Gaston, Stowers, Lodge:  NO supersession

36 John Gager Reinventing Paul How were these tensions resolved?  Beware of cultural myopia  Gager’s Solution: avoid reading Paul from an alien remote contextual perspective (i.e., later Christianity)  Interpret only from the perspective of Paul’s context (without pre-understandings)  Then = REAL PAUL Sorry: this is a problematic denial by Gager of his own contextual perspective  But an Important Post-Holocaust Covenantal Reading of Paul

37 J.Gager Reinventing Paul (22-27) Argument for Paul’s conversion from Judaism?  Philippians 3:5-6; 8-9 (next # 1) = language of convert  But convert from what to what? From Judaism to Christianity? NO. Paul remained a Jew, now believing in Jesus as Messiah Compare to some of you who converted from the denomination in which you were raised to another denomination – because of a religious experience  Galatians 1:13-16 (next # 2) a call to a special prophetic vocation for gentiles/nations

38 Philippians 3:5-9  NRSV 5 circumcised on the eighth day, a member of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew born of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee; 6 as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to righteousness under the law, blameless.  7 Yet whatever gains I had, these I have come to regard as loss because of Christ. 8 More than that, I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ 9 and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but one that comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God based on faith.

39 Galatians 1:13-16 compare Jer 1:5 (Isa 49:1)  NRSV 13 You have heard, no doubt, of my earlier life in Judaism. I was violently persecuting the church of God and was trying to destroy it. 14 I advanced in Judaism beyond many among my people of the same age, for I was far more zealous for the traditions of my ancestors. 15 But when God, who had set me apart before I was born and called me through his grace, was pleased 16 to reveal his Son to me, so that I might proclaim him among the Gentiles/nations, I did not confer with any human being,  Jeremiah 1:5 "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I appointed you a prophet to the nations."

40 John Gager Reinventing Paul Paul & the Law (27-42) F/T:  Forensic/Theological: Law =what Paul struggles against, then rejects  Jewish Law when one has zeal for it, full devotion to it  Law as a way to righteousness & salvation through legalistic works of the law: justification through works of the law vs through faith  This Law brings death (Rom 7:10)  = Sadducees’s view of Law and covenant (may be); BUT not the Pharisees’ and Paul’s

41 Gager Reinventing Paul = New Perspective (New Covenant/Pastoral reading; NC/P)  Guilt & forgiveness is not the issue; no introspective consciousness before Augustine (Stendahl)  Gospel with the Law = for Jews; part of their covenant relationship The way for Israel to carry its vocation as a chosen people called to bring about the glorification of God among Gentiles  Gospel without the Law = for Gentiles = including them in the new covenant  Law is problematic (distorted, against the covenant) when it excludes others (Gentiles)

42 Beyond Gager Reinventing Paul  Law for Apocalyptic/Messianic reading (A/M)  Law = Torah = a promise = holy, just, and good (as all of Scripture—especially prophets): all the stories of Torah are types/promises  A promise fulfilled in Jesus (who also fulfills the prophecies) and the church  Law becomes deadly when it is held to be a complete and final revelation (when it is not, since it is promises of new revelations) = making an absolute of what is not absolute = making an idol out of it  Law becomes a manifestation of the power of sin

43 J. Gager Reinventing Paul (22-27) Argument for Paul’s conversion from Judaism? F/T  Plenty of Textual evidence that one can choose to emphasize  Philippians 3:5-6; 8-9 = language of a convert  Galatians 1:11-16 = conversion… because of a revelation from Jesus Christ (next # 2)  Abandon the “tradition of his ancestors”; abandon the Law (preaches a gospel without the law)  Now full of zeal for the gospel

44 J. Gager Reinventing Paul (22-27) How F/T view of conversion (& sin) leads to the Holocaust?  Jeff’s question: how is this forensic/theological perspective lead to the Holocaust?  Conversion: = Abandoning the “tradition of his ancestors”; abandon the Law (preaches a gospel without the law) Following these wrong teachings is a deliberate sin (based on wrong will and/or wrong knowledge)  Thus Paul Rejects Judaism to convert to Christianity  Because Christianity, the gospel, supersedes Judaism  Saying 'Jesus is Messiah/Christ' is saying at the same time, 'and the Jews be damned'?“ (cf. Rosemary Radford Ruether Faith and Fratricide, p. 246)  Then the Holocaust.

45 J.Gager Reinventing Paul (22-27) Argument for Paul’s conversion from Judaism? NC/P  But convert from what to what? From Judaism to Christianity? Compare to some of you who converted from a Christian denomination in which you were raised to another Christian denomination – because of a religious experience; conversion from Christianity to Christianity Yes, transformation because of his religious experience… but FOR what?  Galatians 1:13-16 (next) a call to a special prophetic vocation for gentiles/nations

46 Galatians 1:11-16 Individual experience? Experience with community?  NRSV For I want you to know, brothers and sisters, that the gospel that was proclaimed by me is not of human origin; 12 for I did not receive it from a human source, nor was I taught it, but I received it through a revelation of Jesus Christ.  You have heard, no doubt, of my earlier life in Judaism. I was violently persecuting the church of God and was trying to destroy it. I advanced in Judaism beyond many among my people of the same age, for I was far more zealous for the traditions of my ancestors. But when God, who had set me apart before I was born and called me through his grace, was pleased to reveal his Son to me, so that I might proclaim him among the Gentiles/nations, I did not confer with any human being,

47 Galatians 1:13-16 compare Jer 1:5 (Isa 49:1)  NRSV 15 But when God, who had set me apart before I was born and called me through his grace, was pleased 16 to reveal his Son to me, so that I might proclaim him among the Gentiles/nations, I did not confer with any human being,  NRSV Jeremiah 1:5 "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I appointed you a prophet to the nations (= Gentiles)."  NAB Isaiah 49:1 The LORD called me from birth, from my mother's womb he gave me my name.

48 J.Gager Reinventing Paul (22-27) NC/P No conversion from Judaism  Paul remained a Jew  Received a vocation comparable to that of the prophet; through his encounter with Christ he discovered himself as called to be a prophet- apostle to the nations/gentiles  Still believed in the God of Abraham, in the Law (Torah) and the prophets as Scripture, in the promised Messiah, etc. etc.

49 J.Gager Reinventing Paul on Galatians (79-80) From Paul the Pharisee to Paul the Apostle  Why was the circumcision (berith) the key issue in the dispute between Paul and the Galatians?  Knowing that the same Hebrew word berith refers to both “covenant” and to “circumcision” (the ritual for entrance in the covenant), one can recognize that the key issue revolved around 2 questions:  Who could be deemed justified or saved?  Or, in Jewish terms (of Paul the Jew, the Jewish- Christian church, and Gentiles who adopted a Jewish proclamation, regarding Jesus Christ was the Messiah) who belonged to the people of God—the people of the covenant with God? For Paul’s opponents (Gentiles who claimed the authority of James, and possibly Peter) this meant “only those who belonged to the people of Israel were deemed justified or saved” (79-80).

50 What is being “justified”? = being set in a right relationship with God?  Forensic: making the “guilty” right before the righteous judge = being forgiven So God’s wrath is appeased, God’s honor is satisfied; the sinners’ debts are paid  New Covenant/Pastoral: people (Jews and Gentiles) have been “called” to be the chosen people of God … instead of remaining separated from God

51 1 Thessalonians 1:2-5 Romans 1:1, 7  1 Thess. 1:2-5 We always give thanks to God for all of you and mention you in our prayers, constantly remembering before our God and Father your work of faith and labor of love and steadfastness of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ. 4 For we know, brothers and sisters beloved by God, that he has chosen you, 5 because our message of the gospel came to you not in word only, but also in power and in the Holy Spirit and with full conviction  Romans 1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God, 1:7 To all God's beloved in Rome, who are called to be saints:

52 What is being “justified”? = being set in a right relationship with God?  New Covenant/Pastoral: people (Jews and Gentiles) have been “called” to be the chosen people of God … instead of remaining separated from God … called in a covenant with God: being “set right with God” in this Covenant involves: 1. God chose/called them = election 2. For something = a vocation 3. Carrying out this vocation: 1 Thess 1:3 “your work of faith and labor of love and steadfastness of hope”

53 J.Gager Reinventing Paul on Galatians (80-85) From Paul the Pharisee to Paul the Apostle  Paul argues against the view that “only those who belonged to the people of Israel were deemed justified or saved”.  But what argument is this?  a) a theological argument debating (with Jews and Jewish Christians) the Jewish doctrine of justification and salvation in favor of a different understanding of how one is justified and saved? Or  b) a Covenantal legal argument debating (with Gentiles) the definition of “people of the covenant” and who belongs to it?

54 J.Gager Reinventing Paul on Galatians (80-85) From Paul the Pharisee to Paul the Apostle  For Paul’s opponents (Gentiles who claimed the authority of James, and possibly Peter) “only those who belonged to the people of Israel were deemed justified or saved” (79-80).  Does Paul argue in Galatians 3-5 that Judaism is to be rejected and replaced by Christianity, because Jews are not the true heirs of Abraham?  No!  or b) Does Paul argue in Galatians 3-5 that the circumcised Gentiles (Paul’s opponents) misunderstand who are those who belong to the people of the covenant –who are the children of Abraham and Sara—and how one belongs to the covenant? (Gager, 86-99).

55 Patte,  Is fulfilling the “Laws” in order to receive “blessings” a proper understanding of the Pharisaic/Rabbinic legalistic view?  The vocation of Israel that Pharisees believed they should fulfill with the help of the law was the “sanctification of the Name.” What does this vocation entails? (Patte, )

56 Patte (from Early Jewish Hermeneutics in Palestine, 1971/1974) Covenant Sadducees (Work Righteousness) 1) Law  Fulfilled  Legalistic, rituals 2) Blessings  Rewards  “Being saved” by works Pharisees (Paul Pharisee) 1) Election by God Unwarranted Blessings Unilateral blessing (Exod 20:1) = salvation 2) Vocation Being people of priests for the nations 3) Law What people need to do to fulfill its vocation

57 Patte (from Early Jewish Hermeneutics in Palestine, 1971/1974) Covenant Pharisees (Paul Pharisee) 1) Election by God Unwarranted unilateral Blessings God’s intervention (Exod 20:1) = salvation 2) Vocation Being people of priests for the nations= sanctifying the Name 3) Law What people need to do to fulfill its vocation Apocalyptic Judaism 1) Election by God Unwarranted unilateral Blessings God’s intervention (Exod 20:1) = “promised salivation” PRESENT intervention by God defeating evil = salvation 2) Vocation Being people of priests for the nations = sanctifying the Name 3) Law What people need to do to fulfill its vocation

58 Patte,  What is implied by saying that in the Pharisaic/Rabbinic haggadic perspective sacred history is closed? (Patte, )  What is implied by saying that in the Pharisaic/Rabbinic halakic perspective, the “way to walk” of the chosen people is constantly open to new cultural situation? (Patte, )

59

60 Philippians 3:5-9  NRSV 5 circumcised on the eighth day, a member of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew born of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee; 6 as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to righteousness under the law, blameless.  7 Yet whatever gains I had, these I have come to regard as loss because of Christ. 8 More than that, I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ 9 and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but one that comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God based on faith.

61 4:1-12. As Diatribe (R. Jewett’s Commentary)  1 ‘Therefore what shall we say that Abraham our forefather found/gained according to flesh?’ 2/ For if Abraham was set right through works, he has a boast, but not in reference to God.  3/ ‘For what does the scripture say?’ "Now Abraham believed in God and it was reckoned to him as righteous­ness." (Gen 15:6) 4/ Now to the one who works, his pay is not reckoned as a gift but as an obligation, 5/ but to the one who doesn't work yet has faith in the one who sets right the impious, his faith is reckoned as righteousness. 6/ Just as also David pronounces the blessing upon the person to whom God reckons righteo­usness apart from works: 7/ "Blessed are those whose iniquities have been forgiven and whose sins have been covered up; 8/ blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will in no wise reckon." (Ps 32:1-2)

62 4:1-12. As Diatribe (R. Jewett’s Commentary)  9/ ‘Is this blessing therefore upon the circumcision or also upon the uncircumcised foreskin?’ For we say [that] "the faith was reckoned to Abraham as righteousness."  10/ ‘How therefore was it reckoned?’ While he was in (the state of) circumcision or in uncircumcised foreskin?’ Not in circumcision but in uncircumcised foreskin! 11/ And he received a sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness through faith [that he had] while in uncircumcised foreskin, that he might become the father of all who have faith while in foreskin, that righteo­usness might be reckoned to them, 12/ and the father of circumcision, not only to those who are circumcised, but also to those who walk in the steps of the uncircumcised foreskin faith of our father Abraham.

63 Rom 4: “The promise to Abraham and the promise of the gospel”

64 Rom 4: “Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness/justice”


Download ppt "Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS RLST 212/Div/Rel 3162 TUESDAY Feb 14, 2012."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google